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President North Carolina Normal and Industrial School for Young Women. 
Greensboro, N. C. 

«»* Carolina Sfafe L,brary 


Vol. IX. Raleigh, September, 1891. No. i. 

EUGENE G. HARRELL, = = = , Editor 


Oh, School Marm! 
Thou who teachest the young ideas 
How to shoot, and spankest the erstwhile 
Festive small boy with a hand that taketh the trick ; 
Who also lameth him with a hickory switch. 
And crowneth him bv lavino^ the weigrht 
Of a ruler upojn his shoulders, 



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Morth Carolina '''e'cher 

Vol. 9 















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fitorth Carolina State Library 


Vol. IX. Raleigh, September, 1891. No. i. 

EUGENE G. HARREUL., = = = = Editor 


Oh, School Mann! 
Thou who teachest the young ideas 
How to shoot, and spankest the erstwhile 
Festive small boy with a hand that taketh the trick ; 
Who also lameth him with a hickory switch, 
And crowneth him by laying the weight 
Of a ruler upon his shoulders. 

Thou art a daisy ; 
Thou makest him the National emblem — 
Red, white and' blue — 
Thou furnisheth the stripes. 
And he seeth the stars. 

Oh, School Marm ! 
We couldn't do without thee, 
And we don't want to try; 
Thou art lovely and accomplished 
Above all wotnen, and if thou art 
Not married it is because thou art 
Too smart to be caught that way ! 
All school marms are women, 
But all women are not school marms 
And angels pedagogic ; 
That's where thou hast the bulge on thy sisters. 


Oh, School Mann! 
Thou mayest not get much pay here below, 
But cheap education is a national specialty. 
And thou wilt get thy reward in heaven ; 
The only drawback being that thou stayest there 
When thou goest after it, and we, 
Who remain here below for our reward, 
Miss you like thunder. 
School Mann, if there is anything we can do for you, 

Call on us : 
Apply early and avoid the rush ; 
Office hours from 8 A. m. to 5 p. m. ; 
We were a school-boy ourself once. 
And can show the marks of it. 


When Dr. T. C. Minor was asked just what a blush 
was, and how it was caused physiologically, he laid aside 
his cigar, pondered deeply for a moment and spoke these 
wise words: 

"A blush is a temporary erythema and calorific effiil- 
gence of the physiognomy a^tiologized by the perceptive- 
ness of the censorium when in a predicament of unequi- 
librity from a sense of shame, anger, or other cause, event- 
uating in a paresis of the vaso-motor nervous filaments of 
the facial capillaries, whereby, being divested of their 
elasticity, are suffused with radiant, aerated, compound 
nutritive circulating liquid, emanating from an intimidated 
prsecordia. " 

When the doctor finished a sigh of relief was heard from 
his audience, and they only recovered their equipoise when 
the doctor asked them to go over to the Grand Hotel and 
hear him make a speech. 

]Vortt\ Qarolii\a f^a^ix^r^ i\broaA. 





Paris by Sunlight and by Gaslight. 

A Restless People — Our Guide with the "Cleveland Hat" — 
Rabbit or Cat? — The Champs Elysee — Arc de Triomphe — 
Badly Left — Honor to the American Flag — Tomb of Napo- 
leon — "Be Reverent" — The Louvre Galleries — French 
Love of the Nude :N Art — Relics of Pharaoh — A Theologi- 
cal Problem — The Luxembourg Museum — In a French Res- 
taurant — Palais Royal — English Spoken Here — An Embar- 
rassing Situation — ' ' Quel Jqlie Fille ' ' — Notre Dame Cathe- 
dral — Some Rare Relics — Doubting North Carolinians — 
Churches of St. Sulpice and St. Etienne du Mont — St. Gen- 
evieve's Blessing — A Business Boom — Avenue l'Opera — 
Grand Opera — Paris by Gaslight — President Carnot's Re- 
ception — Meissonnier, the Great Artist. 

HE more we see of this splendid city 
of Paris the more we realize the 
extent of the political unrest which 
exists here among the masses of the 
people. There is every evidence that 
the government is on the eve of a 
great change, but in what manner 
this change is to come is yet un- 
known. It may be war, and if so, 
the very thought of the murder and 
destruction which will attend it 
causes us to shudder ; and this Re- 
public may be transformed into an 
Empire in a day upon the fiat of the vox popiili as expressed 
at the ballot-box; then there 'may be seen a "Revolution 


of Peace" thronghout this fair land, and all other nations 
will be filled with wonder, and history will record the birth 
of the new Empire without dipping the pen in blood. We 
cannot suppress a sigh for the political fate of "La Belle 

Having arranged with our friends, Messrs. Henr}' Gaze 
& Son, for a pleasant and systematic tour of this gay capi- 
tal, we found four handsome excursion carriages at the 
door of our hotel waiting for us as we left the breakfast- 
table on the next morning after our arrival, and the twenty 
magnificent iron-gray horses were prancing with their im- 
patience to be off. 

Our guide and ii.terpreter for the sight-seeing tour was 
an exceedingly clever and intelligent man of English 
parentage named Gallop. To prevent his being lost to us 
in a crowd his large round head was ornamented by a tall 
white "plug," well known in America as the "Cleveland 
hat." All we had to do, when the party became separated 
in the vast throngs of people visiting the public places, 
was, at a signal from a whistle, to "rally on that Cleveland 

The breakfast was excellent and our appetites were in 
good order and we greatly enjoyed the French dishes, riiany 
of which were unknown to us. 

"How I enjoyed that very savory rabbit which we had 
for breakfast!" exclaimed one of our girls, as she climbed 
into the carriage. 

"Yes, indeed you did. Sue; and so did I," answered her 
neighbor. "It was so fine that I had the waiter to serve 
me twice with the rabbit." 

"Young ladies," said Mr. Braswell, "did you notice 
what a number of cats there were creating a disturbance 
in the hotel court last night after we had retired?" 

"O yes, I remember that fearful catawauling last night," 
replied several of the girls. 


"Well, doesn't it strike you as a singular coincidence 
that not a single one of those cats has been seen or heard 
this morning — and we had rabbit in abundance for break- 

"Oh! you horrid man!" came in startled tones from 
every part of the carriages, as our horses dashed away over 
the pavement while the sparks glistened under the wheels. 

On the faces of some of our girls there came during the 
day expressions of profound meditation, but they most em- 
phatically denied that it was the reflection of their thoughts 
while trying to solve the suggestion of a mysterious rela- 
tion between the facts that they had heard and seen cats in 
the evening and had been served with rabbit for breakfast 
in the same hotel next morning. We couldn't keep from 
hoping that rabbit would be again served to us, mainly as 
an object-lesson in natural histor}', but it was a dish that 
never came to us again. 

Just two blocks from the hotel our carriages dashed into 
the Champs Elysees, the most beautiful street in the world. 
As we entered that celebrated thoroughfare we glanced 
along its entire length feasting our eyes upon the harmo- 
nious beauty of a wide street, smoothly paved, fine rows of 
shady, green trees, sparkling fountains at pleasant inter- 
vals, whose falling waters caressed most tenderly exquisite 
groups of marble and bronze statuary; while away to our 
right, about half a mile distant, in the very centre of the 
great boulevard, stood the famous Arch of Triumph, tower- 
ing in sullen and majestic grandeur far above the surround- 
ing buildings, as some grim sentinel of the ages silently 
proclaiming the conquests of Napoleon Bonaparte. 

The Arc de Triomphe de I'Etoile being our first point of 
visitation the carriages halted by the side of it, and after a 
long climb of one hundred and sixty feet up a winding 
stairway in one of the four columns there were a hundred 
North Carolinians cooling themselves on the top of the 


pile, while enjoying the charming landscape spread out 
before them along the twelve fine avenues which radiate 
from that point. 

This is the finest triumphal arch in existence, and it is 
situated upon an eminence so that it can be seen from 
almost every point of the city. On the gigantic propor- 
tions of the Arch, carved in high relief, are immense groups 
of statuary representing various victories of Napoleon. 
The Arch was thirty years in building and cost over two 
million dollars. 

When the city was captured by the Prussians in 1871, 
the German army marched into Paris through this Arch 
of Triumph for the purpose of humiliating the French people 
as much as possible. And they succeeded. With the hope 
of restoring to the clever people of Paris their natural pride 
in so celebrated a structure we waved from the summit of 
the Arch our beautiful American flag, the emblem of "the 
land of the free and the home of the brave. " The flag was 
cheered by friends walking on the pavement below us and 
we felt that our mission of restoration was accomplished. 

There was a large crowd of visitors upon the roof of the 
Arch besides our party, and in the fascination of the scene 
the time was forgotten until suddenly the Secretary found 
that the party had descended to the carriages and had taken 
their departure, leaving him with Misses Helen Fowle and 
Mabel Upchurch alone upon the Arch. We knew, how- 
ever, that the next point of destination was the Hotel des 
Invalides, and taking a convenient cab we were soon at 
this place awaiting the arrival of our party. 

From whatever point you may stand in Paris if you look 
towards the Seine you will see a beautiful gilded dome 
towering three hundred and forty feet high and glittering 
in the sunlight, while its bright rays seem to flash forth the 
martial glories of France. "What is that magnificent 
structure?" we ask, and the answer comes to us in the low 


tones of reverence and adoration, "Under that gilded 
dome is the tomb of the great Napoleon !" 

Having rejoined onr party at the gate and safely run the 
gauntlet of the companies, battalions and regiments of 
dealers in photographs, views, and other souvenirs of 
various kinds, which formed a line of battle in front of the 
building, we finally stand beside the tomb of Napoleon, 
The tomb is very magnificent and imposing, and we look 
down upon it over a circular railing. There we see the 
sarcophagus, made of a single block of granite weighing 
over sixty-seven tons, which contains the mortal remains 
of Napoleon, a man who conquered the greater part of 
Europe. This single block of reddish, polished granite 
was brought from Lake Ladoga in Finland, and cost near 
thirty thousand dollars. 

While gazing with reverence and awe upon the lovely 
mosaic pavement which represents a wreath of laurels, we 
read the inscription, in French, which is taken from the 
conqueror's will and inscribed over the entrance to the 
vault : 


THE Seine, in the midst of the French people, whom I 


The body rests in an open circular crypt, twenty feet 
in depth and thirty-six feet in diameter, and the walls are 
adorned by relief in marble by Simart. Surrounding the 
crypt are twelve colossal figures in marble by Pradier, 
emblematic of the famous victories gained by the great 
Bmperor. French soldiers are always on guard about the 
tomb, and they seem to have learned two words in all 
languages. They never speak except when there is evi- 
dence of levity or boisterousness on the part of some thought- 
less visitor, and then, in the native tongue of the visitor. 


he is reprimanded by the guard in the most solemn manner 
to "Be reverent! " 

Having duly paid our respects to the ashes of the "child 
and orrave-dig'ger of the French Revolution," we return to 
our carriages and drive rapidly to the great palace of the 
Louvre. This immense palace, with its courts and build- 
ings, covers some twenty acres, and has been the residence 
of Kings, Queens and Princes. It is now converted into a 
vast museum for the people, and its miles of grand halls 
and galleries are filled with paintings, statuary, and other 
rare works of art, from all parts of the world. It would 
take a daily visit of several liours for a whole year to give 
even one look at every painting and statue in the Louvre. 

Here are finest works of art by the most famous painters 
and sculptors of the world, and while wandering through 
these never-endins^ g-alleries and lookincj throug'h these 
miles and miles of paintings, we become as familiar with 
the names of Raphael, Titian, Leonardo de Vinci, Lor- 
raine, Murillo, Vernet, Correggio, Vandyke, Rubens, and 
other noted artists, as we are with the cognomens of Smith, 
Brown and Jones in America. What a rare pleasure it is 
to gaze upon the priceless original pictures, copies of which 
we have loved for many }-ears. There are paintings and 
statuary here to see which alone is worth a visit to Paris, 
even if we saw nothing else. 

First among the prominent objects to attract our atten- 
tion and admiration is that famous statue, the original 
Venus de j\Iilo, which is perhaps one of the chiefest and 
rarest gems in the marvelous collection in the Louvre. 
This, the loveliest of all the beautiful forms of Venus 
which the noted sculptors of the world have chiseled from 
the marble, is on a pedestal standing alone in the centre of 
a hall on the first floor, and a strong iron railing is built 
around the figure just far enough away to prevent the 


thousands of admiring visitors from touching the celebrated 

The Egyptian Museum greatly interested us. The col- 
lection of relics of that noted country are so numerous and 
varied that we can here study the history of Egypt almost 
as well as if we were in that land itself. Here is a large 
stone Sphinx which once belonged to Pharaoh, and the 
inscriptions upon it show that it must have been a very old 
stone when he owned it. Here are also three life-size 
figures, in stone, which are portraits of distinguished indi- 
viduals who- flourished before the great pyramids were 
built, about four thousand years before the Christian era! 

As we contemplate these strange things preserved from the 
earliest centuries, we wonder why it is that not a relic or 
even the vestige of a genuine relic or picture has been pre- 
served, and is anywhere on earth to be seen, of Christ, Paul, 
Peter, Stephen, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, or of any 
other person or persons in anyway connected with the 
Saviour, or wath His coming into the world to establish a 
new religion, which fact has been for eighteen centuries 
conceded to have been the most important event in the 
world's history. It is quite evident that we must accept 
the Gospel of Christianity solely by failJi^ certainly not 
upon any visible testimony that now exists. 

In the vast picture galleries we find that it is impossible 
to give even a passing glance to each of the myriads of 
beautiful paintings, therefore our study is given to the best 
known and most celebrated works. Among these are 
"Madonna and Child with Angels," by Perugino ; "Holy 
Family," by Rembrandt; "Immaculate Conception," by 
Murillo; "St. Michael and the Dragon," by Raphael; 
"Marriage at Cana," by Veronese; "Jupiter and Antiope," 
by Titian; "Virgin in the Sepulchre," by Leonardo de 


In all these great galleries of the Louvre the visitor has 
abundant evidence of the wonderful love of the French 
people for the charms displayed by the highly-colored and 
naked female forms gracefully posing upon the canvas 
and in the white marble. In the Rubens Gallery the eyes 
of the visitor are surfeited by the vast sea of fat, red, 
undraped women among the clouds, surrounded by puffy 
little cherubs — even the pink-tinted flesh, usually so beau- 
tiful in a painting, absolutely becomes tiresome. There 
are many amateur artists in the principal salons with easel, 
brush and crayon, making copies of some favorite painting 
or statue, and as we glance over their shoulders we see that^ 
in almost every instance, the object selected for the model 
is a lovely nude female figure, or a particularly striking 
piece of undraped statuary. All of these amateur artists 
were French women, except one solitary negro man who 
was on a vacation trip to Paris from a government clerk- 
ship in Washington City. 

In the Louvre are a number of most interesting relics, 
and we were specially attracted by a little, worn shoe 
belonging once to ]\Iarie Antoinette, and an old gray coat 
of the first Emperor of France. 

We left the fascinating Louvre with reluctance and a 
promise to visit it again during our stay in Paris, and then 
drove to the palace of Luxembourg, which now contains 
another collection of paintings and statuary, and all are the 
works of living French artists. ]\Iany of the subjects here 
shown are of a high character, but the collection is con- 
stantly changed by the removal from time to time of the 
works of dead artists to the Louvre, and admittance of new 
paintings. The gardens about the palace are very exten- 
sive and very beautiful, and they contain many fine foun- 
tains and statues. 

We are now thoroughly tired of looking at paintings 
and statuary for the present, and of course we were hungry, 


that seeming to be the chronic state of our party at all 
times, so we made our way to the Palais Royal for lunch. 

A French restaurant is a thing to not only interest the 
hungry visitor but also to excite his wonder. Everything 
that he makes use of in disposing of his meal is charged 
separately on his bill. The plate, knife and fork, glass of 
water, salt, bread, butter, napkin, chair, pepper, vinegar, 
mustard, tooth-picks, are each charged for separately, and 
when the servant brings, at the end of the meal, a bill about 
a foot long, the guest is horrified until he glances at the 
bottom and finds that the entire outfit for the dinner 
amounts to but fifty or sixty cents. The charges are gen- 
erally reasonable for the usual course. 

The Secretary once, during a sudden attack of reckless- 
ness, ordered, in a French restaurant, half of a chicken, 
but the shock occasioned by the receipt of a bill for the 
chicken amounting to two dollars^ effectually cured him 
permanently of all future attacks of such recklessness. 
We give this prescription without any charge for the benefit 
of our friends who contemplate a visit to Paris. 

The Palais Royal represents the history of France for 
two centuries and a half. It was built by Cardinal Riche- 
lieu in 1629, ^^^ ^^s been in turn occupied as a royal resi- 
dence by Anne of Austria, Louis XIV and two generations 
of the family of Orleans. The grandson of Philip of Orleans 
having exhausted his means by riotous living, built the 
arcades to the palace and rented them to shop-keepers, and 
they exist to this day and are used for the same purpose. 

In one of the Cafes of this building the destruction of the 
Bastile was organized by Camille Desmoulins, just one hun- 
dred years ago, in 1789. In the Revolution of 1848 the 
Royal Apartments were wrecked by the mob, and most of 
the elegant and valuable paintings were destroyed. In 
1 87 1 the Communists again raided the Royal Apartments, 


and destroyed the south wing by fire. Tlie Palace is now 
completely restored and is used by the Council of State. 

The arcades of the Palais Royal are well known to tour- 
ists who want to buy presents for friends at home. Most 
of the shops are specially devoted to the sale of jewelry and 

Copies of all the celebrated paintings and statues may 
be obtained here; besides, there are exhibited a great man}' 
photographs from life which will shock the modesty of 
the average American in the highest degree; and such an 
exhibit as those show windows present would . not be per- 
mitted for even an hour in New York, or in any other city 
west of the Atlantic. Yet, in Paris there is always a crowd 
of men, women, and even little children, standing before 
those immense show-windows of the Palais Royal which 
display such lively contents of the diminutive shops behind 

All the articles for sale in the arcades of the Palais Royal 
are at very reasonable prices, except in those shops whose 
windows bear the tempting inscription, "English spoken 
here.'' It seems that the average French shop-keeper labors 
under the delusion that an American is perfecth' delighted 
at the privilege of pa}'ing about three prices for an article 
if he can only conduct the transaction in his beloved 
"English" language. Therefore, the aforesaid deluded 
shop-keeper nurses a conscience as clear as sunlight, while 
he "murders the Queen's English" and robs Uncle Sam's 
subjects. As you value the "dollars of our daddies" be- 
ware the seductive suggestion ''^Anglais paries ici^ 

The visitor to a foreign country, where a language is 
spoken different from his own, is constantly impressed by 
the feeling that all the people he meets other than his com- 
panions are deaf and dumb. Influenced by this strange 
idea, he is often tempted to an unusual boldness and reck- 


lessness in his observations upon persons about him. As 
the Secretary and several members of our party were ad- 
miring the beautiful' display in one of the windows of the 
Palais Royal, several other persons also stopped to enjoy 
the sight and were conversing in French. 

Turning to one of his friends, the Secretary said: "What 
an exceedingly lovely French girl that is standing by my 

Before his companion could reply the supposed "French 
girl" answered, in English: "While I thank you for the 
compliment I must confess that the sudden candor with 
which you Americans express your opinions is somewhat 

The Secretary couldn't apologise — it was not exactly 
the thing to do. The situation was certainly embarrassing, 
but the customary '•'•Excuse moi,^ s" il vous plait^^ seemed 
to be satisfactory to the lady, while the Secretary has not 
yet ceased to thank his good luck which made him happen 
to compliment instead of criticise the stranger. We met 
that young English lady again; it was in the Cemetery 
Pere la Chaise, and, encouraged by our former experience 
with her and inspired by the grave surroundings, we formed 
a very pleasant acquaintance; and perhaps we thus pre- 
vented a possible declaration of war between England and 
the United States. 

But the French people are very susceptible to compli- 
ments. We have often stood among a crowd of people in 
Paris and would say to our companions, just loud enough 
to be well overheard, '•'•Quel jolie fille !'''' (what a pretty 
girl). Instantly a number of charming French maidens 
would appropriate the description unto herself, and would 
smilingly bow her acknowledgment of the off-hand com- 
pliment, replying in the sweetest of French "y<? votis re- 
mercie. monsieur. ' ' 


Having sufficiently indulged our curiosity among the 
arcades of the Palais Royal were turned to our carriages, 
and, after an interesting drive along Rue de Rivoli by the 
magnificent Garden of the Tuileries, then down the splen- 
did Boulevard Saint Germain, we crossed the river Seine 
and reii>ed up in front of the famous Notre Dame Cathe- 
dral, which stands on the Isle de Cite. 

This noted building is the most interesting^ church in 
Paris, and it is also one of the most celebrated in the world. 
The present Notre Dame Cathedral was founded in 1163, 
on the site of a church which was built in the fourth cen- 
tury. The interior of the building consists of a nave, with 
double aisles crossed by a transept, and the general effect 
is of a highly aesthetic character. Specially beautiful are 
the many large stained glass windows, some of which are 
exceedingly ancient. In the centre of the second story is 
a magnificent rose window forty-two feet in diameter. 
Within the building is a series of niches containing statues 
of twenty-eight French kings. The original statues were 
all destroyed during the Revolution, but have since been 

In the centre portal is a very fine carving, representing 
"The Last Judgment," and on the left portal is a relief, rep- 
resenting the "Burial of the Virgin," which is lovely be- 
yond description. The great bell of Notre Dame, mentioned 
by Victor Hugo, is one of the largest in Europe, weighing 
sixteen tons, and the clapper alone weighs one thousand 
pounds. The Cathedral seats twenty thousand persons. 

We paid half a franc each and were admitted to the treas- 
ury, where are a number of "sacred relics," which are shown 
to us with great ceremony and devotion. Among the curi- 
osities is a piece of the cross upon which the Saviour was 
nailed, and one of the nails which were driven through his 
hands, also fragments of the crown of thorns which the 
Jews placed on the head of Christ. Tradition says that 


these relics were purchased by St. Louis from Jean de 
Brienne, King of Jerusalem, for $600,000. The sight of 
the sacred mementoes did not inspire us to a very high 
degfree of devotion, as we knew that several dozen more of 
the "original nails" and two or three more cords of wood 
from the "true cross" are exhibited in other places through- 
out Europe. We kindly informed the guard of the sacred 
treasures of Notre Dame of this fact and he didn't seem to 
appreciate the information, but promptly denounced all of 
the relics in other Roman Catholic Churches as impositions. 
We accepted his statement without question as we had 
likewise done when the keepers of the sacred relics in the 
other churches enlightened us concerning similar treasures 
in the Notre Dame. 

We concluded that as we were now somewhat specially 
interested in studying ecclesiastical things and architecture 
we would visit some of the other noted churches of Paris 
before returning to our hotel for dinner, therefore the guide 
w^as instructed to drive to the church of St. Sulpice. This 
is a very large building, and the architecture is of the 
eighteenth century. It has two immense towers which are 
not of uniform design. This grand and beautiful church 
was very piously erected almost entirely from the proceeds 
of lotteries! It has one of the finest organs in Paris, which 
contains six rows of keys, one hundred and eighteen stops 
and seven thousand pipes. 

The church of St. Etienne du Mont next interested us. 
It is a Gothic edifice of the fifteenth century style, and the 
interior is the finest in France. The first chapel contains 
the remains of Saint Genevieve, the patron saint of Paris. 
It is a beautiful gilded tomb, upon which tapers are always 
burning. You may buy a taper from a little table stand- 
ing near, for a franc, and it will be lighted and placed upon 
the tomb to burn a prayer for you. There were no pur- 
chases, as most of the party said they needed the franc 
more than they did the prayer. 


In. one of the recesses of the nave was a sleepy looking 
old woman offering for sale a great variety of little trinkets, 
at prices from five cents to twenty-five cents. There were 
crucifixes, hearts, anchors, and other neat designs. Our 
party examined them but without buying anything, and 
we were about to move on when a member of the party 
whispered to one of our chaperons that there was a strange 
tradition connected with that particular booth for the sale 
of trinkets. 

"What is it?" she asked with much interest. 

" It is said," he replied, " that St. Genevieve pronounces 
a special blessing upon all who purchase from that old 
woman, and every unmarried person who wears one of 
those trinkets will be happily married within a year after 
purchasing it." 

This information was by some means soon circulated, 
and the spirit of pious investment seemed to suddenly pos- 
sess that party in a most alarming degree. The old woman 
was startled by such an unparalleled rush of business, and 
she was compelled to call to her assistance two other women, 
equally old and ugly, to wait upon her eager customers. 
We found it impossible to move the party from that niche 
until each person was supplied with at least a crucifix, 
which was at once suspended from the neck or watch-chain 
in the most orthodox manner. 

Our guide with the "Cleveland hat" was greatly aston- 
ished at the tremendous impulse of trade which had struck 
the crowd, and when he learned the cause of it, some hour 
or two afterwards, he said: "Well! well! that was the 
meanest joke ever played on a party." It was lucky for 
the man who started it that we never found him out. 

The Secretary still has in his possession about a dozen 
little silver crucifixes with the blessing of St. Genevieve 
attached, for which he has been offered fabulous sums, but 
nothing can induce him to part with them. 

North Caroi/na Sfafe Library 
Raleigh, R Q 


Returning to our hotel, the route lay through the splen- 
did Avenue 1' Opera, This is said to be the finest thorough- 
fare in the world. The avenue is three-quarters of a mile 
in length, and before its construction the ground was cov- 
ered with a perfect network of dark and gloomy streets. 
There are no trees along the magnificent avenue it being 
thought that they would obstruct the view of the Grand 
Opera-House to which this boulevard leads. 

The Frenchman is as fond of amusement as he is of 
broad and beautiful streets, extensive parks and playing 
fountains. No city in the world but Paris would have 
erected such a building for amusement as the Grand Opera- 
House which graces the head of the Avenue 1' Opera. 
This is the finest and largest theatre on earth, and in its 
construction over five hundred houses were demolished for 
a site, which cost $2,100,000, The building was com- 
menced in i86i and finished in 1874, at a cost of over seven 
million five hundred thousand dollars. Thus the entire 
cost of that single building is as great as the combined total 
valuation of all the property in three of North Carolina's 
largest cities as appearing on the assessor's books, or 
nearly as much as North Carolina levied for State, school 
and county taxes during the past ten years! The build- 
ing covers about three acres and nothing can equal the 
magnificence of the materials with which the interior is 
lavishly decorated. The Government appropriates near 
two hundred thousand dollars annually for the support of 
this opera. 

After an enjoyable dinner at our hotel most of the party 
formed small companies for a visit to the opera and other 
places of amusement, or to stroll down the lovely Champa 
Elysees and the gorgeously lighted boulevards of the city. 
Surely there can be no more beautiful sight than these 
great thoroughfares at night, which are so profusely and 
artistically lighted by the myriads of gas-lamps that the 



stranger is inclined to believe that the city is conducting a 
grand illumination specially for some celebrated occasion, 

Paris only becomes really gay and glittering after the sun 
has disappeared and the soft twilight takes possession of the 
city. Then the air is filled with the notes of lively music 
in every direction, the laughing and shouting of thousands 
of happy children and merry maidens; the rumbling of the 
vast brigade of cabs and victorias, all occupied by some 
jolly sight-seers; the clatter of the dancing and the warb- 
lings of the singers from numbers of concert halls and 
dancing saloons representing every degree of sensational 
abandon; the importunate appeals of the peddler of small 
wares of various kinds; the discordant voice of the street 
minstrel, accompanied by a still more tuneless accordeon 
or a heart-rending violin; and all these sights and sounds 
and scenes continue entirely through the night only to 
cease w^ith the dawn of another day. 

Just half a block from our hotel is the Palais de I'Elysee, 
the official residence of President Carnot, the chief magis- 
trate of the Republic of France. During the reign of Louis 
XV this mansion was the residence of the noted Madame 
de Pompadour and it was purchased from her heirs as a 
residence for foreign embassadors. The building has in 
turn been occupied by the Duchesse of Bourbon, Murat, 
Napoleon I, Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland and his 
queen Hortense, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, the Due 
de Berry, and Napoleon III as President of the French 

On this evening President Carnot was holding a mag- 
::fic^i^hcent royal reception in honor of the Shah of Persia, to 
■ wlXv?^! all the visiting nobles and prominent persons of 
Paris -[were invited. 

As '^m returned from our ramble over Paris by gaslight 
',Che gates of the Palace were opened and the distinguished 
euests were taking their leave. 


On either side of the entrance was a line of monnted 
guards, gorgeously attired, while between them drove the 
open carriages bearing the royal guests. A vast crowd of 
people had gathered about the entrance to see such an 
array of nobility and of course we joined the throng, and, 
as usual, soon occupied "reserved seats on the front row." 

Under brilliant gas and electric lights each person could 
be plainly seen as he rode through the gates, and among 
the guests were kings, princes, emperors, embassadors and 
rulers of countries of every degree of nobility. The crowd 
of spectators kept perfect silence as one after another of 
these magnates rode by; there was no cheering or demon- 
stration of any kind. At length there came a carriage 
with only one occupant, a fine looking man whose hair and 
long beard were perfectly white with age, and as the peo- 
ple caught sight of him there arose such a mighty burst of 
applause and cheers as almost deafened us; hats and canes 
were waved in the air, and mingled with the torrent of 
enthusiasm every voice was shouting the beloved name 
"Meissonnier! " "Meissonnier!" 

Yes, it was indeed the great artist Meissonnier, and this 
storm of demonstrations of joy and love told us in unmis- 
takable words that the supreme love of the French people 
is for Art. 

[For The North Carolina Teacher.' 



Can whispering be suppressed in an ungraded country 
public school? I answer, "Yes." " How do you prove 
it ? " some weary worker in a crowded school-room faintly 
asks. "How would you prove that our globe can be cir- 
curanavisfated ? " 


Required on the part of the teacher courage, firmness, 
courteous bearing toward pupils, and above all a double 
portion of that spirit which must animate the true teacher, 
that of helpfulness to those under his care. With this feel- 
ing in his heart let him lose no time in bringing his pupils 
to this view of his relation to them. Let both get rid of 
the idea of guard and substitute that of guide. 

With this idea clearly in my own mind on the morning 
of the opening of my school I chatted familiarly with the 
boys and girls who had gathered in the little low house to 
begin a term of four months school in a district where a part 
of the committee were opposed to employing a lady teacher, 
because it took a man to manage those children! " Those 
children" arrived slowly, but noticing that the hands of 
my tiny clock pointed to 9: 15 I rapped for order (there was 
no bell), and all took their seats on the long benches 
extending across the room. 

I then busied myself in examining the books of my new 
pupils, and assigned work of some sort for each one imme- 
diately, remarking as I did so, that, as our school term was 
so short, we could not afford to lose any time in getting 
down to regular work. Then standing there among them, 
looking fairly into the expectant faces turned toward me, 
I said, in substance: "Boys and girls I am here to help 
you make the very best use of the time we spend together; 
we must have zuork but we will all try to make it pleasant 
Avork. But to have good school work we must have q2iiet. 
In a little more than an hour we will have a few minutes 
recess, and until that time I must ask you to speak to no 
one except myself (surprised glances exchanged.) When 
I am not hearing a recitation or busy at the blackboard 
I will be glad to give you any help you need if you will 
raise your hand and come quietly to me." Pausing a 
moment I noticed smiles of almost incredulity on some 
faces. Turning to a pleasant faced girl of eleven, I said. 


"Ida, you seem surprised at what I have said." "Don't 
you 'low any talking?" she asked. "No," I said, "I do 
not." "Well, I never saw a teacher that did not allow 
any speaking at all in school." "How much did your 
other teachers allow you to talk ? " " O, we could always 
talk about our lessons.''^ "Ah! and of course you never 
spoke about anything else?" A general laugh, in which 
I joined, was sufhcient answer. "Now," I resumed, 
"don't think about how long it will be till four o'clock 
this afternoon. You have only to keep busy, and I'll see 
that you have plenty to do until half past ten, then after 
a little rest, till half after twelve, we will have a long 
hour to tell each other all the good things we've thought 
of this morning. Now, Harvey, bring your First Reader 
and we will go to the board." 

Thus we started, and thus we kept on. By no means was 
all the work done the first day. Persevering effort was 
required to carry out the principles laid down in my 
"Inaugural," and some discouragements arose as the 
number increased and the novelty of the proceedings wore 
off, but gratifying success crowned m}^ efforts, and visitors 
to the school-room expressed astonishment at the almost 
perfect order maintained. This, too, when of the twenty- 
eight attending, quite a number, both of boys and girls, 
were larger and older than their teacher, though she 
claimed one hundred and thirty avoirdupois, and twenty 
years' residence on this sublunary sphere. 

Before each recess and the close of school I called for 
reports, as I found it better to keep things straight iiuo 
hours at a time than to leave all until an accumulation of 
six hours' struggles and failures would tempt to deception. 
When any had spoken without permission the offender was 
told to go on with studies while the others went to play. 
Recesses are highly prized where a school is working well. 
I sometimes add a task to the keeping in, but not as a rule. 


It is likely we will meet with incorrigibles sometimes who 
require sterner treatment than I have outlined above. In 
such cases I would not hesitate to resort to the birch when 
all else fails. It is frequently wise, as well as kind, to 
separate a boy who has a persistently communicative dis- 
position from his companions; give him a seat by the 
teacher's desk, or on the platform with his back to the 
school. Tell him he can return to his own seat when he 
thinks he can be trusted among other boys. 

lyCt us avoid treating whispering as a high crime. It is 
not. Some good and studious pupils have been known to 
indulge in it; but if time is wasted and others are inter- 
rupted reparation must be made as far as possible, whether 
the offender be idle or diligent. 


And now the sweet girl graduate. 

In pride and brand-new gown, 
Comes forth in crowds to agitate 

Each quaint old college town. 
She knows she's just the sweetest thing 

Of this season of the year. 
And expects to make the whole world ring 

With "Woman and Her Sphere." 
But let us forward look, perchance 

Five years — that ought to do — 
She's cutting down dear Willie's pants 

To fit the other two. 

North Carolina expects to cover herself with glory 
by her educational exhibit in the Inter-States Exposition at 
Raleigh this fall. Your school must be represented. 



BY Caroline; b. le row. 

The following from The Ladies' Home Journal so closely 
applies to the teaching of music that we give it entire: 

"Good health is particularly necessary for the teacher, 
as the labors of the school-room draw so constantly and 
heavily on the vocal, mental, and nervous forces. Teachers 
need to be continually on their guard against anything 
which can interfere with their physical well-being. This 
precaution has also a moral significance and importance. 

"Of couse, the more liberal and thorough the education, 
the better the foundation on which the teacher's work is 
based; but there have been many great scholars who have 
proved very poor teachers, for the possession of knowledge 
by no means implies the ability to impart it. It is safe to 
assume that natural talent in this direction is the best pos- 
sible test of the 'born teacher.' In addition to what is 
usually included in a liberal education, a knowledge of the 
comparatively modern science of psychology is indispensa- 
ble, familiarity with the laws which control the develop- 
ment of the mind, the material upon which the teacher 
exclusively works. If she succeeds in her work without 
this knowledge, her success will result ' more from good luck 
than good looking to,' or be the outcome of a happy intui- 
tion which, unfortunately, few possess. This branch of 
science has but lately been accorded its proper place in our 
curriculum, but every day strengthens its claim to be con- 
sidered the corner-stone of every educational structure. 

"Martin Luther asserted in his cast-iron style of rhetoric, 
' Unless a schoolmaster knows how to sing, I think him of 
no account.' Such a test would materially decrease the 
number of pedagogues; nevertheless, it is true that such 


ability is of the greatest service to the teacher. The physi- 
cal benefit resulting from singing is sufficient reason for its 
use, even if no other existed; but is peculiarly valuable as 
a source of enjoyment to children, and a great aid in the 
preserv^ation of order. Even a little knowledge of drawing 
places a mighty power in the hand of the teacher. Noth- 
ing so much helps to make instruction clear and impres- 
sive as simple and rapid illustration, particularly in the 
primary grades. At present these two accomplishments — 
improperly so termed, for they are really essentials — are 
required in most schools. The children of to-day, who are 
the teachers of to-morrow, are receiving thorough instruc- 
tion in these two matters, and experience proves that it is 
almost as instinctive for them to sing and draw as for a 
bird to fly." 

[For The North Carolina Teacher.] 



A large number of the pupils in the public schools of 
this State belong to the rural districts, and are therefore in 
the ungraded schools. This fact alone makes it of impor- 
tance to consider the "New Methods" in relation to these 

By the term "new methods" we understand the use of 
such means in primary education as tend to lay the founda- 
tion for the harmonious education of the whole child — his 
physical, mental and moral being. 

In the graded schools this can be more effectually accom- 
plished because the w^ork can be planned with reference to 
the future. There the work is more systematic, and hence 
more thorough, because each year's work builds the foun- 
dation for the succeeding year, or, in other words, each 



year's work is dependent upon the one just finished. It is 
also more thoroughly done, because the greater number of 
the teachers in the primary departments of the graded 
schools are specially trained for it. 

But this is not the case with the greater number of the 
country schools. These schools are ungraded, and for this 
reason the work cannot be so aptly arranged as to produce 
definite results within a definite time. Another obstacle 
in the way is the absence of a practical knowledge on the 
part of the teachers themselves. 

A large number of the country school-teachers have no 
special training in the use of the new methods, and many 
do not take the time and care to inform themselves. Con- 
sidering what is required of the country school-teacher in 
this era of our public schools there is also a lack of time. 
No matter how well or skillfully the teacher may manage 
there is just so much to be done in a limited time. 

The number of classes to each teacher in the ungraded 
schools is greater, and each class must receive, as nearly as 
possible, a just and proportionate share of the teacher's 
time and attention. 

What is done in a period for recitation by the teacher 
in the graded school, with ample time and under favorable 
surroundings, would have to be done by the teacher in the 
ungraded school within perhaps less than one-half the time 
and under the most unfavor able surroundings. 

Again, there is the lack of material or the proper appa- 
ratus. In some of the country schools there would be a 
lack of the proper kind of cooperation with the teachers, 
and this, if not judiciously dealt with, would be liable to 
grow into positive and aggressive opposition on the part of 
parents, guardians and district school boards. 

We have here briefly stated what we consider the most 
serious obstacles in the way of an effective use of the new 
methods in the country schools. They do not form an 


objection to the methods themselves but to ih&ir Jeasibiliiy^ 
and these objections are perhaps not so formidable as they 
appear at first sight. 

1. The lack of time might, to some extent, be obviated 
by the teacher securing the help of his older and more 
advanced pupils, not as teachers but as helpers. 

2. The want of special training on the part of teachers 
themselves by reading up on the subject. 

3. The enthusiastic and ingenious teacher can furnish 
much of the material for himself, with but little expense 
except the time and labor in making it. 

4. Our farmers in the rural districts judge new methods 
much as they do improved machinery on their farms. If 
better results follow they will give their approval and sup- 

We have but hinted at the benefits that may arise from 
a closer study and application of the so-called new methods^ 
and to the progressive teacher a hint is sufficient. 


Teaching does not seem to be a profitable employment 
in Germany, according to the statements of the Mecklen- 
burg School Gazette. 

Near Grabow lives an invalid educator seventy-nine 
years old. He has worked fifty years for an annual salary 
of $160, and as he has saved nothing is compelled to totter 
daily to his task. August Weiss, of Butzow, gets $60 
a year. He is nearly eighty, and has been in the harness 
half a century. Another poor old fellow, who lost his place 
after sixty years of toil at teaching, has gone to work as a 
day laborer. 

Steps are being taken to provide these aged martyrs of 
learning with small pensions. 




It has often been the pleasure of The Teacher to pre- 
sent to its readers excellent portraits of prominent North 
Carolina educators, and each cut is engraved by the finest 
workmen in the country expressly for The Teacher. 

With this number we are glad to present the familiar 
face of Professor Charles D. McIver, the sixth Presi- 
dent of the North Carolina Teachers' Assembly, and first 
President of the "North Carolina Normal and Industrial 
School for Young Women." 

Mr. Charles D, McIver was born in Moore County, 
September 27, i860, of good Scotch parentage, and was 
reared on a farm. 

He was mainly prepared for college by Prof. John E. 
Kelly, then principal of Union Home School in Moore 
County. He entered the University in 1877 and remained 
there until graduation, paying his own expenses while 
there. He took the degree of A. B. with the class of '81 — 
the largest class graduated at the University since the war. 
He received the medal as the best Greek scholar and other 
class distinctions. 

He began teaching in August, 1881, as assistant in the 
Durham Male Academy, of which he became principal in 
January, 1882. In September of the same year he became 
assistant superintendent of the Durham Graded School 
and principal of the high school department. In February, 
1884, greatly to the regret of the people of Durham who 
were strongly attached to him, he accepted a similar posi- 
tion, at increased salary, in the graded school of Winston, 
whose building was then approaching completion and was 
soon to be opened for the reception of pupils. 

He remained in Winston two and a half years, and in 
September, 1S86, he accepted, at increased salary, a posi- 


tion at Peace Institute, Raleigh, N. C, as Professor of 
Latin and Mathematics. 

While in Winston he married Miss Lnla V. Martin, 
who was teacher in the primary department of the W^inston 
Graded School. 

He has had much experience in normal school and 
Institute work. He was secretary and instructor in the 
Winston Normal School in 1885 and in 1886. He was 
superintendent of the Sparta Normal School in 1887, and 
again in 1888. In 1888 he was also principal of the Wilson 
Normal School. He has conducted Institutes in various 
counties in the State during the past five summers. This 
experience will be especially valuable to him as a State 
Institute Instructor, in which w^ork he is now engaged. 
In his Institute work Mr. Mclver has been greatly aided 
by his estimable wife. 

Besides this, he has had a wide range in teaching, 
having taught in both public and private schools. At first 
he taught boys only, then girls and boys together, and 
then girls only. While he was at Peace Institute he con- 
ducted a normal department in that school — the first school 
of similar grade in the State to establish such a depart- 

Mr. Mclver is an earnest advocate of female education, 
and during the Legislature of 1889 made strenuous efforts 
as chairman of the committee appointed by the Teachers' 
Assembly to secure the passage of the bill to establish a 
teachers' training-school. The proposition failed, as it 
had failed before, but its passage by the Senate and its 
large vote in the House was largely the result of Mr. 
Mclver's earnest and convincing presentation of the ques- 
tion. The Legislature of 1891, in response to the demands 
of the times, voted an appropriation for the establishment 
of the long desired Normal and Industrial School for Young 


Women, and to Mr. Mclver is due much credit for its 

Recognizing his position as a progressive educator the 
General Assembly elected him a Trustee of his venerable 
Alma Mater. Young — now only thirty-one — progressive, 
thoroughly in earnest, strong in advocacy of whatever he 
believes in, a successful teacher, an accurate scholar, and 
fully in love with his work, Mr. Mclver will accomplish 
great things for public education in the State. 

He was appointed one of the Conductors of State 
Teachers' Institutes under the Act of Assembly of 1889, 
and during the two years which he has given exclusively 
to this work he has held very successful Institutes in most 
of the counties of the State, and his work and public 
addresses have done much towards creating a greater inter- 
est in popular education within our borders. Mr. Mclver 
is a strong speaker on his favorite theme, " Popular Edu- 
cation." He is forcible and logical in argument and never 
fails to favorbly impress an audience. 

At the seventh session of the North Carolina Teachers' 
Assembly, at IMorehead City, in June, 1890, he was unani- 
mously chosen president of that great organization, wdiich 
is the highest educational honor that can be conferred in 
this State. 

At the meeting of the Trustees of the State Normal 
and Industrial School for Young Women, after it had been 
located, Mr. Mclver was unanimously chosen the first 
president of that institution. It was a wise selection and 
meets the heartiest approval and endorsement of the peo- 
ple of North Carolina. His earnestness, enthusiasm, zeal, 
experience and ability will bring to the school the greatest 
success and popularity, and under his excellent manage- 
ment this pet institution will at once take its proper place 
in the front rank among the educational institutions of our 




Picnic morning, 

Bright and fair, 
Golden snnshine, 

Balmy air. 
What a pleasure 

Thus to go 
Where the woodland 

Breezes b'ow. 
Happy hours, 

Free from care, 
Joy and beauty 

Through the leafy 

Woods we'll stray. 
Gracious gladsome 

Picnic day. 

Picnic evening, 

What a plight! 
Rained from ten 

O'clock till night. 
Flossy garments. 

Once so nice, 
Filled with mud 

And beggars' lice. 
Dinner ruined. 

Pies and cakes 
Food for ants 

And garden snakes. 
Full of doleful 

Dank dismay, 
Dirty, drizzly 

Picnic day. 


Don't tell people all you know the first time you 
meet them. Half of friendship is curiosity. — Atchison 




It doesn't pay to do much talking when you're mad enough 

to choke, 
Because the word that stings the deepest is the one that's 

never spoke ; 
Let the other fellow wrangle till the storm has blown away, 
Then he'll do a heap of thinking 'bout the things you 

didn't say. 

When the hour of trouble comes to the mind or the 
body, or when the hour of death comes, that comes to high 
and low, then it is not what we have done for ourselves, 
but what we have done for others, that we think on most 

A BEAUTIFUL face wins instant admiration, but a beau- 
tiful mind and heart and soul retains and holds the friend- 


"What is the real good," 
I asked in musing mood. 

"Order," said the law court; 
"Knowledge," said the school; 
"Truth," said the wise man; 
"Pleasure," said the fool; 
"Love," said the maiden; 
' . "Beauty," said the page; 


"Freedom," said the dreamer; 
"Home," said the sage; 
"Fame," said the soldier; 
"Equity," the seer. 

Spake my heart full sadly: 
"The answer is not here." 

Then within my bosom 
Softly this I heard: 
"Each heart holds the secret; 
' Kindness ' is tl e word. ' ' 

— John Boyle O' Reilly. 



Don't scold continually, or for every little trilling offence; 
"familiarity breeds contempt," and your pupils will soon 
come to think that scolding is your forte and you do it for 
fun. Thus its effect upon them when deserved is lost. 

Don't attempt to teach by comparison until you weigh 
w^ell that the minds of children are easily confused, and in 
your care to teach the correct, by showing the incorrect, 
you run the risk of impressing upon them the very thing 
you seek to eradicate. 

Don't try to have your pupils learn too many things, or 
spend your strength in advancing them too rapidly. You 
might as well "pour water through a sieve." 

Don't forget that your pupils are rational beings, and 
that they have a code of rights that should be respected as 
sacredly as the rights of their elders. 

Don't forget the time when you were a soldier in the 
battle of child-life; try to have your pupils feel that your 
own childish trials and discomforts are still fresh in memory. 



Don't forget that your pupils are the men and women of 
to-morrow; that they are essentially what they are made, 
either by precept or example; that to primary pupils exam- 
ple is of more value than precept. 

Don't think that order consists in the quiet of the tomb, 
*or fancy that the air of an Egyptian mummy is creditable 
in a child. 

Finally, don't forget to look and be your brightest, 
sweetest, and prettiest, when in the presence of your pupils. 
Don't foreet to know and do that which is best. 


What we want at the heads of our schools and colleges, 
as what we want at the head of our army divisions, is gen- 
erals. And that State is the most thrifty w^hich searches 
for this power wherever it can be found, and placing it at 
the head of its educational institutions, pays for it what- 
ever it may demand, as it pours out its treasure at the feet 
of its successful armv orenerals. 


Neatness is a good thing for a girl, and if she does not 
learn it when she is young she never will. It takes a great 
deal more neatness to make a girl look well than it does to 
make a boy look passable. Not because a boy, to start 
with, is better looking than a girl, but his clothes are of a 
different sort, not so many colors in them; and people don't 
expect a boy to look so pretty as a girl. A girl that is not 
neatly dressed is called a sloven, and no one likes to look 
at her. Her face may be pretty, and her eyes bright, but 
if there is a spot of dirt on her cheek, and her finger ends 
are black wnth ink, and her shoes are not laced or buttoned 
up, and her apron is dirty, and her collar is not buttoned, 


and her skirt is torn, she cannot be liked. Learn to be 
neat, and when you have learned it it will almost take care 
of itself. — Christian at Work. 



It is well to teach children at an early age how to shake 
hands and to speak distinctly the names of the older per- 
sons they may have to greet. Some children when 
addressed by their parents' friends look up frankly and 
give an honest litlle paw to be clasped in the bigger hand 
as though it was a pleasure to be recognized, while others 
sh}'h' hang their heads and stretch out a limp apology for 
a hand in return. Which form of a greeting is the more 
attractive need not be pointed out. "I know a bright 
little chap," says a writer, "an only child, whom it is a 
pleasure to meet, because he always shakes hands as 
though he really meant it, and he felt you were as much 
his friend as though eight years old like himself. But his 
name is Paul, and who ever heard of a Paul who was not 
frank and what the world calls a little gentleman?" — 
Boston Herald. 

"Education is all right," says the Galveston Nezvs^ 
"so that it does not leave the victim too smart to work and 
not smart enoueh to o-et alone without work." 


The dollar sign ($) is not, as some suppose, a corruption 
of the monogram "U. S. ," but is a relic of the times when 
the transfer from the old Spanish to the more modern 
monetary system was made and accounts were, for a while, 
kept equally in dollars and reals. One dollar equaled eight 
reals, and amounts were written: One dollar || eight reals. 


Later on the 8 was placed between the parallels ] 8 , and 
afterwards the perpendicular lines crossed the 8. Then, 
with a little changing, the present sign '($) was evolved. 


Encourage your pupils to greet yon before the bell 
rino;s; to take vour hand and wish ^'ou "good mornino;. " 
Talk v/ith them when you have five minutes to spare — 
waiting for the class to change — of the meaning of the 
common greeting. Does it realh' mean that you wish the 

morning to be good ? 



One is sometimes inclined to believe that the maiden of 
the fairy tale, from whose red lips issued toads and lizards 
instead of pearls and diamonds, still lives and walks 
among us. Says the Youth'' s Companion: 

"The winter sunset was glowing in the south-western 
sky, and the lady who was walking toward it seemed to see 
in it once more the Spanish castle of her youth, and the 
faces that long ago looked out at her from its windows. 
She began to hear far-off voices sound, and to dream the 
old dreams over again. Suddenly a very different voice 
close behind her broke the spell. 

" ' Sing for nothing? Well, I should smile! I get paid 
for it when I sing, and don't you forget it.' 

"The lady cast a hasty glance over her shoulder, and saw 
the speaker — a girl of perhaps twenty, well-dressed, with 
a quick, buoyant step, and a pretty face. Yes, it really 
was a very pretty face; and the simple yet good toilet like 
a lady's choice; but her speech detrayed her. Slang is not 
the language of well-bred maidenhood. When you hear 
a girl finish her sentence with an interrogative, 'See?' 
you need search no further for indications of what she is. 
'Well, I should smile!' is as comprehensive as a biog- 
raphy. ' ' 

;^OBTH Carolina Teachers' Assembly. 


Hugh Morson (Raleigh Male Academy), President, . . Raleigh. 
Eugene G. Harrell (Editor Teacher), Sec. and Treas., . Raleigh. 


1. J. J. Blair (Supt. Graded Schools), . . . . 

2. J. E. Kelly (Model Male School I 

3. Miss Catharine Fulghum (Graded School), 

4. W. J. Ferrell (Wakefield Academy), 

5. Miss Lizzie Lindsay (Graded School), . . . , 

6. P. M. Pearsall (County Superintendent), 

7. Miss Lina McDonald (Graded School) 

8. T. J. Drewry (Horner Military School), . 

9. Mrs. S. Montgomer}' Funk (Chowan Bap. Fem. Inst.) 










EXECUTIVE committee: 

Hugh Morson, e.v officio. President, .... Raleigh. 

E. G. Harrell, ^'.ro^cz'c, Secretary, ..... Raleigh. 

Eben Alexander (Univer>itv North Carolina), . . Chapel Hill. 

W. L. Poteat (Wake Forest College) Wake Forest. 

James Dinwiddle (President Peace Institute), . . Raleigh. 
Charles D. Mclver (President Normal and Industrial School 

for Women), ........ Greensboro. 

J. Y. Joyner (Superintendent Graded School), . . Goldsboro. 

A. C. Davis (Superintendent Military School), . . Winston. 

E. E. Britton( Principal High School), .... Mount Olive. 


There will be a beautiful solid gold watch, lady's size, 
awarded in the Instrumental Music Contest at the next 
Assembly. The rules relating- to performers will be the 
same as before, and it is expected that there will be at least 
twenty entries for the contest. Seven names have already 
been given to the Secretary. 


Several prominent members of the Southern Educa- 
tional Association, and among the most prominent educators 
in the South, have promised to attend the next session of 
our Assembly. 

When your schools commence the fall term keep in 
mind the fact that you want to be represented in the Edu- 
cational Exposition at the Teachers' Assembly next sum- 
mer, and begin at once to get ready for it. The exhibits 
at Morehead City this summer were very fine and attracted 
great attention, and they will prove of much benefit to the 
schools represented. We want the next display to be much 
larger and more complete, and you cannot afford to have 
your school unrepresented. 

Do YOU KNOW that over half as many people attended 
the eighth annual session of the North Carolina Teachers' 
Assembly as were present at the meeting of the National 
Educational Association at Toronto in July? The same 
ratio of growth will in a few more years make our Assem- 
bly the biggest educational meeting in America, as it is 
now the largest in the South! Not more than one in ten 
of those attending the National Educational Association 
are actual teachers, and the other nine persons are merely 
sight hunters. 

We know that the teachers of North Carolina will be 
gratified to know that the Executive Committee has been 
so fortunate as to secure an engagement with "Frank 
Beard," the most celebrated and skillful chalk artist in 
America, for three days' work at the next session of the 
Assembly. His work will include two public evening 
entertainments, with special private instruction to the 
teachers on "The Marvelous Power of Rapid Drawing in 
the School-room, and How to Use the Crayon." The work 
by Frank Beard will alone be worth to a teacher many 
times more than the expense of attending the Assembly. 



The North Caroi^ina Teachers' Assembly is doing 
exactly the work that it set out to do, and it is being done 
in precisely the same manner that its originators contem- 
plated, and we have never heard a North Carolina teacher 
express a desire to have the plans and work of the Assem- 
bly changed in the slightest manner. It is the biggest edu- 
cational success to be found in the United States, and it is 
entirely unnecessary that any suddenly awakened friend (?), 
who possibly has been hoping to attend its funeral ere this, 
should at this late day propose to be its nurse. The child 
is now too strong and healthy and vigorous and popular to 
need any other nurse or diet than that which it has so suc- 
cessfully had and thrived upon from its birth. 

The Assembly is not by any means a normal school, nor 
did it ever intend to be, nor does it now propose to be a 
normal school. It was originated at a time when the nor- 
mal schools in the State were under full headway, and with 
the expressed intention of being an entirely different thing 
from the normals. If the Southern Educator knows what 
the Teachers' Assembly should be so much better than the 
teachers know what they want it to be it is a great pity 
that the editor did not give to the teachers of Virginia, his 
own State, the benefit of his experience (?) and wisdom by 
organizing for them a similar association, as it is well 
known that they have been trying to effect a State organi- 
zation for several years but without success. We did not 
intend to have anything to say on this line but for the fact 
that a number of criticisms of the Assembly, of very doubt- 
ful friendship, with slurs upon its work and management, 


have recently appeared in the Southern Educator. We 
might say a great deal more upon this subject but will 
resist the temptation to do so at present. The Teachers' 
Assembly is the special pet of The North Carolina 
Teacher and we propose to guard it with jealous care. 
It is the habit of some people who are unable to originate 
anything, to labor under the constant delusion that they 
can vastly improve somebody else's work, ideas and plans. 

Mark the prediction! Within five years the doors of 
every college in North Carolina which desires to prosper 
in its work will be opened to girls on the same terms as to 
boys. It doesn't matter what may be our views as to co-edu- 
cation, the demand for this system of education is growing 
and the colleges and the University will not be able to resist 
it much longer. 

We have been highly gratified at the great number of 
renewals of subscriptions to The Teacher with the begin- 
ning of the new volume. The magazine now enters upon 
its ninth volume, and it is more firmly established in the 
good will of the teachers of North Carolina than any other 
educational journal that has ever been published in North 
Carolina. The main reason for this love which the teachers 
of this State cherish for The Teacher is because it is 
strictly a North Carolhia journal of education whose efforts 
are wholly given to the upbuilding of our native State and 
for the success of North Carolina teachers. 

The whole State truly sympathizes with Trinity College 
in the wreck of its elegant new college building at Durham 
on the 8th of August. The structure was nearing comple- 
tion for the opening of the fall term of the College in Sep- 
tember, and the entire tower, one hundred feet high, with 
its foundation walls, fell to the earth with a terrible crash. 
The cause of the damage is mainly assigned to faulty 


architecture and imperfect material. The damage is esti- 
mated at $15,000, and the work of repairing will begin at 
once. It is hoped that the session will not be delayed 
longer than the first of December. In the meantime, the fall 
term will begin at the usual time in the old buildings at 
Trinity College. 

The very first thing that should be taught to a child, 
as the foundation of its education, is the English Alphabet, 
and this should be taught thoroughly so that it may be 
repeated backward or forward or in any other direction. It 
is well known that the alphabet is not only the thing most 
used in acquiring an education, but it is in constant service 
during a business or literary life and therefore every per- 
son should be thoroughly familiar with the order in which 
the letters are fixed, as many books and all ledgers, dic- 
tionaries, catalogues, and other works of reference are 
arranged on the alphabetical plan. This is not the 
"alphabet method," but it is X\\^- alphabet. 

If you would like to join a select party of fifty persons 
on a delightful fifteen-day visit to Cuba, to leave on Decem- 
ber 29th, 1891, please write to the editor of The Teacher 
about it as soon as possible. The entire actual expenses 
of the trip will not be over $75. It is proposed to spend a 
week in Havana and about four days in the mountains of 
Cuba where the sugar plantations are and "where the 
Havana cigars grow." The route has not yet been fully 
decided upon, and we will give further information in 
regard to the tour in a few weeks. The party is positively 
limited to fifty persons. Cuba is the most charming- 
country on the globe to visit in mid-winter, it being a land 
of perpetual summer where fires and stoves are unknown; 
the fan is always in order, and the overcoat is eternally at 
a discount; where every variety of fruit and vegetable is in 
season all the year round, and the lovely senorita "is 
always on deck." 



Miss Ida Ashworth is teaching at Chimney Rock. 

Miss Eli^En Kiser is teaching at Dallas, Gaston county. 

Miss Belle Jarrett is teaching at Hayesville, Clay county. 

Mr. J. O. Blalock is Principal of a school at Kings Mountain. 

Miss Bettie Webster has a school at Henderson, Vance county. 

Miss Sallie Bullock is teaching at Williamsboro, Vance county. 

Miss Bettie Burgess is teaching at Wade's Point, Baaufort county. 

Miss Florence Hargrove, of Chatham county, is teaching at Merry 

Mr. John F. Bradley is teaching a large public school near Gas- 

Miss Mary V. Hopper has a good school at Leaksville, Rockingham 

Mr. J. W. Johnston has a good school at Haw River, Alamance 

Mr. S. T. Andrews is teaching at Mt. Vernon Springs in Chatham 

Mr. R. L. McIver, of Winston, is assistant teacher in Sanford High 

Mr. J. Lee Middleton is Principal of the Baptist Female School at 

Mr. W. S. Wilkinson is Principal of the Male and Female x^cademy 
at Battleboro. 

Statesville has recently voted |;io,ooo for the establishment of a 
graded school. 

Rev. T. C. Buchanan has taken charge of the Academy at Globe, 
Caldwell county. 

Miss Lizzie Allen, of Virginia, has been elected a teacher in the 
Graded School of Shelby. 

Mr. W. J. Helms, of Albemarle, has been elected Principal of Hayes- 
ville Academy, Clay county. 

Tarboro and Henderson have recentl}- voted an extra tax for the sup- 
port of their Graded Schools. 

Mr. W. H Ragsdale, of Granville county, is Principal of the Male 
Academy at Greenville, Pitt county. 

Captain John Duckett, of Greenville, has taken charge of the High 
School at Hamilton, Martin county. 


Messrs. E. M. Koonce and A. H. White are Principals of the High 
School at Polloksville, Jones county. 

Mr. J. B. Sparger is Principal of the High School at Westfield, Surry 
county, and the school is flourishing. 

Mr. F. a. Fetter, of Washington, has been elected Principal of the 
Academy at Kernersville, Forsyth county. 

]Mrs. John A. McDonald and her daughter. Miss Lina, have accepted 
positions as teachers in the Winston Graded School. 

Mr. J. B. Blanton is Principal of Mooresboro High School, and the 
fall term began on August 2otli with flattering prospects. 

Miss Rosedna SeEDGE, who has been teaching in Franklin, Macon 
county, will teach at her home this fall at Hendersonville. 

Mr. G. T. Heaener, of Lincolnton, is in charge of the Academy at 
Fallston. Over sixty pupils are enrolled for the fall term. 

Mr. Z. D. McWhorteR, of Jonesboro, has accepted the principalship 
of the Male and Female Institute, at Greenville, Pitt count}-. 

Mr. J. T. Aederman, County Superintendent of Davie, has accepted 
the position of Principal of the Graded Schools of Reidsville. 

The Farmers' Aeeiance had a most enjoyable educational pic-nic 
at Chatham High School House, Williams' Mill, on August 7th. 

Miss Carrie Harding, late of Missouri, has returned to her home to 
engage in teaching with her sisters, the Misses Patrick, at Kinston. 

Mr. E. E. Britton, Principal of Mount Olive High School, attended 
the Encampment at Wrightsvllle as a member of the Goldsboro Rifles. 

Mr. W. J. Matthews has resigned the principalship of Greenville 
]\Iale Academy to assume charge of the Academy at Wadesboro, Anson 

Miss Kate Edmundson and Miss Bettie Young, both of Peace Insti- 
tute, have a flourishing school for boys and girls at L,eachburg, Johnston 

Mr. B. D. Barker, who has been teaching at Williams' Mill, Chatham 
county, for several years, has taken charge of the High School at Apex, 
Wake county. 

There is to be a first-class military school opened at Scotland Neck 
under the superintendency of Mr. W. C. Allen, former principal of Vine 
Hill Academy. 

Mr. Chas. J. Parker, formerly Superintendent of Tarboro Graded 
School, has resigned to accept the superintendency of the Graded 
vSchools of Shelb}-. 

Mr. E. B. Phileips, of Wilson county, is Principal of Hibriten Moun- 
tain Academy, Caldwell county. The school opened August 3d, and 
near fifty pupils are enrolled. 


Mr. Logan D. Howell, of Goldsboro, has been elected Superintend- 
ent of the Graded Schools at Tarboro. Mr. Howell is a graduate of the 
University and a fine teacher. 

Prof. Karl P. Harrington, of Wesleyan University, Middletown, 
Conn., was elected on August 7th bj- the trustees, as Professor of Latin 
in the University of North Carolina. 

Mr. Herbert Scholtz (Elon College), has been elected Principal of 
Chatham High School, at Williams' Mill, Chatham county. Miss Havens 
Cherry, of Greenville, is teacher of music. 

Miss Gouldman, a graduate of the Western Female High School, 
Baltimore, has been added to the Facult}^ of Wilkinson Female Institute, 
Tarboro, as teacher of English and Elocution. 

Mr. a. L. Rucker, of Rutherfordton, will shortly remove to Pied- 
mont. We sympathize with him in the loss of his excellent horse, 
which was killed by lightning on August 12th. 

Miss Annie McDonald, of Picton, Nova Scotia, has been added to 
the faculty of Louisburg Female College as Music Teacher. She is a 
graduate of the New England Conservatory of Music. 

MissMattie WhiTaker (Peabody Institute, Baltimore), of Enfield, has 
accepted the position of Teacher of Music and Stenograph}^ in La Grange 
Collegiate Institute, Lenoir county. Prof. George W. B. Hadley is 
Principal of the Institute. 

Mr. J. F. Brower is Principal of the Boys School at Salem, and the 
school is flourishing. The enrollment has more than doubled in two 
3'ears, and the outlook is most encouraging. His assistants are Miss 
Mary Lewis and Rev. J. F. McCuiston. 

Miss Bessie Krider, who won the medal in the Teachers' Assembly 
Musical Contest, at Morehead City, on Jime 26th, was immediately offered 
a situation as teacher in a high grade school at Searcy, Arkansas, at a 
salary of |6oo per year and all expenses. 

Prof. D. Matt Thompson has been elected Superintendent of the 
Graded Schools at Statesville, which position he has decided to accept. 
Statesville people are to be congratulated on their choice. As a super- 
intendent of schools Prof. Thompson has few equals. 

The heirs of the late Hon. Paul C. Cameron have established at the 
University in his memory ten "Cameron Scholarships," to be given to 
deserving young men. This is a noble and lasting memorial to Mr. 
Cameron, who was for over half a century a warm friend and benefactor 
of the University. 

Mr. F. M. H.\rper, Principal of the Centennial Graded School of 
this city, has resigned to accept the superintendency of schools in Daw- 
son, Ga. The successor of Mr. Harper will be elected before the open- 
ing of the school, iSth September. Applicants can address T. H. Briggs, 
Secretary School Committee, Raleigh, N. C. 


The Trustees of the University have elected as Professor of Biology 
Dr. Henry V. Wilson, director iu charge of the U. S. Fish Station at 
Wood's Hall, Mass. Dr. Wilson is a native of Baltimore, a graduate of 
Johns Hopkins University, both as A. B. and Ph. D., a gentleman of fine 
abilit}^ of extraordinar}' culture, of large experience in biological work, 
and of national reputation as a scientist. 

Peace Institute, Raleigh, will begin the fall term on September 
5th, and the outlook is for the most successful term in the history of 
this popular institution. Prof. James Dinwiddie has greatly strength- 
ened the alread}' excellent faculty by the addition of Misses Manb- and 
Clements, from Florida. The buildings are in splendid condition for the 
hundred boarding pupils who will soon occupy them. 

The University Alumni have established a large number of scholar- 
ships at the University. Young men of talent and character who need 
help in getting an education, and who can give references as to their 
financial needs and merits, may obtain assistance by applying to Presi- 
dent Winston, at Chapel Hill. The University also offers free tuition to 
all young men intending to preach, and to the sons of preachers of all 

The North C.\roIvIna Coi.i.ege of Agricui^ture and Mechanic 
Arts, Raleigh, begins its third session on the third of next September. 
This College is taking a high rank among the institutions of the State, 
and is doing thorough and honest work. The Board of Trustees is adding 
largely to the plant of the College, and will, this sunmier, put up two 
new buildings, and in addition add such new equipment as is needed in 
the development of the work of the College. 

At the examination for Teachers' State Certificate, at the Teachers' 
Institute held in Concord, Miss Nettie Anderson, a young lady of Con- 
cord, undertook the examination just for the benefit. In the spelling 
examination she spelled ninety-eight words out of the one hundred 
given. This is the best record made anywhere in the State. Miss Nettie 
is very bright, and by her laudable ambition she is accomplishing no 
little for herself, and reflects credit on her teachers. 

JUDSON Female College, Hendersonville, Henderson county, enters 
upon the fall term, September sStli. Dr. R. H. Lewis, one of North 
Carolina's most eminent and beloved educators, is meeting with most 
gratifying success as President of this institution. The College was 
established by the Baptists in 1858, specially for the girls of Western 
North Carolina. It is, however, drawing a liberal patronage from other 
portions of North Carolina and from the adjoining States. 

Captain C. B. Denson, one of the principals of the Raleigh Male 
Academy, has been nominated recently as a Fellow of the Societ}' of 
Science, Arts and Letters, of London. This society has for its officers 
such men as Sir Valentine Goold, who is President; Count De Lesseps, 


the Duke of Argyle, the Duke of Teck and others. After consideration 
Captain Denson has accepted, with a view to presenting a series of 
papers giving the truth in regard to the social condition of the South, and 
with a view to correcting misrepresentations which have been published 
in the Encyclopedia Britannica and other authorities. The Teacher 
rejoices in the conferring of this honor upon one of the most distin- 
guished scholars and teachers of North Carolina. 

Saint Mary's School, Raleigh, N. C, one of the oldest and most 
popular educational institutions for girls in the South, begins the fall 
term on September 24th. This is the fiftieth annual session of this 
school, it having been established in 1842. The outlook for the coming 
term is exceedingly bright for even a larger attendance than in several 
years. Rev. Bennett Smedes, D. D., is the accomplished rector of the 


'Tis said that " figures never lie," 

That one and one are alwaj's two ; 
But Cupid proves, with wor so sly, 

Some wondrous things that figures do. 
And when he claims a teacher's hand 

All rules of figures then are done, 
Though TWO before the preacher stand 

This one and one are always one. 

Professor L. h. Lohr, of the Faculty of Gaston College, Dallas, 
iST. C, married Miss JESSIE Zinn, of Gettysburg, Pa., on July 15, 1S91. 


' A lovely being, scarcely formed or moulded, 
A rose with all its sweetest leaves yet folded." 

Donald Ellis, son of Mr. D. L. Ellis, President of Fairview College, 
Buncombe county, was born at Shelby in July. 

Harry Barnett GrimslEy, son of Mr. George A. Grimsley, Super- 
intendent of Graded vSchools at Greensboro, was born at Kinston on 
July i6, 1S91. 



■ ' Death hath made no breach 
In love and sympathy, in hope and trust. 
No outward sig-n or sound our ears can reach, 
But there's an inward, spiritual speech 
That greets us still, though mortal tongues be dust. 
It bids us do the work that they laid down — 
Take up the song where they broke off the strain ; 
So, journeying till we reach the heavenly town. 
Where are laid up our treasure and our crown. 
And our lost, loved ones will be found again." 

Mrs. \V. E. Young {nee Miss Verlester Rhodes), a member of the 
Teachers' European Party, died at her home in East Durham on May 
20th, 1891. Her infant daughter survived her but fifteen daj-s. Mrs. 
Young had been, since her marriage, assisting her husband in the man- 
agement of the Academy at East Durham. 


The books and slates now put awa5-. 
And let us laugh a little while ; 

For those who work there should be play, 
The leisure moments to beguile. 


" Can you tell me, you stupid," 
The cross teacher said, 
" What S double E spells? " 
The boy shook his head. 

" What do I do ? " said she, 
" Look here! with m}^ eye ? " 
The boy's face grew brighter, 
" Squint," was the reply. 

At the table of a well known school teacher, the subject of widows 
was under discussion, when one of the sons inquired: " What is a grass- 
widow ? " " Why, Harry," responded the other, " don't j'ou know? A 
grass widow is a woman whose husband died of haj'-fever." 

'■ I GUESS WE have so many things to learn at our school that we don't 
have any room to understand them in," said a little girl, pathetically. 


Teacher — '• Johnuy, what was there remarkable about the Battle of 
Lookout? " Johnny (at the foot of the class) — "It caused bangs on the 
brow of a mountain. 

Teacher (in Sunday-school) — " Why is it you do not learn j-our les- 
son as well on Sunday as on week days ? " Bad Little Tommy — " 'Cause 
you can't lick a feller at Sunday-school." 

Sunday-school Superintendent (trying to inspire patriotism on 
Sunday morning after a big Fourth of July celebration the day before) — 
"Now, children, what day was it j-esterday ? " Young America — " Sat- 
urday, sir." Superintendent — " The lecture on patriotism is indefinitely 


The kokonuts is a native to the tropik. It grows onto trees and is 
good to eat. Billy Brown's oncle is a vessil kaptain, and one time he 
fetched Bill a hole lot of Kokonuts from West Ingines. Hit tuck us a 
hole week to eat 'em up. Wot Billy and me wants to no is how dos the 
milk git inside the kokonut. Does the kokonut grow round the milk or 
does the milk leke in from the outside, if so, wot fur ? Kokonut py is 
my favorite, but Billy likes kokonut candy best. Kokonuts is pulled off 
the trees by munkys, which throws 'em at peple like bas ball. I wish I 
was a mun — no; a koko — no; I mean a pepel, so I cud git kokonuts 
'thout payin' for 'em. 



1. A male Principal for the High School at Mount Olive, N. C. 
Salary from $700 to $900 per year. The building is in first-class order. 
Write to R. J. Southerland, Chairman, Mount Olive, N. C. 

2. A FIRST-CLASS male teacher who can build up a high school. Mate- 
rial in abundance to build up aud maintain a fine school for years. A 
teacher with family desiring to locate here can purchase a good home at 
very reasonable prices. This is certainly a fine opening for a successful 
school. WMte to J. A. Younts, Pineville, N. C. 

3. An EXPERIENCED male teacher (unmarried) to take charge of the 
High School at Scull's Store, Northampton count}-. Guaranteed salary 
$40 per month. Address, with testimonials, A. Grant, Rehoboth, N. C. 

We want every teacher in this State to be a subscriber to The North 
CAROI.INA Teacher for the year 1891. 

The subscription price is only one dollar for the year. We are perfedtly 
willing to credit all teachers until they have a dollar to spare, but we 
want your names on our books now. 

To each person who sends a dollar with the name we will give a copy 
of that remarkable teacher's book, " Evolution of Dodd," or six pieces 
of vocal or instrumental music. Besides, if, at the end of the year, you 
feel that you have not been helped very greatly by reading The Teacher 
you need not pay for it, or, if you have already done so, we will return 
the money or extend your subscription another year and let you try the 
magazine again. 

The Teacher is a live journal of education, and we believe it will 
encourage you to do more thinking in your work. The teachers who 
think most do the best work and get the best pay. We do not require 
you to agree with us in regard to anj' method of teaching that we suggest 
or in any criticisms we may make upon some methods now being used ; 
we only ask you to read The Teacher and then do just as the editor 
does — think for yourself. 

The Teacher believes thoroughly in the Old North State and her teach- 
ers ; it will try to be your best friend and defender at all times, and from 
all misrepresentations or slurs, no matter from whomsoever they may 
come. The Teacher shapes its own policy and line of thought ; is 
most thoroughly independent, but by no means neutral ; is mainly 
original, and will try to be generally right. 

If you carry The TeacheR to school with 3'ou in the morning it will 
be easy for you to do better teaching that day than you did the day before. 

The Teacher is now regularlj^ read by over seven thousand people in 
North Carolina and the Southern States. We want to have ten thousand 
readers before the end of 1891. If you are not now one of that number 
we want you to be. If j-ou are already a subscriber to other educational 
ournals, so much the better. Don't cut off any one of them, but be sure 
to add The Teacher to your list, for it will tell you things that will 
interest you and which cannot be found anywhere else. 

The principal work of The North Carolina Teacher is to secure a 
good school for every teacher and a good teacher for every school. We 
want you at all times to feel free to write to us for anything you want 
relating to professional work, and we will do our level best to aid you. 


ALFRED WILLIAMS & CO., Publishers. 


KORTH CAROLINA TEACHER: Supplement September Number, 1891. 



Raleigh, N. C, Aug. 10, 1891. 

The Constitution of North Carolina requires the public 
schools to be kept open at least four months per annum. If 
the tax is not sufficient to do this, it should be supplemented 
in every neighborhood by private subscription. Surely the 
patrons of every school can add enough to have a school at 
least four months. 

The following course of study is intended to guide the 
teachers not so much as to Jioiu much should be accomplished 
in this general system of public schools, but more especially 
to guide them as to the order in which the different books on 
our State list should be taken up. 

The course supposes that the child enters school at six 
years of age and attends regularly four months each year. 
If he has ordinary capacity and good teaching, and especially 
if he is encouraged to read and study at home during the 
long vacations — at least enough to hold progress alreaHy 
made — this course can be fairlj^ well accomplished as laid 

Every teacher should strive earnestly to have the pupils 
become interested in completing the steps year by year, and 
to secure such co-operation by parents as will induce them 
to buy for their children not only the text-books as they are 
indicated by the course, but to get also for them other enter- 
taining books that will induce them to read. This reading 
will not only give them- information which they ought to 
have, but it will give them a vocabulary and an ability to 
understand the language in which their text-books and other 
books are written, and so enable them the better to accom- 
plish the course. If children do not advance as rapidly as 
they should, their parents may be as nuich at fault as the 


The age of the children will not always indicate w^hat 
branches are to be taken. Some children will be found less 
advanced than others who are younger, and will have to take 
studies according to advancement rather than age. But still 
the course of study will indicate what branches ought ordi- 
narily to be pursued at the same time as parallel studies. 
Other children will be found who are advanced proportion- 
ally more in one branch than in another, and the course will, 
perhaps, not show what branches they ought to take as par- 
allel studies. Under such conditions there is opportunity for 
the exercise of the common sense of the teacher, without 
which success is impossible. 

If the teachers will carefully note what is specially intended, 
they will the more easily be able to classify the pupils and 
advance them. 

1. An earnest effort is to be made to get the children to 
read understandingly at as early an age as possible. Hence 
the stress laid upon the use of the Readers and Harrington's 
Speller in such thorough and systematic way as necessarily 
to give the children the meaning and use of the words. In 
the early stages of the course, this meaning is not to be learned 
from definitions, but by actual use of the words in sentences. 

2. The four fundamental rules in arithmetic are to be 
thoroughly learned before the pupils are allowed to pass 
beyond them. At first the children will not be able to read 
well enough to use an arithmetic, and so the teacher will 
have to devise means to teach them so -nothing about figures 
without the book in their hands. 

As a rule, perhaps Sanford's Primary Arithmetic may be 
placed in their hands when they begin the Third Reader. Of 
course, along with this practice in the four fundamental rules 
the pupils must have some practical examples. These can be 
made up by the teacher or be taken from the books. It is, 
perhaps, neeclle.-s to say that blackboards are indispensable. 

3. Penmanship iS ^i be incidentally taught at the very 


J] ortK (Sarolj'na 
t^ta library. 

beginning of thf^ course by the use of slate and pencil. Later 
it should be taught to all the pupils by the use of pen and 
ink and copy-books. 

In what has been said so far, attention to reading, writing 
and elementary ;irithmetic has been emphasized. The three 
R's are of first importance, and every leacher should give 
special attention to the instruction of the smaller children 
in these fundamentals. It too often happens that the smaller 
children in our ungraded county schools are neglected. In 
the multiplicity of the work which the teacher has to do, he 
rather inclines to bestow undue attention upon the more 
advanced pupils. They ought to be more able to help them- 
selves than those less advanced. A determined effort ought 
to be made by all teachers to advance the smaller children, 
so that at as early a day as possible the}^ may be able to use 
the text-books intelligently .and profitably. This accom- 
plished, the books on the. different subjects should be })Ut into 
their hands and lessons assigned. At regular times (not 
necessarily every day in each study), these lessons should be 
"heard" and thoroughly explainecl and enlarged upon by 
the teacher. 

4. Geography and history, in this course, occupy a promi- 
nent place. All will at once see the reason for this. Cer- 
tainly everyone should know what kind of a world he lives 
in; what kind of people have lived in it, and what kind now 
live in it; what tliey have made out of it, and what they 
have done. One of the greatest mistakes some people make 
is to lay little stress upon these branches as studies to be pur- 
sued in the schools. 

Our law do s not specially contemplate the use of text- 
books in the natural sciences. All through the course, how- 
ever, from the very beginning to the end, the teachers should 
give instruction about Nature — all objects which surround 
the children in such great numbers. While the study of 


geography is pursued there is excellent opportunity for this 
line of work. Teach the children to go through the world 
with their eyes open, seeing everything and enquiring about 

5. As to English grammar, two mistakes are made: 

(a). A disposition to neglect it, if not entirely to eliminate 
it from the school course; and 

(6). An effort to place books on technical grammar in the 
hands of children before they can comprehend the language 
in w hich they are written. 

This course of study indicates what is considered a proper 
place for this ver}' important study. Perhaps there is no 
branch that is more difficult to teach and that requires more 
effort on the part of the teacher. But surely it has a place 
in a course, the main object of which should be to give to 
every pupil the intelligent and fluent use of his own lan- 
guage — the language in which he reads and conducts his 
ordinary business orally and by letter-writing. It is con- 
ceded that much can be done in this direction by language 
lessons, such as we have in our readers, speller, and other 
books, but at the proper time the grammars must be studied. 

6. Instruction is to be given to all children orally, or from 
lessons assigned them from text-books when far enough 
advanced to use them, relative to the preservation of health 
and the effects of alcoholic drinks and narcotics. The course 
indicates a plan for this instruction, and every teacher must 
give due attention to it. 

7. The course is not laid down beyond 16 years of age. At 
that age the ])upil is supposed to have gone over the branches 
usually studied in the common school course. If pupils 
desire to pursue other studies, such as usually belong to a 
high-school course, the committees have authority to arrange 
for them to be taught. They can charge tuition for such 
branches — all not specially named in the Public School Law. 

Our system is weak from lack of money, and it is suggested 


that at least enough tuition be charged to employ sufficient 
assistance to insure due attention to all pupils in the lower 

8. Last, but not least, every teacher must set an example 
of good manners and good morals, and must continually 
seek to instruct all the children in this direction. We have 
no text-book on our State list on this subject, but every teacher 
is supposed to be informed on the subject of ethics, and no 
better book on morals has ever been written, or ever will be, 
than the Bible. This is a Christian countr}^ and the morality 
required by our law to be inculcated by all teachers is Chris- 
tian morality without sectarianism. The teacher must never 
lose sight of the fact that by example and by jjrecept he is to 
build the characters of his pupils, and that example is much 
more effective than precept. 



(Suppose that the child enters school at six years of age, 
and has no knowledge of books). 

McGuffey's Primer, with slate; writing words on slate; 
making figures; counting, etc. 

[iVofe.— The teacher in teaching reading should not con- 
fine himself to any one method. A combination of the dif- 
ferent methods is best, especially of the 'word meth.od and the 
alphahetic method. Begin with the word method, but as soon 
as possible have the child write in script the letters and 
words, and spell orally, using the names of the letters. 
When the child has advanced far enough he should be 
taught all the diacritical marks and the different powers of 
the letters, but there is danger of attempting too much of 
this in the first years of the course.] 



Holmes' First Reader; Harrington's Speller, first twelve 
pages; writing on slate; addition and subtraction of num- 
bers to ten, with some simple examples given by the teacher, 
as time mav allow. 


Holmes' Second Reader; Harrington's Speller, fron:i page 
13 to page 26; addition and subtraction, not using num- 
bers so large that the children cannot readily comprehend 


Holmes' Third I'eader; Harrington's Speller, from page 
27 to page 50; Sanford's Primary Arithmetic; the multipli- 
cation table perfectly learned. 


Holmes' Fourth Reader; Harrington's Speller, from page 
51 to 78; Sanford's Primary Arithmetic — long division 
specially taught. 

\_Note. — It is presumed that the teachers will spend six 
hours in actual work each day. At least half of this time 
should be given to the course as laid down for the first five 
years. If this is done the pupils will have opportunity to 
lay a good foundation, and the work of the teacher in the 
course beyond the fifth year will be not so much one of hear- 
ing recitations as of assigning lessons and seeing that each 
pupil devotes a reasonable amount of time each day in dili- 
gent study of each branch. The teacher should always be 
ready to help him over the rough places, and he should hear 
at least two or ihree recitations each week by each class. No 
teacher need fear results if he succeeds in enlisting: earnest 
effort on the part of his pupils.] 


Mrs. Spencer's First Steps in History; Sanford's Interme- 
diate Arithmetic to multiplication of fractions; Maury's 
Elementary Geography to page 62; Harrington's Speller, 
part second, first twenty pages. 

[Note. — It is to be presumed that during all the years that 
precede this year the teacher has taught orally the first 
principles of geography. At this stage in the course every 
pupil should have a dictionary and be taught how to use it, 
and during the whole of the remainder of the course the 
dictionary should be freely consulted.] 


Maury's Elementary Geography, from page 62 to end; Har- 
rington's Speller, second part, from page 21 to page 40; San- 
ford's Intermediate Arithmetic, from multiplication of frac- 
tions to the end. 


Holmes' U.S. History; Sanford's Common school Arith- 
metic to page 156; Harrington's Speller, second part, from 
page 41 to page 65. 

[Note. — In studying history some geography should always 
be at hand as reference book.] 


Sanford's Common- school Arithmetic, from 156 to page 
279; Harrington's Speller, second part, from page 65 to page 
88; Harvey's Elementary Grammar to False Syntax. 


Harvey's Elementary Grammar completed ; Sanford's Com- 
mon-school Arithmetic reviewed and completed; Maury's 
Manual of Geography to British America; Moore's N. C. 


Harve^^'s English Grammar, revised edition, to Syntax; 
Steele's Physiology and Hygiene; Maury's Manual of Geog- 
raphy, completed; Higher Arithmetic or Algebra. 


"Good Health for Children" taught or.illy, two lessons per 
week, to classes in Fourth Reader and to ail children below 
Fourth Reader. 

"Health Lessons for Beginners," until completed, in the 
hands of all pupils above Fourth Reader, two lessons per week. 

Besides the writing that the pupils will do on the slates 
and with lead pencils, which should all the tirae be encour- 
aged, the teacher should have systematic work in penman- 
ship for the whole school at least twice a week. 

Every teacher will take note of the fact that this course is 
not intended to be rigidly adhered to, and it is not c.msidered 
absolutely necessary that every pupil thoroughly complete 
any step before he can take the next, and no child should be 
kept from advancing to a higher branch of study because 
others of his grade are not considered ready to go with him. 
It is of I en best to let pupils take a step that is somewhat too 
high rather than discourage them by keeping them back too 

While it is certain that a very large proportion of the chil- 
dren will not be able to go to school long enough to complete 
this course, it is believed that it is best to have something 
definite to work at — certain books named and the order fixed 
in which they should be studieil. It is hoped that vei-y 
many children will be stimulated to an effort to possess and 
study all the books out of school. as well as during the session. 

Every teacher is earnestly requested to leave on record in his 
register the branches pursued at the preceding session hy every 
pupil J so that his successor may have the desired information in 
organizing the school. 8. M. FINGER, 

Superintendent Public Instruction. 

\_Note. — To the end that not only every pupil but every 
parent may have a copy, I will be very thankful if the news- 
papers will print not only the course of study, but the whole 


Vol. IX. Raleigh, October, 1891. No. 2. 

EUGENE G. HARRELL, = = = = Editor. 



We are all at school in this world of ours, 

And our lessons lie plain before us ; 
But we will not learn, and the flying hours 

x^nd the days and the years pass o'er us. 

And then we grumble and mourn, and say 
That our school is so tiresome and weary, 

And we ask for a long bright holiday 
That will banish our lessons dreary. 

But .what is it God is trying to teach ? 

Is it patience, or faith, or kindness ? . 
Is the lesson really beyond our reach, 

Or made hard through our willful blindness ? 

If we were in earnest and tried to learn. 

If our listless study we mended, 
Who knows but our holidays we would earn 

And our school -days be gladly ended ? 

Who knows but we make our lessons long 
And hinder their meaning from reaching 

The hearts that would be full of joyous song 
If we knew what our God was teaching? 

Then let us study His will while we may; 

There's a warning for us in the rule 
That the scholar who will not learn all day 

Is the one that is kept after school. 

]Vortl\ Qarolii\a I'^acK^r^ i\broa6.: 


Gkglamd, Sgoiplamd, Ii^eland and Fi^angb. 


vShopping— The Famous Parisian Stores— Some Special Prices- 
Tariff AND THE Currency Questions— The Great Eiffel 
Tower— Sensations of the Ascent— A Memorable Scene— Up 
IN A Balloon— Capt. Goddard, the Celebrated Aeronaut— A 
View of France from the Clouds. 

OON after we reached Paris the girls 
of our party suggested that they 
must have a day exclusively for shop- 
ping, therefore the second day of our 
stay in the French capital was what 
v/e considered an ' ' off-da}-, " or a day 
wholly in the interest of the shop- 
keepers of Paris, and the aforesaid 
shopkeepers must have considered the 
dav a decided success, if we are to 
judge from the number of sight drafts 
on friends at home which the Secretary 
I negotiated with the bankers, and the 
immense pile of boxes and bundles which reached the 
kotel about 6 o'clock p. m. addressed to various mem- 
bers of the North Carolina part)-. Son:e af these drafts 
did not reach North Carolina for collection until after we 
had been at home at least a month. 

Although we were among a people speaking a language 
unknown to us, our ladies did not seem to experience 
the slightest difficulty in quickl)- finding the best places 

JYort\ (Carolina 
tare ]^i_hrari^. 


for making purchases. Almost before we were comfort- 
ably located in Paris onr girls were as familiar with the Bon 
Marche and Magasin du Louvre as if they had been resi- 
dents of France for several years. 

The Bon Marche is one of the largest and most won- 
derful stores in the world, and is one of the most interest- 
ing sights of Paris. It is truly a town within itself, 
with its immense floors, endless galleries and an army of 
employees numbering thirty-five hundred. One of the 
special advantages of this great emporium is that a visitor 
can go anywhere about the building and inspect the goods 
without being solicited to buy at every step. We also 
discovered a special disadvantage^ so far as concerned our 
party: The building was so large and so packed with 
goods and people that our whole party was quickly lost 
from one another, and never o-ot together again until we 

' coo 

met around the dinner-table at 6 o'clock p. m. 

The Magasin du Ivouvre possesses a rare attraction for 
children, from the custom of the proprietors every day at 
12 o'clock to give a beautiful inflated balloon to every 
child in the building, each balloon bearing the' name 
"■Louvre" clearly printed on it. Both of these establish- 
ments have a host of guides and interpreters for visitors, 
speaking English, German, Italian, Spanish, Chinese and 
other languages of Europe. 

There are several business houses in Paris which confine 
their trade to specialties and they have a world-wide repu- 
tation. Of course such houses increase their prices in 
proportion as they have been able to establish a reputation. 
These places of business are almost entirely confined to 
the Rue de la Paix, and among them is Worth, the great 
costumer, who charges $125 for his cheapest dresses and 
from this price up to $12,000 ; Mdme Virot gets twenty- 
five dollars for the simplest little bonnet about the size of 
a bird's nest ; Mdme Leoty will not make a lady's corset 


for less than twelve dollars and the price for her best work 
is $150. We visited all these shops but do not think the 
party made many investments there. 

A great many articles are remarkably cheap in Paris. A 
nice quality of kid glove may be bought for twenty-five 
cents and a much better grade for thirty-five cents. If 
these are bought in a regular glove shop a beautiful little 
French maiden carefully fits a sample pair to your hand, 
and it is marvelous how quickly and charmingly she can 
smooth the glove over your fingers and hand and have it 
buttoned, and, laughing at the sensation she has produced, 
stand ready to take your order for the number of pairs you 
desire. Some of the gentlemen of our party have enough 
gloves to supply all their sisters and cousins and aunts for 
a life-time, as they never passed a glove shop without hav- 
ing one fitted and buying at least a dozen pairs. 

All articles made of silk are also cheap in Paris. A very 
neat black silk dress of good quality may be purchased and 
fitted to order for twenty dollars, such as would perhaps 
cost fifty dollars in the United States. Silk handkerchiefs 
cost forty cents, such as we pay one dollar for at home, and 
the finest of silk neckties and scarfs are sold for twenty-five 

If an American girl buys from $300 to $400 worth of 
clothes for the winter she can go to Paris to make her pur- 
chases and save enough in difference of prices between 
those here and what she would have to pay at home to 
meet all the expense of her summer trip to Europe. The 
iniquitous so-called "protective tariff" of the United 
States is driving thousands of our people to Europe every 
year to purchase their supplies of clothing and fancy 
articles for the household. 

A high tariff between nations is just about as absurd as 
would be a tariff between the States of our country 
upon their various articles of manufacture and produce. 


Free trade with the whole world is the onl}- true and just 
policy of nations which consider the interest of their people 
instead of the pockets of their capitalists and monopolists, 
and the traveler in Europe becomes daily more convinced 
of this fact. 

It was very gratifying to us to realize that the currency 
of the United States, either gold or paper, is worth one hun- 
dred cents on the dollar in any civilized country, and 
therefore we hate to know that Cono-ress is tinkerinof with 
our currency in a way that wall soon cause depreciation in 
some one of our "legal tenders" at home and abroad. Our 
silver dollar would also be worth one hundred cents if it 
contained one hundred cents worth of silver. Our Con- 
gress cannot swindle foreign countries with this coin as it 
has done our own country. 

Having spent as much time and money in the fascina- 
ting shops as we desired, or, rather, could afford, we 
decided that the day following should be devoted exclusively 
to an examination of the great International Exposition 
which was exciting the admiration and wonder of the 
world. Our hotel was also fortunately located as to con- 
venience to tne Exposition, it being so near that we did 
not have need to use the cab or other public conveyance 
to reach it, simply a short walk down the Rue Montaigne 
for four blocks and we were at the main entrance to the 
Champs de Mars, in which spacious grounds the Exposi- 
tion is held. The price of admission is twenty-five cents 
at the gates, but we soon learned that tickets were sold at 
every street corner throughout the city by men, women and 
children for only ten cents. Our sympathies for the labor- 
ing masses of course compelled us to buy our tickets exclu- 
sively of them. 

The Exposition is far too big a thing for any ordinary 
person to comprehend or describe, even in the course of an 
extended stay, therefore we cannot undertake to write a 


guide-book of the exhibits, or tell of even a tenth of the 
beautiful and wonderful things that we saw. All that the 
most observant visitor can do in such an immense place is 
to impress upon his mind the most memorable and inter- 
esting objects that meet his eye. As for all the rest there 
remains simply a bewildering and confused recollection 
which it is impossible to ever straighten out so as to tell 
anyone about it in detail. Therefore we wisely concluded 
to waste as little time as possible with the things that did 
not specially interest us, but to search out the best exhibits 
and concentrate our attention upon these. 

Of course the correct thing for us to do first was to 
ascend the famous Eiffel Tower, or Tour Eiffel^ as it is 
knowm in Paris. This marvelous iron spire is the feature 
of the Exposition and the new landmark of Paris. It is 
an airy, graceful shaft of filagree, making its own peculiar 
contribution to the unique attractions of one of the most 
beautiful cities in the world. Unlike all other monuments 
it is visible from almost every part of Paris, while from its 
summit you obtain a great panoramic view of the heart of 
France. In the daytime the flag flutters at the masthead, 
but at night, as from some sky-piled Pharos, streams over 
the great city the electric light which represents the trans- 
mitted energy of engines of 500-horse power. 

They say that the beacon on the Eiffel Tower is visible at 
a distance of forty miles, and that by the rays of its lamps 
you may read a newspaper in the street of St. Germain — 
at least seven miles "as the crow flies." The electric light 
at the summit of the tower blazes at times through red and 
white and blue glasses, the idea being that the Tower 
should flaunt the tricolor of France on the loftiest flagstaff" 
in the world. 

The crowd is so vast about the Tower waiting for a 
chance to begin the ascent that we had to take our turn like 
everybody else, and although we arrived at the opening at 


one of the feet of the tower at 9 o'clock A. M. we did not reach 
the top until near i o'clock p. m. ! The sensation in 
ascending is novel. It presents the semblance without the 
reality of danger. It is as safe as going upstairs in your 
own house, and a great deal easier if you care to go up in 
the elevators. Four elevators start from the base of the 
Tower, one from each of the colossal feet upon which the 
giant whose head is in the clouds steadies himself on earth. 
You get into a room large enough to hold one hundred 
persons, adjust yourself comfortably, and before you fairly 
realize that you are off you are landed on the first floor. 

Then you mount to the second floor, where you change 
cars. The second elevator runs to the top of the tower at 
about the rate of six miles an hour. The hoist contains 
seventy-five persons, and you are landed at the summit in 
less than ten minutes. You leave the hoist at the top just 
as if you were in a hotel, and step out upon a perfectly 
secure platform from which you cannot fall even if you 
try. After you have enjoyed the sensation of being mast- 
headed at an altitude to equal which the tallest pine in 
North Carolina would stretch its length in vain you come 
down again by the same safe and simple method. Their 
maximum lifting capacity is said to be 2,350 persons per 
hour to the second floor, and 750 an hour-, or twelve jour- 
neys to the summit. 

Standing under the Tower it impresses you by its com- 
bination of solidity and of grace. The great arches 
springing from the four 'bases meet overhead at a height 
which is greater than the summit of Washington Mon- 
ument. Half way up the Tower stand the cannon whose 
brazen throats thunder forth the hour of opening and 
closing the great show. 

The Tower stands four-square on feet of solid masonry, 
to which it is bolted by anchor rods four inches in 
diameter, an arrangement which more than doubles its 


power of facing the winds. Even if it stood loose on its 
stone pedestal, it would not blow over under pressure of 
anything less than a hurricane concentrated on its summit. 
It sways slowly and almost imperceptibly in a strong gale. 

To put it up complete cost from first to last about 
$1,300,000. If it had been built of stone it would have 
cost $4,000,000. 

The loftiest stone monument in the world, the Washing- 
ton Monument, is only 554 feet high, but it weighs 45,500 
tons. By using iron M. Eiffell got, at one-sixth of the 
weight, 430 feet nearer the sky. 

The honor belongs to the rivet. The Tower is the work 
of the riveter. The whole structure is held together by 
the rivet and nothing but the rivet. Next to the impos- 
ing altitude and audacious sweep of the immense span, the 
first thing which impresses the imagination is the number 
of rivets. Two millions and a half rivets have been 
employed in its construction. Every one of these was 
heated white hot on the Tower and hammered into posi- 
tion there. But the holes for the rivets were all cut at the 
works of M. Eiffel at Eevallois-Perret, from which the 
12,000 separate girders, beams, joists, and other descrip- 
tions of iron work were sent to Paris punctured with no 
fewer than seven million holes. 

Forty draughtsmen and calculators were employed con- 
stantly for two years in preparing the 500 engineers' draw- 
ings and 2,500 working plans, by the aid of which every 
hole was punched in the right place before a girder left the 
works. The Tower as it stands is a great monument to 
the absolute accuracy and scientific precision wnth which 
the modern engineer can manipulate his material. 

When the second floor was being laid it was discovered 
that the two western piles were about a fifth of an inch 
higher than the two eastern. Only a fifth of an inch in 
the rearing of the four sides of the gigantic pyramid which 


overtopped the towers of Notre Dame! But that was not 
allowed to pass without immediate rectification. One-fifth 
of an inch on the first floor would have thrown all the 
rivets out of place in the upper part of the Tower. The 
hydraulic screw press that is fitted in the shoe, so to speak, 
of each of the four feet of the Tower was brought to bear. 
The western piles were lowered and adjusted and the work 
went on without interruption. 

The weight resting on each of the four uprights, which 
together form each foot of the Tower, is nearly 500 tons. 
Each of these uprights terminates in a steel hat fitting into 
an iron socket sunk in masonry. Within this socket the 
hydraulic ram is introduced to n^ise or depress the super- 
structure at will. 

There is a certain massive simplicity about the Tower 
which exists side by side with a sense of the bewildering 
intricacy of innumerable girders, tie-bedras, and interlacing 
iron work. Over and above all else the memory carries 
away an abiding impression of the great span and the great 
spine. Span and spine alike are four-fold. The Tower 
stands four-square to all the winds that blow. North and 
south, east and west, you are confronted always by one 
span and one spine. The span is the great arch that sup- 
ports the first floor. The spine is the iron upright which 
runs outside the Tower from the second floor to the sum- 
mit, straight, flexible and strong. There is something- 
living and personal about the Tower, with its four feet, its 
lofty head, and its erect, graceful spine. It somewhat 
reminds you of a giraffe, but a giraffe chained. 

Under the central arch there is a fountain placed which 
is a great rendezvous now that the Exhibition is open. 
"Meet me at the fountain under the Eiffel Tower!" What 
romances will not be begun, and, alas! sometimes ended, 
at that trysting place! The fountain itself is allegorical of 
the hemispheres and the continents. Female figures, more 


or less boldly designed and scantily attired, represent all 
the uttermost ends of the earth orathered tos^ether to cele- 
brate the centennial of the French Revolution. The 
Tower is to be a permanent structure, so they say, although 
permanence when iron work is concerned is by no means 
an eternity. If it stands for twenty years it will probably 
pay its expenses. 

On each of the three floors of the Tower are a number 
of shops, restaurants and newspaper offices. On the second 
floor the Figaro has a small printing office, and publishes a 
daily edition at a height of four hundred and sixty feet 
above the earth! When you reach tl>e third floor you may 
purchase an international postal card, write it and mail it 
while overlooking the city of Paris at an altitude of nine 
hundred feet. Eight hundred persons can stand in the 
hall at the summit of the Tower, and ten thousand persons 
can be on the Tower at one time without crowding at all. 
The price of ascending this giddy iron pile is one dollar. 
The sensation of making this ascent is so peculiar that we 
want to try to tell you about it. 

In ascending the first portion of the Tower you get a 
better view of the massive network of iron girders, angle 
irons and tie-beams than of anything else. At last we 
came out on the platform that surrounds the first floor. 
We were at the height of the tower of Notre Dame and 
Paris lay stretched as on a carpet at our feet. For seeing 
Paris we think the first floor is better than a, higher eleva- 
tion. You are high enough up to see the whole city lying 
below you. It does not help you to climb higher into the 
clouds unless you wish to see beyond the city. In that 
case it is necessary to choose a clear day. 

Looking across the city you notice first and foremost 
before evervthing else the natural and unchauo^ina^ features 
of the landscape, the Seine, which winds like a silver 
ribbon at your feet, and the heights of Mont Martre in the 


north. . Until the Eiffel Tower was built ]\Iont Martre was 
the highest point in Paris, with the possible exception of 
the gilded dome of the Invalides. Long after the Eiffel 
Tower has rusted into red oxide Mont ^Martre will remain 
the centre of the tragedy of Paris. It was there where St. 
Dennis was martyred in the early centuries, there where 
the avenging Russian and Prussian crushed the last spark 
out of the First Empire, and there in our own times were 
planted the cannon of the Commune which first roared 
defiance of the Versaillese, and then being captured by 
these Versaillese impartially shelled the Communists out of 
Pere La Chaise. 

A grim acclivity, scarred with the wounds of centuries 
of strife and destined mayhap once more to echo with 
cannon thunder in the troublous time to come, ]\Iont ^Nlartre 
revives reminiscences of Edinburgh Castle. It is the only 
hill near enough to dominate Paris. Mont Valerien lies 
westward, fort-crowned and formidable, although from its 
bastions the smoke of artillery fire no longer tells how in 
the last great war its defenders stood sentinel to the last 
against the Prussian at Versailles. 

All round the Tower on these crowded streets the Ger- 
man shells dropped thickly during the bombardment. Just 
over the river are the ruins of St. Cloud, and further away 
to the westward, not visible on the horizon, stands Ver- 
sailles, the lordly pleasure-house of the Grand Monarque, 
which, by the irony of history, was to witness in our own 
time the proclamation of the King of Prussia as Emperor 
of Germany. 

The landmarks of Paris are easily picked out from the 
Tower. Looking northward across the Seine, leaving the 
Bois de Boulogne on your left, the first noted point is the 
somewhat unrecognizable side view of the Arc de Triomphe 
de I'Etoile, with its proud array of thirty French victories 
and one hundred and forty-two battles, which, with its 


twelve radiating a\'enues, fonus the centre of the Star of 
Western Paris. The great glass roof visible through the 
trees is the Palais de 1' Industrie in the Champs Elysees. 
Further down the river stands the imposing pile of the 
Louvre — beyond the Tuileries Gardens. Even the ruins 
of the Tuileries have now vanished foiever. 

The Madeleine lies a little to the north, still more 
to the northward the church of St. Augustin, and then 
farther eastward you can see the great mass of the Opera 
House. Coming back to the Seine, you can indistinctly see 
beyond the Louvre the Hotel de Ville and the Tour St. 
Jacques. Crossing the river, the two towers of Notre 
Dame direct your thoughts to the glories of the past, while 
the great dome of the Pantheon recalls you to the profana- 
tion of the present. The towers of St. Sulpice lie nearer 
to you, and nearer still the great gilded dome of the Inva- 
lides which covers the sarcophagus of the First Napoleon. 
It is a wonderful panorama, over which you can gaze med- 
itating for hours. How much of the history, of the 
romance, of the world had this as its theatre, and what 
strange tragic drama will not be enacted before the dwellers 
in these streets have said their last word to their kind? 

As a matter of fact }'ou feel much less giddy the higher 
you ascend. Whether it is that the attraction of the earth 
diminishes as you ascend, or whether it is that you become 
acclimatized, we do not know, but after you get past the 
four hundred feet you feel quite at home in the high lati- 

The scene now becomes more inspiring as we move 
towards the third story. The steamboats that crawled 
along the Seine far below seemed little larger than bits of 
black stick floating in the stream. Mont Martre, Mont 
Valerien, the Invalides, the Pantheon, stand out in clearer 
relief. We were now far above them all, higher than we 
had ever been on steeple or tower before, and we imagine 


how sublime it is to be on the very summit of the lofty 
Tower when the lightning plays ronnd and the thunder 
crashes as it were in your very ear. Since Jove sped his 
bolts from the top of Olympus could any situation be more 
sublime ? The Tower is said to be not only the safest place 
in the world during a thunder-storm, as it is nothing but 
one gigantic lightning conductor but it is a protection 
against lightning for all the surrounding buildings. 

While standing as far towards the top of the Tower as 
visitors are allowed to ascend, nine hundred and ten feet 
above the earth, one of our charming girls assisted the Sec- 
retary in waving our compliments to the city with the 
Stars and Stripes, and we then descended to the earth 
again by the lifts, feeling that we had honored ourselves 
by contributing so much time to the most wonderful mod- 
ern achievement of scientific engineering. 

"There is a strange fascination in ascending to great 
heights," remarked Miss Sells, as we descended to the 
first floor of the Tower, "and," she continued, "I always 
feel like remaining longer at such an altitude as that from 
which we have just descended." 

"If you really enjoy such heights," returned the Secre- 
tary, "suppose we make a journey in the great Goddard 
Balloon which you see just over the river making regular 
trips among the clouds." 

"I would be delighted to do so," replied the lady bravely, 
much to our surprise, as we know that most persons, men 
and women, are afraid to leave the earth very far. 

"Then let us go at once," he said, "before it is too late 
to make the ascent, and we will soon have the pleasure of 
flying our American flag over the city of Paris at an alti- 
tude of two thousand feet above the earth and a thousand 
feet higher than the Eiflel Tower!" 

Ouicklv callinof a cab we were soon within the enclosure 


where from a vast pit in the ground the great balloon takes 

its flight towards the skies. 

It was a wonderful air-ship. The basket was circular, 

twelve feet in diameter, open in the centre, and it would 

hold eleven passengers. The immense bag was ninety feet 

high and thirty feet in diameter, and as it impatiently 

swayed in the breeze it seemed like some huge bird eager 

to be on the wing. From the opening iu the centre of the 

basket was suspended a gauge to which was attached a 

large rope two thousand feet long coiled around a windlass 

which was operated by a steam engine. 

Having paid the fare, two dollars for each person, we 
stepped into the light willow car with the great French 
aeronaut, Capt. Louis Goddard, and in a moment, almost 
before we realized it, the balloon began to ascend. Slowly 
we rise above the houses, then the trees seem to grow 
shorter and there comes over us a feeling of loneliness. 
Looking over the sides of the car we see the city spread 
out beneath us as some little town which the children make 
for their dolls. The street cars and omnibuses look like 
baby carriages, and a man walking appears to be only a 
hat moving along the ground without any visible means of 

There is a gentle, yielding motion to the car which 
assures us that we are still climbing into the clouds, and as 
the sudden gusts of wind strike the balloon it careens far 
to the side and we have a sensation something like that 
experienced in a boat when riding the waves. 

"This is indeed grand!" exclaimed Miss Sells iu enthu- 
siasm, "and I never imagined what the sensation would be 
when soaring above the earth in a balloon." 

"Yes, it is truly grand so long as the rope holds," 
replied the Secretary. "And only look below," he added, 
"and you will see that the breeze has carried us a long way 
from the little engine that holds the other end of this rope 


which appears to be no larger than a spider's thread before 
it reaches the earth." 

The view was truly one of surpassing loveliness. The 
whole of France from the English Channel to the ]\Iedi- 
terranean sea lay spread out beneath us like a map. The 
air was as clear as crystal and the distance at which we 
could see with distinctness was something incredible. The 
ocean, the mountains and the beautiful valleys were com- 
bined in one magnificent landscape, the scene dotted here 
and there with cities and towns, moving trains and steam- 

The wind was now blowing with considerable force and 
the balloon had a swaying motion of about a quarter of a 
mile and the rope was chafing considerably on the edges of 
the car. 

"How much strain will this rope bear?" we asked of 
Captain Goddard with some degree of interest. 

"Three thousand pounds," he replied. 

Then looking at the gauge we saw that each gust of 
wind would cause the needle of the gauge to spin around 
to twenty-seven Imndred pounds! Only three hundred 
pounds more of strain and the rope will break ! We were 
not at all frightened, but the situation was somewhat inter- 
esting and the wind was increasing rapidly in power. 

"The wind is too strong for us," said the Captain, "and 
we will descend." 

We knew that when the engine began to wind in that 
rope the strain would be much greater, and we almost 
thought that it was much safer to remain in the clouds as we 
then were than to take the risk of having tlie rope to snap. 

The situation was growing in irbterest. 

"Now, Miss Efifa," said the Secretary, "if you will 
please hold one corner of our little flag we will soon have 
the Stars and Stripes proudly floating over La Belle France 
a thousand feet nearer the heavens than that French tri- 


color which is flying beneath ns from the top of the Eiffel 

As the Star Spangled Banner unfolded to the breeze 
Captain Goddard took off his hat out of respect to that 
famous emblem of freedom and bravery, and exclaimed 
" Vive la Repiibliqiie Amei^iqiie P'' 

We gratefully acknowledged the compliment and Miss 
Sells replied, '"'' Poiw noire contree^ nous voiis rejnejxie^ 
Monsieur. ' ' 

The balloon gradually yielded to the rope and, like a 
spoiled child, reluctantly began to descend, and in a short 
while, just as the sun was setting, it was again safely 
anchored in its port and we stepped from the car upon the 
ground greatly pleased with our first experience "up in a 
balloon." We had been among the clouds about an hour. 

There is a wonderful fascination about a balloon and we 
desire to make another trip skyward. We want to take our 
dinners and spend the day up among the birds. 

When we reached the hotel it was almost impossible to 
make our party believe our thrilling account of the balloon 
trip with the statement that we had just been looking down 
upon our hotel from an altitude of over a third of a mile. 
We produced our tickets for the ascent and a souvenir card 
of the trip signed by Monsieur Goddard as evidence and 
the question was settled. 

In our dreams that night we visited in a gigantic balloon 
all the countries of the earth, under the earth and above 
the earth ; fell out of the sky-scraper a dozen or more 
times ; dropped into the sea, and was impaled upon the 
North Pole ; was flattened out upon the dome of the Eiffel 
Tower, and suspended by our heels among the trees ; waved 
the Stars and Stripes at the spirits in the air, and sailed 
through storm and tempest amid the lightning's lurid glare. 

But we returned to the earth and awoke just in time for 



A very observing correspondent thinks that the value of 
an education depends upon the use to which it can be put 
in serving the ends of life. Upon this condition alone 
depends its utility or its uselessness. The fact is easily 
proven by the variety of special schools that are springing 
up in so many parts of the country. 

Not many years ago they were confined almost wholly to 
law, medicine and theology. Now they include civil and 
mining engineering, architecture, dentistry, pharmacy, 
nursing, agriculture, mechanic arts, manual training, com- 
mercial education, etc. 

The more important of professional pursuits are success- 
fully followed only when a liberal education precedes the 
one that specializes ; but it is not always possible for a 
majority of our young men to enjoy such extended advan- 
tages. For them there should be courses in the grammar 
or high schools tending to special preparation. 

The fact that such instruction cannot be had in many of 
these schools prompts a large number of pupils to with- 
draw from them before graduation. Many seek positions 
in business houses and others enter schools that teach spe- 
cial branches. In one city whose high schools enrolls 1,399 
pupils, over 400 of them gave up a course the cost of which 
is nothing and pay from $75 to $150 a year for tuition in 
the several business colleges in that city. 

This seems to indicate that the education they get in 
these schools will be of more use to them than would be 
the course of study they give up. Would it not be fair if 
the schools that furnish a free preparation for college would 
also furnish free tuition in special subjects for those who 
cannot go to college? — School Journal^ Nezv York. 



The schools of North Carolina are advancing. Every 
day we hear of music being adopted in public schools 
where it was never taught before. Educators and school 
officers are opening their eyes slowly, but surely, in this 

The city of 5,000 inhabitants that has no music lessons 
in its schools is behind the times, and if they care to draw 
comparisons they will find that their public schools without 
music must be placed at the tail end of the procession. 

It is easily understood now by those who have music 
taught in their schools how the singing lesson helps the 
other lessons. It is restful, healthful and invigorating to 
all the children who engage in it. There is no better lung 
exercise in the world for children than singing. Then it 
lightens their hearts and softens the harsher elements in 
their nature. 

Every school committee ought to arrange with some 
competent singing teacher to visit his schools two or three 
times a week and give them lessons in the rudiments of 
music and singing. Money spent in this way would be 
well invested. Every teacher should give music some 
attention. It is sure to be a regular branch of learning in 
the public schools. 

Music is greatly needed in all the schools, under the 
guidance and instruction of competent persons. We shall 
be glad to hear from school teachers and others on this sub- 
ject. Our pages are at your disposal. 

Do NOT fail to have a class in North Carolina history for 
this term of your school. The boys and girls will be 
■delighted with the study. 



How one is to get time to perform all the work laid out 
for him by Institute conductors and superintendents is a 
question which has troubled many a conscientious country 
teacher already burdened with multitudinous daily tasks. 
The writer once felt the pressure of this great load, and 
made up his mind that he would see what could be done. 
On carefully going over the ground he found that he could 
gain time in the following ways : 

1. By being thoroughly prepared for every lesson of the 
day, so that no time should be wasted in considering what 
to say or do. 

2. By talking less and right to the point, making expla- 
nations concise and clear, rather than verbose. 

3. By having pupils come to the recitation with exam- 
ples, maps, etc., on slates or paper, fully prepared for the 
proper work of the period. 

4. By reducing the number of classes to the lowest 
feasible limit and having several advanced classes recite 
eveiy other day, giving twenty-five minutes to a recitation 
instead of fifteen every day. 

5. By not repeating questions himself or permitting 
pupils to do so. 

6. By having a place for everything needed to carry on 
the day's work ; training classes to move promptly, not 
hastily, and insisting on distinct utterance. 

7. By having good blackboards and plenty of them, so 
that work could be prepared in advance of the recitation, 
or held over if needed for further reference. Blackboards 
and globes are the most indispensable parts of school fur- 

8. By refusing to solve examples for pupils while a class 
is waitinof. — School Education. 



Our witty friend, Editor Bardeen, replies to his critics 
who take him to task for an essay read before the late 
National Convention of Superintendents, that the other 
fellows used up the time and he made no essay, but talked 
a few minutes on another subject. 

Our educational conventions are fast getting into the 
chronic abomination of political meetings. They adver- 
tise everybody, and if half the notabilities come, each 
having prepared himself, as he has a right to do if he is to 
travel five hundred miles at his own expense, to read a 
paper to the assembled wisdom of the nation, the inevi- 
table result is that everybody's "piece" must be "docked," 
everybody is "mad" and the audience maddest of all, that 
it is compelled to listen to extracts from what may be a 
profitable discourse. 

The same nuisance breaks out in the Institute. It is the 
horror of the Chatauqua Assembly; the misery even of the 
weekly Teachers' Association. The writer of this, for two 
meetings of the teachers of a city of seventy thousand 
inhabitants, in succession, found himself in the pleasing 
position of being invited, as a visiting stranger, to deliver 
a lecture of the usual length. Of course he cheerfully 
assented to the proposition that his address should follow a 
"very short paper" by one of the home teachers. Where- 
upon, a clever little lady presented an elaborate essay that 
covered the entire session, and a learned brother pedagogue 
repeated the same entertainment, on the second trial. 

Now, nobody was to blame. The home teachers had 
prepared a paper, to the best of their ability, and took the 
occasion to present it in full to their associates. The 
superintendent trusted in human nature to suppress itself, 
with the same admirable faith which has swamped a thou- 


sand managers of public meetings. The real trouble was 
the persistent habit of trying to attract people by a lying 
programme, which would bury an audience in an avalanche 
if it were carried out; and, in any event, winds up with 
the exasperation of the speakers and the disgust of the 
crowd. — Popular Educator. 

[For The North Carolina Teacher.] 



Thorough teaching depends largely upon the teacher's 
mastery of the art of questioning, and since questioning 
is in some way connected with all the work of the school- 
room the teacher should make it a subject of close study. 

The fact that there is a science as well as an art in teach- 
ing should be kept in mind by the teacher, if he would 
succeed in maintaining that logical order in the application 
of the principles that underlie the art of questioning. 

As a science it is founded upon psychological laws, 
especially those laws which govern the development of 
mind in the child. 

iVs an art it is founded upon the logical relation of truths 
to each other in connection with these laws of mind. No 
series of questions should be used in the school-room with- 
out due regard to the pupils questioned, the kind of instruc- 
tion to be given, and those laws of mind which govern 
memory and thought. 

Hence, in order to secure perfection in this art, each 
question should be clearly stated; should have its proper 
place in the series, and should not do violence to the laws 
of mind. If this be done, the teacher will know not only 
hoiu questions should be stated, but also zoJiy one form of 
statement is better than another. 


His questions should be conditioned on the extent of the 
child's previous knowledge, age, mental powers, home 
influences, habits and all environing circumstances which 
influence or affect the powers of the child's mind; and 
these very conditions themselves the teacher will be able to 
comprehend if he is an intelligent and skillful questioner. 

We quote the following statements of the uses and rules 
for questioning as given in his Westminster Normal Out- 
lines by Rev. J. A. Worden : 

Questioning and Uses. 

1. Probes the scholar. 

2. Fixes attention. 

3. Makes the miud receptive. 

4. Stimulates the memory. 

5. Quickens thought. 

6. Guides thought. 

7. Arouses the effort to express thought. 

Rules for Questioning. 

1. Begin with easy questions, thence pass to difficult ones. 

2. Proceed in logical order. 

3. Ask for explanations of terms and ideas. 

4. Often ask questions of review and recapitulation. 

5. Lead scholars to apply the lessons. 

6. Give questions of ellipsis. 

7. First ask the question, then name the scholar to answer the 

8. Ask questions of the whole class. 

9. Sometimes ask very hard questions, to be studied and answered at 
the next recitation. 

What Td Avoid. 

1. Ambiguous or indefinite questions. 

2. Leading questions, i. e., questions which give or suggest the 

3. Very difficult questions. 

4. Foolish, useless questions. 

5. Asking questions in rotation to pupils as placed in class. 

6. Repeating questions for the inattentive. 

7. Staring at the pupil while answering. 

8. Uncivil treatment of honest answers. 


Some of the other and more apparent advantages gained 
by skill in this art are these: 

1. It leads the teacher to a clearer and more correct 
knowledge of himself, for no teacher can ask qnestions 
judiciously or logically upon any subject which he him- 
self does not clearly understand; and if during the course 
of his questionings he discovers his deficiencies he has 
gained a great point in thus being enabled to know what 
to add to his fund of knowledge. 

2. It aids him by giving system to his work, and as a 
natural result becomes both time saving and labor saving. 

3. It excites and fixes the attention of pupils during the 
periods of study, diverts their minds from what might 
otherwise produce disorder or confusion in the school-room, 
and by that means reduces the discipline of the school to a 

Our public schools would be greatly improved in both 
quantity and quality of good results, if teachers in general 
would make the art of questioning a subject of close, 
earnest study and systematic practice. 

Especially in preliminary work there is a great amount 
of time lost as well as effort wasted on the part of teachers 
because they do not by judicious questioning ascertain 
what their pupils knozv^ what they do not know, or what 
misconceptions they may have. 

A great deal depends upon the kind of beginning the 
teacher makes in his work. A correct beginning; is more 
than half the accomplishment of the end, and a bad begin- 
ning will make all the work of a school year unsatisfac- 

By questioning properly the teacher knows hoiu and 
ivhere to begin, by having pointed out to him the obstacles 
to be met and the means needed to remove them, and 
hence can intelligently lay a firm foundation upon which to 
erect that "noble structure," The Educated Man. 




The first defect in our school system that I note is the 
lack of personal interest in the schools. Both morally and 
legally it is the duty of the parent to actively and per- 
sonally co-operate with the teacher in educating the child. 
Whoever fails in that is not a good citizen. Any parent is 
sadly derelict in his duty who, without question, commits 
the education of his child to strangers about whose moral 
aud mental fitness he knows nothing. We must have more 
personal interest in the schools, and the live and enthu- 
siastic teacher will mingle with the parents and seek to 
arouse that interest. 

On account of this lack of personal interest there 
naturally follows a lack of moral supervision. I am not 
one of those who believe that the public school-room is the 
place for religious instruction, but I do believe that one of 
the greatest dangers to our public school system is the 
immoral influences that find their way into the school-room. 

One child who has been born and reared in vice, or who 
later has become morally corrupted, will poison an entire 
communitv of children when brous^ht tog-ether in the 
school-room. One rotten apple will spoil a whole bin full 
of good ones. It is doubtful if, in any village school, there 
are not children who ought to be in the reform school. 
One intelligent teacher of my acquaintance says that, if 
she had children, she would do almost anything rather than 
permit them to attend the public schools on account of 
certain vicious tendencies to be found there. A child given 
to the use of obscene language is a dry rot in the school- 
room, and under our present system he is largely protected 
in his vice. The teacher does not hear it, and the inno- 


cent child is afraid to communicate it to the stranger 
teacher. The parent pays no attention to it, until some 
morning he wakes up to find that his child, once pure, has 
been saturated with corrupt thoughts. 

We want better school-houses and more attractive sur- 
roundings. Beautiful pictures should be hung upon the 
walls. An opportunity should be given the children to 
cultivate flower gardens in the summer, and gaming devices 
should be furnished the children just as much as wall maps 
and globes. By so doing going to school would become a 
pleasure, and the intervals of work woukl be no more 
dreaded than the task of climbing the hill when coasting. 

We want a public school system that pays more atten- 
tion to the individual needs of the scholar. Our present 
system aims to deal out to each and every pupil the same 
intellectual food, all cut, dried, and baked in the same 
oven, without regard to the taste of the boarders. It aims 
to send out young people as the brick machine turns out 
brick — all of the same length, breadth and thickness. The 
tendency is to bring every pupil to the same common level 
of mediocrity. The strong points of a child ought to be 
studied and given an opportunity to develop. Our schools 
afford but little encouragement for an Edison. The system 
is often inconsistent. It deals too much wnth the abstract, 
and not enough with the concrete. Children are made to 
bend over desks and study the theories of physiology and 
hygiene, while so doing they may be violating the simplest 
laws of health of which a bus:-eatino- Dig-g-er Indian would 
not be guilty. 

Children are taught to find the hypothenuse of a right 
angle triangle who cannot measure a cord of wood or a 
potato patch. In the town and city schools too much efibrt 
is made to develop the mental faculties at the expense of 
the nervous system. Prizes are offered for the greatest 
mental feats regardless of the effect on the child's health, 


while the less precocious one is left behind discouraged in 
the race. The child's nervous system and vitality are 
wasted before he reaches maturity, when he the most needs 

Besides offering prizes to the scholar who will master the 
most of grammar or history, I would also give one to the 
boy who can run the fastest, jump the farthest or wrestle 
the best. I prefer a vigorous ignoramus to a consumptive 
Latin scholar, I have but little faith in the mere study of 
books on physiology and hygiene, A treatise on swimming 
will never enable a boy to swim, and to read a cook-book 
to a starving man will not appease his hunger. 

Our present school system has led to another serious con- 
dition. There is a tendency among boys to undertake the 
work of the man before the work of the boy has been 
completed. He is impatient to prepare for his life work. 
If he has decided to become a carpenter he can see little 
use in the study of grammar. He is eager to grasp the 
square and plane. After that his attendance at school is a 
forced one. He may be bodil)' present in the school-room, 
but his mind is absent building imasrinarv castles. He 
fails in his lessons and thus passes as a dull scholar. Why 
should not the school furnish manual training — that train- 
ing that the boy so much needs for his life work, 

I would make the boy a skillful carpenter as well as a 
skillful mathematician. This I would do in the public 
school-room. By uniting this work I would lead him to 
see that he cannot become a first-class mechanic without 
becoming a first-class scholar, and thus I would make of 
him a good citizen, capable of self support. By so doing 
the schools would become attractive for the boys, the^ 
school-house better filled, the army of tramps and educated 
fools diminished. The money and labor annually expended 
in supporting little two-by-four sectarian schools, the prin- 
cipal work of which is the propagation of some one's pet 


"ism," would go a great way toward making onr schools 
what they ought to be. 

Let patriotic Americans unite in lifting up the public 
schools of their country. Let not the bigotry of party 
politics or of sectarianism enter in. Let them keep pace 
with advancing civilization, for in the maintenance of our 
public schools is the guaranty of freedom and of popular 
government. — School Educator (Minnesota). 


A wise professor loved a pretty maid; 
Calling the cause of science to his aid, 

'Twas thus he wooed her: — 
"My life work on the Prehistoric Human 
Has need of your bright wits, as I'm a true man, 
Oh, share my toil and fame, most lovely woman!" 

'Twas thus he sued her. 

The mercenary girl made answer trite: 
"I really fear I must, sir, in that light 

Decline to view you; 
Although you cause me pride and great elation, 
I cannot wed above my mental station. 
But I'll become, for a consideration 

Assister to you." 

— Harvard Lampoon. 

A WOMAN may possess a face and form as beautiful as 
that of an angel, but if she has a sarcastic tongue it will 
be an effectual protection to her from matrimony and its 



[To be Recited by a Little Girl.] 

"When I was at the party," 

Said Betty (aged just four), 
"A little girl fell off her chair, 

Right down upon the floor; 
And all the other little girls 

Began to laugh, but me — 
/didn't laugh a single bit," 

Said Betty, seriously. 

"Why not?" her mother asked her, 

Full of delight to find 
That Betty — bless her little heart! — 

Had been so sweetly kind. 
"Why didivt }'o?i laugh, darling? 

Or don't you like to tell?" 
"T didn't laugh," said Betty, 

"'Cause it was me that fell!" 

— Jlfa?y E. Bradley, in St. NicJwIas. 


Here is a short sermon by a woman. It is a good one, 
and is pretty sure to hit you somewhere, whatever may be 
your age and circumstances: "The best thing to give to 
your enemy is forgiveness; to an opponent, tolerance; to a 
friend, your heart; to a child, good example; to your 
father, deference; to your mother, conduct that will make 
her proud of you; to yourself, respect; to all men, charity." 



1 bone in each thigh. 

bone at the root of the tongue. 

bones in the lower leg. 
^ bones in the fore arm. 

bones in each finger. 
^ bones in each small toe. 

/ bones in each ear. 
^ vocal chords. 

C bones in the middle of the foot, 
^ bones in the palm of the hand. 

salivary glands. 

^ muscles to move the eye. 

1 bones in each ankle. 

^ true ribs on each side. 

bones in each wrist, 
bones in the skull. 

-Popular Educator. 


Will the editor of The North Carolina Teacher please iuform his 
readers if he would say "The new Union passenger deepo, dippo, daypo 
oxdeppof' M. S. T. 

Raleigh, N. C, Sept. i, 1S91. 

[The editor of The North Carolina Teacher would 
say, if he wanted to be correct, "The new Union Passen- 
ger Station.'''' A "depot" is a place of deposit for the 
storing of goods; a warehouse; a storehouse. A building 
or place where passengers assemble to board a train is a 
station and in no sense a depot. The word depot should 
be pronounced daypo by a Frenchman in France, but an 
American or Englishman should pronounce it only as 
deepo unless he is wiser than Noah Webster. — Editor.] 



A barrel of whiskey contains a good deal more than any 
other barrel of the same size; for, in addition to the regular 
forty-two gallons, it also contains: 

A barrel of headaches, of heartaches, of woes; 
A barrel of curses, a barrel of blows, 
A barrel of tears from a world-weary wife, 
A barrel of sorrows, a barrel of strife; 
A barrel of all unavailing regret; 
A barrel of cares and a barrel of debt; 
A barrel of hunger, of poison, of pain; 
A barrel of hopes ever blasted and vain; 
A barrel of falsehood, a barrel of cries. 
That fall from the maniac's lips as he dies; 
A barrel of poverty, ruin and blight; 
A barrel of terrors that grow with the night; 
A barrel of crime, and a barrel of groans; 
A barrel of orphan's most pitiful moans; 
A barrel of serpents that hiss as they pass. 
From the head of the liquor that glows in the glass. 

— Selected. 


The radical sign was derived from the initial letter of 
the word "radix." 

The sign of equality was first used in 1557 by a sharp 
mathematician, who substituted it to avoid repeating 
"equal to." 

The multiplication sign was obtained by changing the 
plus sign into the letter X. This was done because multi- 
plication is but a shorter form of addition. 


Division was formerly indicated by placing the dividend 
above a horizontal line and divisor below. In order to 
save space in printing, the dividend was placed to the left 
and the divisor to the right, with a simple dot in place of 

The sign of subtraction was derived from the word 
"minus." The word was first contracted into m n s, with 
a horizontal line above to indicate the contraction, then at 
last the letters were omitted altogether, leaving the short 
line — . 

The sign of addition is derived from the initial letter of 
the word "phis." In making the capital letter it was 
made more and more carelessly until the top part of the p 
was placed near the center, hence the plus sign was finally 

[For The North Carolina Teacher.] 



There's a young and pretty maiden 
Every morning comes to school, 

And the best of lessons has she; 
And she never breaks a rule. 

Yes, her face is always pleasant, 
And her smile is bright and sweet. 

While the roses are not equal 
To the bloom upon her cheek. 

Every word and every action 
Show her good as she is fair; 

Crowned is she with gentle manners 
Which are jewels rich and rare. 


May Life's sweetest flowers open 
On her pathway day by day, 

Chasing every care and sorrow 
From her bright young life away. 


Your mother is your best friend. 

Have nothing to do with girls who snub their parents. 

Tell the pleasantest things you know when at meals. 

Do not expect your brother to be as dainty as a girl. 

Exercise, and never try to look as if you were in delicate 

Introduce every new acquaintance to your mother as soon 
as possible. 

Don't think it necessary to get married. There is plenty 
of room for old maids, and they are often happier than 

Enjoy the pleasures provided for you by your parents to 
the fullest extent. They will like that as a reward better 
than any other. 

Take care of your teeth at any cost of time or trouble, 
and do without new dresses rather than neglect a needed 
visit to the dentist. 

Most fathers are inclined to over-indulge their daughters. 
Make it impossible for your father to spoil you, by fairly 
returning his devotion and affection. 

Never think you can afford to be dowdy at home. 
Cleanliness, hair well-dressed and a smile will make a 
calico look like silks and satins to a father or brother. 

Do not quarrel with your brother; do not preach at him, 
and do not coddle him. Make him your friend, and do 
not expect him to be your servant, nor let him expect you 
to be his. — Drake^ s Magazine. 



It makes little difference what educational creed we pro- 
fess. The important point to settle is, what creed dp we 
follow. Am I an old fogy hearer of recitations or am I a 
teacher? Many are just now more anxious to settle their 
educational standing than their educational practice. They 
read Pestalozzi, but follow the schoolmen. They preach 
reform, but practice conservatism. 

The thing for us to remember is, that there are tens of 
thousands of pupils this autumn who are starving on the 
food they get. It is educational bran bread; the brain can 
not hold and digest enough of it to nourish the system. 
But these teachers insist on cramming their pupils with the 
miserable stuff. 

One teacher just now, in order to better facilitate this 
cramming process, has rhymefied the whole of English 
history, and is filling the mouths of his pupils with it. 
Poor, hungry, starving souls, they are dying for want of 
mental food, and don't know where to get it, and their 
teachers don't know enough to tell them; and so in the 
midst of abounding plenty they starve! 

Isn't it pitiable that the children who are crying for the 
bread of living, nourishing thought, should be given the 
indigestible stones of meaningless vocables. — Oregon School 

Every explanation, every particle of showing, every 
bit of the pupil's work that the teacher does — whenever, in 
brief, she does anything for him that he can do for him- 
self — she has not only robbed him of an opportunity to dis- 
cover, to think, or to do, but she is building up a habit that 
will result in making him that drone in the world's hive, 
and that unhappy nuisance in society — a helpless 
despondent man or woman. — Qitincy Methods. 



The editor of The North Carolina Teacher will 
give a handsome, cloth-bound set of Dickens, Thackeray 
or Elliott's works, large print, library edition, to the 
boy or girl in a North Carolina school who will write the 
best account of "The Battle of Alamance and the causes 
which led to it," the facts to be as stated either in Mrs, 
Spencer's "First Steps in North Carolina History" or 
Aloore's "School History of North Carolina." 

The article must not be less than two nor more than 
four pages of foolscap paper, and it should be mailed to 
The Teacher by October 15th, 1891. 

A competent committee will examine all papers, and the 
one that is considered best will be published in The 
Teacher for December. 

Write with ink and only on one side of the paper. Sign 
your name on a separate slip of paper and pin it to the 
article so that it can be removed before the sketches are 
given to the examining committee. 

There are thousands of bright boys and girls in North 
Carolina who can do this little piece of literary work well, 
and we hope that many of them will undertake it, as the 
effort will be of very great pleasure and benefit to all, even 
to those who may not win the prize. 

The unselfish man or boy should be undemonstrative 
and unobtrusive, and almost secretive, in his acts of self- 
denial and self-sacrifice. Whether you spend the pocket- 
money which would otherwise have gone in sweets or toys 
in buying a book for your sister, or whether you save a life 
at the risk of your own, let no hint or suggestion of yours 
remind either the person obliged or the world at large 
of what you have done. There is no such modest man 
as your real hero;^ it is the Ancient Pistol that blazons his 
own grreat deeds. — Selected. 

■^ORTH Carolina Teachers' Assembly. 


Hugh Morson (Raleigh Male Academy), President, . . Raleigh. 
Eugene G. Harrell (Editor Teacher), Sec. and Treas., . Raleigh. 


1. J. J. Blair (Supt. Graded Schools), .... Winston. 

2. J. E. Kelly (Model Male School) Charlotte. 

3. Miss Catherine Fulghuni (Graded School), . . Goldsboro. 

4. W. J. Ferrell (Wakefield Academy), . . . Wakefield. 

5. Miss Lrizzie Lindsay (Graded School), . . . Greensboro. 

6. P. M. Pearsall (County Superintendent), . . Trenton. 

7. Miss Lina McDonald (Graded School), . . . Winston. 

8. T. J. Drewry (Horner Military School), . . . Oxford 

9. Mrs. S. Montgomery Funk (Chowan Bap. Fem. Inst.), INIurfreesboro. 

Hugh Morson, ex officio, President, .... Raleigh. 

E. G. Harrell, ex officio, Secretary, .... Raleigh. 

Eben Alexander (University of North Carolina), . . Chapel Hill. 
W. L. Poteat (Wake Forest College), .... Wake Forest. 

James Dinwiddie (President Peace Institute), . . . Raleigh. 
Charles D. Mclver (Pres't Normal and Industrial School 

for Women), ........ Greensboro. 

J. Y. Joyner ^Superintendent Graded School), . . Goldsboro. 
A. C. Davis (Superintendent Military School), . . Winston. 
E. E. Britton (Principal High School), .... Roxboro. 

Ninth Annual Session — June 21 to Juia' 2, 1S92. 


The Teachers' Assembly has appointed the following 
committee: J. J. Blair, Winston; Josephus Daniels, Ral- 
eigh; E. A. Alderman, Chapel Hill; S. M. Finger, Ral- 
eigh; J. Y. Joyner, Goldsboro, to solicit subscriptions for 
the purpose of erecting a monument, to be placed in Capitol 
Square, Raleigh, to the memorj' of Archibald D. Mur- 


PHEY, the originator and earnest advocate of popular educa- 
tion in North Carolina. They^rj'/ subscription, twenty-five 
dollars, has been sent to the committee by the editor of The 
North Carolina Teacher. The public graded schools 
of Raleigh, Charlotte, Wilmington, Goldsboro, Greens- 
boro, Durham, Asheville, Salisbury, New Bern, Shelby, 
Reidsville, Tarboro, Wilson, Henderson, Statesville, and at 
other points in the State as they may be organized, are 
requested to make special solicitations for this purpose. 
Two or three hundred dollars from each of these schools, 
with the individual subscriptions expected, will erect a 
"Murphey Monument" such as will be creditable to our 
State. Subscriptions may be sent to any member of the 
committee. The Teachers' Assembly intends to make a 
liberal contribution to this fund. 

The Teachers' Assembly building at Morehead City 
has been very popular with various organizations this sum- 
mer as a meeting-place for their sessions. On July 8th the 
State Pharmaceutical Association met in our hall, the 
Tobacco Association held a session there on July 17th, the 
Southern Dental Association held their annual session and 
Exhibition of Dental Supplies there on August 13th. 
The State Farmers' Alliance would also have met in the 
Teachers' building but for the fact that its officers did not 
notify the Secretary of the Assembly as to the time of 
their meeting, and in the meantime the Dental Association 
had given the usual notice and engaged the building for a 
date which happened to be the same as that upon which 
the Farmers' Alliance was to meet. The Teachers were 
anxious to have the Farmers meet in their convenient 
building, and regret that they neglected to give the Secre- 
tary the absolutely necessary information as to date. Of 
course when some other organization had, some time before, 
secured the building on a date when it was to be wanted by 
the Farmers' Alliance, the Secretary of the Assembly could 


not break faith with a previous engagement. The 
Teachers' Assembly has always been pleased to give any 
reputable organization the use of its building without 
any charge whatever for rent, and it onh' asks that 
organizations desiring the use of the building for their 
sessions will give the Secretar}- the customary notice that 
he may avoid any conflict of dates with other bodies. 
However, in order that the farmers should not be disap- 
pointed in a meeting-place, the Secretary of the Assembly 
went to ]\Iorehead City and secured the Bell Hall at that 
place, located very convenient to the Atlantic Hotel, had 
a platform built and moved into the hall a sufficient 
number of the Teachers' Assembly settees to comfortably 
seat the Alliance during its daily sessions. We make 
this statement for the benefit of some members of the 
Farmers' Alliance who have been disposed to say unpleas- 
ant things by way of criticism of the Assembly, because 
they did not have the use of the Assembly building, when 
they did not know the facts in the case. 

It WAS specially gratifying to have such a great number 
of -our friends of education at the Assembly this summer. 
The object of the organization is to bring not onh' the 
teachers but the people together in these annual gatherings, 
and we hope to see the number of those attending who are 
not teachers largely increased. The Executive Committee 
tries to make the programme of exercises of so general a 
character that it will interest everybody. 

The Teachers' Assembly will be represented by a 
fine exhibit in the Exposition at Raleigh. It will include 
life-size portraits of all the Presidents of the Assembly, 
with photographs of the teachers on their various trips to 
New York, Washington City, Canada and Europe. There 
will also be a printed tablet setting forth a brief history of 
the Assembly and the splendid work which it has accom- 
plished for education in North Carolina. 



The proposition which was discussed at the past session 
of the Teachers' Assembly providing for a regular course 
of study for four months' public schools in the country to 
be prepared by the State Board of Education has been 
received with heartiest approval by the teachers of the 
State. The outline course which had been arranged by 
our State Superintendent, JMajor S. M. Finger, and which 
was submitted by him as merely suggestive of what he 
was working to accomplish, created a very great interest in 
the scheme. He has since the Assembly carefully revised 
and improved his course, and it has now been officially 
issued by him for the guidance of the teachers in our 
country public schools for the fall terms of school. This 
course of study has been most thoroughly and thoughtfully 
planned by Major Finger, and it is the longest step forward 
towards promoting the efficiency of our public schools that 
has ever been taken by a Southern State. We rejoice that 
North Carolina is the first State of the South to perfect 
the idea and officially promulgate it, thus placing our 
beloved State again at the head of the column as a grand 
leader in progressive education. We hope that every 
public-school teacher will at once adopt the four months' 
course. If there is not sufficient public money in your 
district to pay for a four months' school, have a meeting of 
your committee and go with them to every person in the 
district and solicit enough individual aid from them to 
supplement your public school fund so that it will pay for 
a continuous school for four months this winter. We do 


not believe there is a district in this State where this lielp 
cannot be easily secured upon a proper canvas. Then four 
very desirable things will have been accomplished : i. The 
people of the district will be aroused to a greater interest 
in education and particularly in their school. 2. The 
teacher will be encouraged to do more correct and satis- 
factory work, having in view some definite goal to be 
reached. 3. The active and energetic canvas wall bring 
into the school many children who have been staying at 
home, as the parents will know that they are to have a 
longer and better school than ever before. 4. The pupils 
will be stimulated to work harder with their studies so as 
to complete the required course and be ready for advance- 
ment at the beginning of the next term. If the teachers 
and the school committees will now cordially co-operate in 
this great advance movement, as we believe they will do, 
it will not be long before we shall see what we have long 
desired to see, a good four months' public school in every 
district in North Carolina. 

Please send to us a brief note of every educational 
event occurring in your section. 

Now is a good time to re-organize your Teachers' Council 
for the fall educational campaign. Invite the public to 
your meetings, hold them at some convenient place, have 
a telling address by some popular invited guest, intersperse 
the exercises with some good songs and recitations by 
teachers, and your Council will be a most gratifying suc- 
cess and a pleasure to the teachers and their friends in your 
community. We will send upon application plans and 
hints for organizing Teachers' Councils to any persons 
interested in the work. The circulars cost you nothing 
but the postal card upon which you write for them. 


The North Carolina Teacher is published only ten 
months in the year. During the mouths of July and 
August The Teacher takes a vacation like all other good 

The foiirtJi edition of Mrs. Spencer's " First Steps in 
North Carolina Histor\-," the tcnt]i edition of Moore's 
"School History of North Carolina," the eighteenth edi- 
tion of Alfred Williams & Co.'s " North Carolina Copy 
Books" are just from the press. The large and frequent 
editions of these books which are sold speak their praise 
and success in strongest terms. 

The office of The North Carolina Teacher is in 
Alfred Williams & Co's Book-store and Publishing House. 
When you visit Raleigh, during the Exposition or at any 
other time, you are cordially invited to call at our office 
.and make yourself perfectly at home. We have on exhi- 
bition all the latest school text-books and other publica- 
tions, and you will enjoy an examination of them. 

A LARGE number of "educational picnics " have been 
held this fall throughout the State under the auspices of 
the Farmers' Alliance, and they have resulted in much 
good to the cause of education in the various communities, 
and the interest awakened will increase the attendance 
upon the schools above what it has been in several years. 
When the people meet pleasantly together and talk about 
education they will then make some sacrifices, if necessary, 
in order to keep their children in the schools. 

We do not believe that the people of North Carolina 
will consent to write the name of our beautiful Elm City 
as "Newbern," notwithstanding the recent action of the 
Post-office Department. We propose to write it correcth', 
"New Bern," as heretofore. The action of the Post-office 
Department is as nonsensical as if they had ordered the 
following as correct: Newyork, Newjersey, Newhampshire, 


Newengland, Westvirginia, Northcarolina, Newhaven, 
Newlondon ! How absurd ! We hope that the people of 
North Carolina will "stand by" our lovely city of "New 
Bern. ' ' The editor of The Teacher assisted our lamented 
Col. W. Iv. Saunders, Secretary of State, in a long search 
of the old records for the correct orthography of this name 
and we found it to be, beyond all possible doubt, "New 
Bern," and in this manner we expect always to spell it. 

Capt. C. B. Denson, Associate Principal of Raleigh 
Male Academy, has been appointed general manager of the 
Educational Exhibit in the Exposition. Every leading 
school in North Carolina, graded school, high school, 
seminary, college and the University should be represented 
in this exhibit, and teachers are requested to notify Captain 
Denson at once as to what amount of space they desire for 
their displays. Let us show to the thousands of visitors 
what North Carolina schools are doing and can do. 

The North Carolina Teacher submits the following 
needed words for adoption by the teachers and the public 
generally : Typezvriter^ a machine for typewriting ; Typo- 
gi'aph^ the paper that is written on the typewriter ; Typo- 
grapJiist, the :jerson who operates the typewriter. A 
general use of these words, with definitions accepted as 
here given, will save much confusion in our uses of a ver}' 
popular and necessary aid in the modern methods of con- 
ducting business. 

The North Carolina Teacher is a North Carolina 
journal of education for North Carolina teachers, and it is 
of more value to the teachers of our State than are all the 
journals published beyond our borders. That it has done 
more for the teachers of North Carolina and for the gen- 
eral cause of education in the State than any other educa- 
tional publication in or out of the State is a fact well 
known and established bevond all contradiction. That it 


is the only journal of education that has ever shown an 
interest in North Carolina teachers towards helping them 
to better schools, better salaries, better recognition and 
better appreciation is a fact likewise admitted and is beyond 
dispute. That The Teacher intends to always remain 
true to its original policy, "North Carolina for North 
Carolinians," is also a fact not to be doubted. 

The Exposition authorities have designated October 19 
to 24 as "Educational Week." You can come to Raleigh 
for a rate of only one cent a mile on all railroads in this 
country, and there ought to be an attendance of ten thou- 
sand teachers and pupils on that occasion. Can't you 
afford to suspend your school for a w^eek at that time so 
that you may come to the Exposition and bring a good 
number of your pupils. A visit to this Exposition, the 
largest inter-states display ever made in the South, will be 
worth as much to you and your scholars in the matter of 
instruction as will be a week's work in school. Come! 

The recent death of the eminent scholar and poet, 
James Russell Lowell, leads us to inquire "Where are the 
men and women of our time to take the places of these 
noted literary people who are passing away?" And in 
surveying the field we are forced to admit that this present 
generation has no such poets, authors and statesmen as 
Longfellow, Bryant, Tennyson, Whittier, Lowell, Byron, 
Moore, Hemans, Browning, Dickens, Emerson, Haw- 
thorne, Thackeray, Scott, Elliott, Bulwer, Webster, Clay, 
Calhoun, Davis, Vance, Ransom and hundreds of others 
equally great in letters and in politics. Is it the fault of our 
modern system of education ? If the race is not mentally 
degenerating, and no one will admit that, then there must 
be some defect in the training of the present generation. 
There is too much machine education, and machine edu- 
cation has not made, never will, and cannot make, eminent 


scholars, thinkers or statesmen. The so-called " new edn- 
cation " has been at work for thirty years, about a genera- 
tion, and it has not yet produced even one great literary 
or eminent man or woman. Isn't it about time to inves- 
tigate the new method of education ? 

The North Carolina Teachers' Assembly specially 
desires to have every friend of education in the State to 
meet with the teachers in their delightful annual sessions. 
The editor of the Soiithei^n Educator objects to this. That 
is because he doesn't know anything about educational 
meetings. He did not go to the meeting of the Southern 
Educational Association when it was organized in his 
present home State; he was not present at the second ses- 
sion of the Southern Educational Association at Chatta- 
nooga, Tennessee, in July, nor did he attend any session 
of the North Carolina Teachers' Assembly so long as he 
felt that he could afford to stay away. Surely the editor of 
the SoiitJiern Educator has proven himself to be no " friend 
of education." He objects to the public attending the State 
Institutes "because they are meetings for teachers," 
although our esteemed Superintendent of Public Education 
and the Institute Conductors very wisely invite the public 
and insist upon their attending the Teachers' Institutes, 
They want the North Carolina public informed upon edu- 
cational matters interesting our State, and so does the 
Teachers' Assembly and everybody else who is in sym- 
pathy with progressive education in North Carolina. The 
editor of the Southern Educator wants to have ' ' paid lectur- 
ers " at the Assembly, We have yet to hear of a State 
Teachers' Association in America that pays the speakers 
who are on its programme. The Assembly does not want 
anything of the kind, as there are plenty of true, compe- 
tent and devoted teachers in North Carolina who are 
enough interested in the State to do all the regular lectur- 
ing that the Assembly wants. Besides, the Assembly does 


not want any "lecturers," paid or unpaid, but enthusiastic 
and helpful speakers such as we have in North Carolina. 
Perhaps the SoiLtheni Educator would like to be paid to 
afflict the Assembly with his pet scheme "Outline of 
Rhetoric," of which samples have been given in that 
journal. If necessary, the Assembly could well afford to 
pay handsomely to be excused from suffering an affliction 
of all such useless and impractical theorizing. We think 
that those who speak or give papers at the National Edu- 
cational Association get no pay, and yet tney ride from one 
hundred to a thousand miles, paying their fares and also 
the expenses of their board at the hotels. So this genera- 
tion is not wholly devoid of teachers who love their work 
and delight in meeting with and speaking to their 
co-laborers in great conventions. North Carolina, we are 
proud to say, is yet full of such faithful and conscientious 
teachers, who, like all the offlcers of the Assembly, are 
willing to work for their iVssembly without pay just as the 
teachers in other States work for their State Associations — 
with a much higher motive than the reward of a few 
dollars. Under the wise management of the editor of the 
SoutJiern Educator no doubt the Teachers' Assembly would 
soon be as eminently successful and well known as are 
his "Southern Association of City Superintendents" and 
"Education Club of the South," of which mythical 
organizations that enterprising journal professed to be the 
official organ! It might be well for him to try his 
experienced hand in organizing a Teachers' Association in 
his own county of Durham! 

One of the most useless and nonsensical things ever 
undertaken by an educational assemblage is the so-called 
"Dress Reform Club" which was organized by a few Bos- 
ton women at the New York Chautauqua this summer. If 
the reform (?) is to dispense with the corset as a part of 
female apparel, and all "dress reformers" seem to have 


this sole object in view, then the crusade should be against 
the abuse of the corset and not the use of this much dis- 
cussed and maligned garment. A woman's dress must have 
some regard for neatness, comfort, happiness, convenience 
and decenc}^, and this does not by any means include a 
tightly laced corset; but the woman who is so indifferent 
to her personal appearance as to appear habitually in pub- 
lic without a corset would be as much out of place as a 
man would be without a coat, or a collar, or shoes and 
stockings. They might consider themselves well and 
properly attired because of the imaginary comfort and 
health induced by that style of dress (particularly in hot 
weather), but it is quite certain that both would be very 
quickly repudiated in polite and refined society — and justly, 
too. The corset is a neat, comfortable and useful garment, 
and it can be worn with safety and without the slightest 
injury to health; but if it is to be dispensed with entirely 
because some women draw the laces too tight, then the same 
argument would abandon shoes because some men and 
women wear them too small, and we would all have to 
return to the toga and the sandals of the dark ages! Those 
fanatical Boston females may, if they desire, appear on the 
public streets of "The Hub" in a "Mother Hubbard" 
and woolen pantalettes and without a corset, but we think 
it will be far in the future before any sensible Xorth Caro- 
lina woman will adopt such a style of " dress reform." 


Miss Amaxda Winecofk is teaching at Concord. 
Miss Claudia Bullock has a school near Fayetteville. 
Miss S. E. Bridgers has a private school at Mooresboro. 
Mr. G. W. Guilford is teaching at Clayton, Johnston County. 
Mr. M. F. Little has a school at Bost's Mill, Cabarrus County. 
Mr. George H. Haigler is teaching at Hayesville, Clay County, 
Miss Irene Wood is teaching at Swepsonville, Alamance County 


Miss Mittip; Crawford is teaching at Troy, Montgomery County. 

Mr. F. J. PuGH has a good public school at Topia, Alleghany County. 

Miss AcoreE C. Fountain has a school atRichlands, Onslow County. 

KiNSTON Coivi^EGE opened on September ist with a hundred pupils. 

Mr. p. a. Scott is Principal of Bethel Academj-, Sonoma, Haywood 

Mr. Charles H. Hamii^tox is teaching at Coddle Creek, Cabarrus 

Miss M. A. Blair has a very j^rosperous school at Lilesville, Anson 

Miss Libby Alley, of Staunton, Va., has opened a select school in 

Miss Lucie G. Freeman has a good school near Youngsville, Frank- 
lin Count}-. 

Miss Lucie O. Williams is teaching a public school at Windsor, 
Bertie Count}-. 

Misses Patrick's school at Kinston opened with fortj'-six pupils on 
September i. 

Mr. J. P. Leitner is Principal of the High School at Menola, Hert- 
ford County. 

Miss Gertrude Bagby, of Kinston, is teaching at Vandemore, 
Pamlico Count}-. 

Mr. B. M. C. Morrow has charge of a school at Forest City, Ruth- 
erford County. 

Mr. M. S. Colonna, Jr., is Principal of the Academy at Hertford, 
Perquimans County. 

Miss Emma Vaughan, of Rocky Mount, is teaching at Scotland 
Neck, Halifax County. 

Miss H. A. Champion has a flourishing private school at 261 Chest- 
nut street, Asheville. 

Miss Ella Berry is in charge of the school at Connelly's Springs. 
This is her third term. 

Mr. P. Wright has a fine school at Enochville, with one hundred and 
thirty-eight pupils enrolled. 

Misses May Barnes and Lottie Dancy have been elected teachers in 
the Tarboro Graded School. 

Miss Corinna Briles is conducting a successful school at the David- 
son Academy in Hannersville. 

Miss Mary Lou Brown is teaching a school in the Masonic Building 
at Clinton, Sampson County. 



Miss Clara OuEERY, of Charlotte, is Principal of the graded school 
in the northern portion of Winston. 

Miss Lizzie Porter, of Tarboro, an accomplished musician, is teach- 
ing music in Asheville Female College. 

Miss MaTTIE Davis of Yadkin College, has charge of the Academic 
Department in the school at Swepsonville. 

Miss Lizzie S. Hoeden is in charge of Poplar Grove School near 
Hillsboro. Forty-nine pupils are enrolled. 

Rev. S. R. Trawick is teaching at Wilkesboro. His school building 
is being furnished with new patent desks. 

Rev. B. S. Bronson is master of the Home School at Warrenton- 
He is one of the best teachers in the vState. 

Rev. J. R. Jones, of Salisbury, has been elected Principal of the 
Female Academy at Milton, Ca.swell County. 

Miss Mamie Whitehurst has a select school for boys and girls at 
Tarboro. The third session began August 31. 

Miss Nannie Speight, of Tarboro, has been chosen as a teacher in 
Claremont College at Hickory, Catawba Count}-. 

Mr. p. R. Boggs, Principal, and Mrs. M. F. Gillam, Assistant, have 
charge of the Academy at Windsor, Bertie County. 

Miss Capitola Grainger, of Kinston, has accepted the position of 
music teacher in the Female College at Greensboro. 

Peace Institute opened the fall term on September 3d with near a 
hundred boarding pupils at the table for the first meal. > 

Mr. John F. Bradley is Principal of Pisgah Public School near All 
Healing, Gaston County. Fifty-four pupils are enrolled. 

Mr. W. R. Gentry is Principal of the Institute at Laurel Springs, 
Alleghany County. The fall term opens very encouragingly. 

Mr. William McDowell (Trinity College), of Tarboro, has accepted 
a position as Assistant Professor in Mathematics in Trinity College. 

Mr. Brevard Nixon is Principal of the High School for boys and 
girls at the growing little town of Mount Holly, in Gaston County. 

The people of Greenville, Pitt County, are making an effort to estab- 
lish a high grade school specially for girls in that charming little town. 

Rutherford Military Institute began its second year on vSeptem- 
ber 3d with seventy-five students. Capt. W. T. R. Bell is Superinten- 

Mr. T. S. Andrews is Principal of the Mount Vernon Springs Acad- 
emy, near Ore Hill, Chatham County, and the school opens prosper- 


Mr. J. E. Smith (Wake Forest), of Raleigh, has been elected by the 
Trustees as Principal of the High School at Mount Olive, Wayne County. 

, Miss Katharine Yingling, of Virginia, has charge of the Music 
Department in Captain John Duckett's school at Hamilton, Martin 

Miss vSallie Xewlin, who has been teaching at Fallston, in Cleve- 
land County, has entered Greensboro Female College to complete her 

Mr. W. H. Pope (University of N. C), of Chatham County, has been 
elected Principal of the High School for boys and girls at Selma, John- 
ston County. 

Mr. Chas. J. Parker has resigned the superintendency of Shelby 
Graded Schools to accept the principalship of the Centennial Graded 
School at Raleigh. 

Mr. A. L. CruTchfield is Principal of the Pinnacle Academy at 
Culler, Stokes County. Mrs. Emma Gwaltney Crutchfield, his wife, has 
charge of the Music Department. 

Miss Lizzie Guthrie has secured the handsome new building of 
y. H. Wood at Rutherfordton, and w'ill open a first-class boarding and 
day school for girls on October i. 

Miss Bessie WorThington, of Rocky Mount, has accepted a very- 
pleasant and remunerative position as music teacher in a large school 
for girls in Charlottesville, Virginia. 

Mr. A. A. F. SeaweLE, of Jonesboro, and Mr. A. M. Scales, Jr., of 
Greensboro, are assistant teachers in Cape Fear Academy at Wilming- 
ton; Mr. Washington Catlett is Principal. 

Wake Forest College had about two hundred students present on 
opening day, September 3d. New students arriving on every train, so 
our correspondent writes on September 8th. 

Miss Trueetta Kreth, of Raleigh, a graduate of Peace Insti- 
tiite and the Raleigh Business College, will be a teacher of typewriting 
and stenography at Peace Institute this term. 

Lexington Seminary began a very successful fall term on August 
24th. Mr. W. J. Scroggs, A. M., is Principal, and Mrs. S. Jordan Puck- 
ett and Mrs. M. K. Crawford are his assistants. 

York's English Grammars, well known in this State as the "Blind 
Man's Grammars," have been sold to Mr. F. P. Julien, of Peoria, 111., a 
former pupil of Dr. York, the author of the grammars. 

Mr. Willie H. Clendenin is Principal of the High School at Plain 
View, Robeson County, N. C, and he reports one hundred and seventy 
pupils enrolled, the best opening in the history of the school. 


The Shelby Graded School, among its first good work, adopted 
Mrs. Spencer's "First Steps in North Carolina History" and Alfred 
Williams & Co.'s "North Carolina Writing Books" for use in the 

All the schools of Raleigh are certainly " on a boom." Every train 
is bringing in girls and boys for the various schools, and there will be 
a larger number of students in the Raleigh schools from a distance than 
ever before. 

The State Agricultural and Mechanical College opened with an 
unusually fine attendance on September 3d. The enrollment will 
almost double that of any previous year. Near a hundred students on 
the first day. 

Mr. Thomas C. Daniels (Trinity College), of New Bern, has been 
spending the summer at the Harvard and Springfield Gymnasium, pre- 
paring to take his position in Trinity College this fall as Director in 
Physical Culture. 

Mr. W. H. Wills, an A. B. graduate of the University, opened 
Wilson Male Academy August 31st. He is a young man of brilliant 
parts and comes highly endorsed, bringing recommendations of 
undoubted worth. 

The University opened vSeptember 3d with two hundred and thirty 
boys, of which number there were a hundred new students. The enroll- 
ment will no doubt reach three hundred during this the first term under 
Dr. W^inston, the new' President. 

Yadkin Normal School, Mr. ZenoH. Dixon, A. B., Principal, opened 
with fift}' students on August 30th; Miss Lizzie Petty, of Ashboro, is in 
charge of the Music Department. The commodious new buildings 
will be completed by October ist. 

The Raleigh Business College is enjoying a season of prosperity, 
and well it should, for not a single graduate of the institution has ever 
failed to secure a pleasant and paying position. This fact speaks in 
unmistakable terms the high character of the college. 

Mr. E. E. BriTTON has resigned the principalship of Mount Olive 
High School to accept a like position in Roxboro High School, Person 
County. He made a good reputation at Mount Olive. He and his 
accomplished wife will be a valuable addition to the progressive town 
of Roxboro. 

The Teachers' Council of Northampton County is one of the livest 
in the State. At a recent meeting the Council had a public address 
from the distinguished orator, Hon. Frank D. Winston, which was 
greatly enjoyed. ]V?r. Andrew J. Connor, the County Superintendent, is 
President, and Miss Annie Parker is Secretary. 



Elon College is one of the most successful institutions in North 
Carolina. The new term opens with a large enrollment and new stu- 
dents are arriving daily. This is a " co-education college," and no per- 
son can doubt the success of this feature. Patrons and friends alike 
are gratified at the splendid condition of the institution. 

The Collegiate Institute at Enfield began a prosperous term on 
August 24th. Mr. O. E. Sapp, Ph. B. (University N. C), is Principal of 
the institution; Miss Sue M. Whitaker is assistant in Academic Depart- 
ment ; Miss Minnie F. Whitaker (Peabody Institute, Baltimore,) is 
teacher of Music and Stenography ; Mr. F. L. Pippen is instructor in 

Bertie County has a flourishing Teachers' Council, with Mr. Percy 
R. Boggs as President. At the meeting on August 14, at Ross' Church, 
Miss Olivia Taylor presented an excellent paper on " School Manage- 
ment." Mr. A. J. Cobb discussed "The Advantages of a School Teacher's 
Life," and Hon. F. D. Winston delivered a charming address upon the 
subject "The Educated Citizen." 

Superintendents Hughes of Reidsville, and Graham of Charlotte, 
had a very successful Teachers' Institute at Gastonia, July 27 — 31. Over 
fifty teachers were enrolled, including every public school teacher in 
the county. Manj' friends of education attended the daily sessions. 
The teachers express themselves as greatly pleased with the work, also 
encouraged by the pleasant meeting and acquaintance with one another. 

The Raleigh Male Academy, Messrs. Morson and Denson princi- 
pals, sends about twelve students to the L^niversit}' and the colleges 
this term, yet notwithstanding this the fall session of the Acadeni}- 
began on September ist with ninety boys the first week, which is eleven 
more than ever before on the first day of school. This is one of the 
best and most prosperous preparatory schools for boys in the State. 
Mr. Morson is one of the finest classical teachers in the South, and it 
is hard to find Captain Benson's equal as a literary scholar. 

The Teachers' Institute of Davidson County convened in Lexing- 
ton, August 10, and closed August 14, Profs. Alex. Graham and E. L. 
Hughes, conductors. It was the largest and most enthusiastic gathering 
of teachers that ever assembled in the county. Two years ago our 
Institute numbered only forty or fifty. One year ago ninety-four. This 
year the teachers came from all parts of the county, and one hundred 
and seventeen were enrolled. Professors Graham and Hughes are ener- 
getic, progressive instructors, and are well up with the times. The 
teachers received information that will enable them to do more effective 
work than has heretofore been done in the schools of our county. Six 
young men received State certificates. Friday, the last day of the Insti- 
tute, was set apart for public speaking. At ten o'clock, sharp, the bell 
was rung, and the teachers, with quite a number of visitors, promptly 


assembled. The County Superintendent submitted a few practical 
remarks, directed especially to the teachers, on the line of their work 
the coming winter, and then introduced Professor Hughes, who was 
followed by Professor Graham. The addresses of Professors Graham 
and Hughes were strong appeals for education, and for longer terms 
and more effective work in the public schools. The better class of 
teachers in Davidson County are coming to the front, and the educa- 
tional outlook is encouraging. P. L. IyEDFOrd, 

County Supt., Davidson County. 


'Tis said that " figures never lie," 

That one and one are always two ; 
But Cupid proves, with wor so sly, 

Some wondrous things that figures do. 
And when he claims a teacher's hand 

All rules of figures then are done, 
Though T\vo before the preacher stand 

This one and one are always one. 

Miss LiixiE Gay, of Wilson, an accomplished teacher of vocal and 
instrumental music-and a member of the Teachers' Assembly, was mar- 
ried to Mr. Willi.'VM T. vShaw, of Weldon, on September 2d, 1891. 
Rev. J. H. Cordon, D. D., of Raleigh, performed the ceremou}'. 


The books and slates now put away. 
And let us laugh a little while ; 

For those who work there should be play, 
The leisure moments to beguile. 

A BOY, kept in after school for bad orthography', excused himself to 
his parents by saying that he was spellbound. 

Teacher — "Tommy, man has been called the 'laughing animal.' 
Can you mention .some other attribute that raises him above the mere 
brute ? " Tommy Figg — " Yes'm. He — knows how to spit." 

A vStreet C.\r Pony. — Boston School Boys (jumping on front plat- 
form)— " Hello, McDonald!" Car Driver — "Mornin', gents." School 
Bo}' — "Here, Jack, you take the reins; grab the brake, Ginger. Now, 
driver, just run over this page in the Anabasis for us before we get down 
to the high school." 

No Yell at Vassar. — First Vassar Student — Say, girls, there's one 
thing we've forgotten. We haven't any college yell. All colleges have 
yells, you know. Second vStudent — Wh}-, of course, strange we never 
thought of it. Let's have one. Third Student— But I don't see how 
we can yell without taking the gum out of our mouths. Fourth Stu- 
dent — Let's let the yell go. It isn't very lady-like anyhow. 


Wilminp'ton & VVeldon R. R 

.^n^TiD EI^.A-I^^c23:Es. 



Dated Sept. i 

, 1891. 

No. 23. 

No. 27. 

Fast Mail. 


No. 41. 

Daily Except 


Leave Weldon 

Arrive Rocky Mount 

12 30 p. 
I 40 p. 


5 43 P- m- 

6 20 

7 24 

a. m. 

*2 18 p. 

10 35 a. 



Arrive Wilson 

2 18 p. 


7 00 p. ni. 

7 53 

a. m. 

Leave Wilson 

t2 30 P- 
3 30 p. 

5 30 P- 

3 15 P- 

4 14 p. 
4 27 p. 

6 00 p. 


Arrive Selma 

Arrive Fayetteville 

Leave Goldsboro 

Leave Warsaw 

7 42 p. m. 

8 40 

9 34 

9 49 
II 20 

a. m. 

Leave Magnolia 

Arrive Wilmington 

S 40 p. ni. 
9 55 P- I"- 

a. m. 
a. m. 


No. 14. 

No. 78. 

Leave Wilmington- 
Leave Magnolia 

Leave Warsaw 

Arrive Goldsboro __ 

Leave Fayetteville- 

Arrive Sefma 

Arrive Wilson 

12 35 a. m. 

9 15 a. m. 

10 57 a. ni. 

11 II a. m. 

12 05 a. m. 

No 40. 

Daily Except 


4 24 p. m. 

6 10 p. m. 

6 25 p. m. 

7 30 p. m. 

J9 10 a. ni. 

11 08 a. m. 

12 20 p. m. 

Leave Wilson 

Arrive Rocky Mount _ 

Arrive Tarboro 

Leave Tarboro 

Arrive Weldon. 

5 05 a. m. 

1 12 58 P- 
1 I 30 p. 


1 8 23 p. 
8 53 p. 


*2 17 p. 

10 35 a. 



i 2 55 p. 


1 10 00 p. 


*Daily except Sunday. 

Trains on Scotland Neck Branch Road leave Weldon 3.30 p. m., Halifax 3.52 p. tn., 
arrive Scotland Neck at 5.00 p. in., Greenville 6.50 p. m., Kinston 7.55 p. m. Returning 
leaves Kinston 7.00 a. m,, Greenville 8.10 a. in,, arriving at Halifax 11.00 a. m., Weldon 
11.25 a, m., daily except Sunday. 

Train leaves Tarboro, N. C, I'ia Albemarle & Raleigh Railroad daily except Sunday 
4.40 p. ni., Sunday 4.40P. m., arrive Williaraston, N. C, 7.18 p. ni., 4.20 p. m., Plymouth 
8.30 p, m., 5.20 p. m. Returning, leaves Plymouth daily except Sunday 6.20a. ni., Sunday 
9 a. m., Williamston, N. C, 7 40 a. m , 9.58 a. m., arrive Tarboro 10.05 a. m., 11.20 a. m. 

Train on Midland North Carolina Branch leaves Goldsboro, N. C, daily except Sun- 
da3' 7 a. m., arrive Smithfield, N. C, 8.30 a. m. Returning leaves Smithfield, N. C, 9 
a. ni., arrive Goldsboro, N. C, 10.30 a. ni. 

Train on Nashville Branch leaves Rocky Mount at 3 p. m., arrives Nashville 3.40 p. m. 
Spring Hope 4.15 p. m. Returning, leaves Spring Hope 10 a. ra., Nashville 10,35 a. m., 
arrives Rocky Mount 11. 15 a. m., daily except Sunday. , 

Train on Clinton Branch leaves Warsaw for Clinton daily except Sunday at 6,30 p. m. 
and 11.15 a. m. Returning, leaves Clinton at 8. 20 a. m. and 3.10 p. m., connecting at 
Warsaw with Nos. 41, 40, 23 and 78. 

South-bound train on Wilson and Fayetteville Branch is No. 51. Nprth-bound is No. 
50. *Daily except Sundaj'. 

Train No. 27 South and 14 North will stop only at Rocky Mount, Wilson, Goldsboro 
and Magnolia. 

Train No. 78 makes close connection at Weldon for all points North dailj'. All-rail 
via Richmond, and daily except Sunday via Baj' Line. 

J. R. K.'E'N'LY, Assisiatit General Manage?-. General Superintendent. 

T. M. EMERSON, General Passenger Agent. 


Vol. IX. Raleigh, November, 1891. No. 3. 

EUGENE G. HARRELL, = = = = Editor. 



Hark to an army tramping, 

To the beat, beat, beat. 
Over the fields and highways, 

Of little children's feet ; 
Hark to the dancing rhythm, 

As captain and colonel come. 
With rank upon rank of soldiers, 

IMarching, marching home. 

They bring the summer's roses 

Set in the dimpled cheek; 
In their eyes the glint of the sunshine 

They marched away to seek; 
The sweep of the wild bird's pinion 

In their motions glad and free — 
Marching down from the mountain, 

Marching up from the sea. 

They have rocked with birds in the tree-tops. 

All over the flowery land; 
They have raced on the wild sea-horses 

Across the gleaming sand; 
Now, back to books and to duty 

Captain and colonel come. 
With all the glad child army. 

Marching, marching home. 

— Wide- Awake. 


]Vortl\ Qarolii\a I'^aQlx^r^ i\broad: 



Gngland, Scotland, If^elakd and Finance. 


History of Human Habitations — The Picture Galleries— " La 
Premiere Pose" — The American Exhibits— The Educational 
Display— A Famous French University — The Doll Show — 
Venus in Chocolate— Our Chaplains in the Balloon — Engaging 
A Cab Under Difficulties— The Grand Illumination. 

E had not yet seen enough of the Exposition, 
^ therefore we decided to give another day to the 
great show. 

We fully realize, however, that the most important thing 
to see in Paris is Paris itself. Paris is much more than any 
Exposition can possibly be. Expositions are all, more or 
less, modeled after the same pattern, but Paris is unique. 
There is only one Paris but there are many Expositions, 
nor is this Exposition by any means the most notable thing 
in Paris. 

This is the biggest Exposition ever held in the world. 
There are nearly seventy thousand exhibitors, and the cost 
of the great display is over nine million dollars! There 
are thirty-eight countries represented in the exhibit, and 
this includes every civilized nation. 

One of the most valuable features to a teacher is the 
sight of the various peoples of the earth, clad in their own 
costumes, speaking their native languages, and surrounded 
by the products of their own countries. 

The study of the history of human habitations greatly 
interested us. One of the novel features of the Exposition 



is a street illustrating the evolution of human habitations 
from the cave of our Paleolithic progenitors to the hand- 
some edifices of modern Europe. In this collection we are 
shown what the domicile of pre-historic man was like. 

The picture galleries, after the Tower, are the most popu- 
lar and attractive feature of the Exposition. There is not 
only the choicest of the French salons for the past ten years, 
but there are the masterpieces of French art in the hundred 
years that began with the Revolution. Nearly every for- 
eign country is represented by its best painters. There is 
no phase of human life, hellish or divine, that is not por- 
trayed on the walls of the Fine Art Gallery, often with 
wonderful fidelity and startling realism. 

Here are the two extremes of beauty and of hideous 
ugliness, of the noblest heroism and the most hateful pic- 
tures of loathsome horror. From Munkacsy's "Christ 
before Pilate" to the masked nudity which is the crowning 
shame of the French gallery, there is no note of human 
aspiration, heavenward or hell ward, that is not rendered 
more or less faithfully in the glowing canvas. The ideas, 
the emotions, the passions of humanity, not of one nation 
but of all, are here incarnate in color, radiant in light and 
instinct with life. And their setting is as various as the 
countries from whence they come. 

Nature in all her caprices, from the glaciers of Norway 
to the steppes of Russia, from the surf-beaten shore of the 
Atlantic to the eternal snow of the Alps, from the peaceful 
vales of Italy to the magnificent thundering Niagara, is 
here interpreted by the most gifted of her sons. This Fine 
Art Gallery is truly a whole world in itself, a Universal 
Exhibition which strikes deeper and appeals more directly 
and strongly to the popular mind than all the other exhibits 
in all the other departments of the World's Great Show. 

In these galleries, as in all others east of the Atlantic, 
are many pictures of various degrees of excellence and of 


shame representing the nude. Of the artistic side of this 
question nothing need be said here, but those who regard 
all questions strictly from the point of view of the human 
ought, if possible, before coming to a positive conclusion, 
to visit this vast display of pictures and spend some time 
before the remarkable painting "La Premiere Pose," Few 
pictures in all the gallery are more touching. Even now, 
as we write of it entirely from memory, some three thou- 
sand miles away and near two years after seeing it, the pic- 
ture is vividly in mind as if we saw it but yesterday. 

A young girl, beautiful and innocent, timorous and 
graceful as a startled fawn, is disrobing for the first time 
before the artist to whom her mother — a stern woman in 
the background — has brought her as a model. The poor 
child is hesitating before completing her undress, and her 
expression of shame and confusion is piteous to see. The 
tender pathos of the girl's position deepens into tragedy as 
you turn to the artist's companion, a woman from whom 
all womanly modesty has long since been painted out, who 
lolls upon a couch and contemplates the blushing embar- 
rassment of the maiden with cynical enjoyment. There are 
two distinct types before you — the one that is and the other 
that which she will be. Whether for the sake of all the 
painted beauties who ever glowed on canvas it is worth 
while to subject such purity to such shame, is a question 
which we cannot decide but which each person must settle 
for himself. It may be that there are things worthy of a 
human sacrifice, but do not let us ignore the fact that the 
sacrifice is exacted. 

We were told that this wonderful picture will be sent to 
the United States to be exhibited in the World's Exposition 
of 1893. If so, doubtless thousands of our North Carolina 
friends will see it. 

The Educational Department of the Exposition was par- 
ticularly attractive to us. The United States exhibit was 


in charge of Mr. C. Wellman Parks, of Troy, New York, 
and onr country was well represented. We found many 
things from North Carolina that were familiar to us, among 
them were catalogues of Charlotte Female Institute, Chowan 
Baptist Female Institute at Murfreesboro, Davenport Col- 
lege at Lenoir, Greensboro Female College, St. Mary's 
School at Raleigh, Trinity College, and the University at 
Chapel Hill. We were pleased to find conspicuously dis- 
played a complete file of the current volume of The North 
Carolina Teacher, and this was the only educational 
journal from North Carolina in the exhibit or mentioned 
in the ofiicial catalogue. 

The colossal globe was indeed another curiosity, as instruc- 
tive as it was interesting. This is the biggest terrestrial 
globe ever made. It is in a round special building near 
the Children's Theatre at the end of the Liberal Arts Pal- 
ace. It represents the earth a million times reduced, and 
is over forty feet in diameter. This immense globe is cov- 
ered with a peculiarly prepared paper resembling metal, on 
which the continents, seas and countries of the world are 
indicated just as on an ordinary map. We could easily 
find North Carolina and see our capital city Raleigh prop- 
erly located. The globe revolves slowly on its axis. The 
spectator is hoisted up to the top of the building in an 
elevator, and then descends by a spiral stair-case which 
encircles the globe at some distance from it. 

The French Educational Exhibit was large and exceed- 
ingly fine, and we are inclined to believe that we were just 
a little envious of the evidences of the very great liberality 
of that nation to education. One of the institutions of 
learning in Paris is noted throughout the world. 

It is what is usually called "The University of Paris," 
but what is in reality only an aggregation of several dif- 
ferent Faculties and is without doubt the largest educational 
institution in the world. This year (1889) it has a scho!- 


astic population of ten thousand one hundred and seventy- 
three, which is, however, a decrease of about two hundred 
compared with the preceding year. 

Of this number one thousand eighty-six were foreigners, 
representing thirty-five different countries. Russia sent 
the largest contingent, namely, two hundred and ninety- 
two. Next in order comes North America with one hun- 
dred and sixty-seven; but as Mexico is separately reported 
this must refer chiefly to the United States. There were one 
hundred and forty-nine Roumanians, ninety-three Turks, 
and sixty-three Englishmen. The other lands represented 
fall below fifty, six having but a single representative. 
The great majority of foreigners — seven hundred and fifty- 
nine — was in the school of medicine. 

The entire number of female students was one hundred 
and fifty-two. Of this number one hundred and twenty- 
three were in the medical department; ninety-two were 
Russians, seventeen French, seven English and but one 
American. In the department of science there were nine- 
teen women, nine of them Russians and six French. One 
of the latter received the doctor's degree with the highest 
possible honors. The co-education feature of the Univer- 
sity is immensely popular and successful. The Faculty of 
Protestant Theology reports twenty-nine regular students. 
Strangely enough this Faculty is supported by the State, 
while the Catholic Faculties were disbanded in 1885. The 
salaries of the French professors vary from $3,250 in Paris 
to $1,200 in the provincial cities. 

We want just such an institution as this in North Caro- 
lina, which shall admit on equal terms the boys and girls of 
our State and furnish education as thorough and extensive 
as can be secured in any city of Europe. 

France has within the last few years undergone a most 
remarkable educational revival in all departments. It is 
more heavily burdened with debt than any other European 


country, yet its appropriations for the cause of education 
have been increasingly liberal from year to year, almost 
from the time of the establishment of the present republic. 

The Minister of Public Instruction of France claims a 
whole side of the Educational Gallery for his exhibit, and 
he presents such a mass of educational appliances belong- 
ing to all grades of schools that simply an examination 
gave us not only a fair idea of the educational system of 
France, but also many very instructive object-lessons — 
more than we were able to take away and assimilate. 
Much of the school machinery shown did not receive the 
approval of our party, it being but an enlarged plan, both 
as to extent and objection, of the unsatisfactory method of 
"shoe-pegs, splints, tooth-picks and peas" with which our 
country is becoming as disgusted as it is familiar. 

The United States is well represented at the Exposition, 
not only as regards the quality and character of the exhibits, 
but also in the ability of the Commissioners sent officially 
in behalf of the Government. Altogether, the United 
States occupies one hundred thousand square feet, which, 
after Great Britain, is the largest space alloted to any for- 
eign country. Of this, forty thousand square feet is in the 
Machinery Hall where there is a grand display of electrical 
apparatus, the Edison exhibit alone occupying over eight 
thousand square feet, and the wonderful phonograph is here 
shown for the first time in Europe. The railway section does 
not do justice to the American railway system, because of the 
difficulty of sending the heavy machinery so great a dis- 
tance. In the art section there are two hundred and fifty 
American exhibitors and their paintings would do credit to 
any country. On the Quai d'Orsay there is a fine collec- 
tion of our agricultural implements. The International 
Company which lights the Exposition grounds and build- 
ings contains the leading American firms, and one of the 
devices employed by Edison is to utilize the trees and 


shrubs for electric lamp posts. The Frenchman thinks 
that this is a very ingenious "Yankee trick." 

While strolling about the main building we noticed in 
one of the wings far away a great crowd of children seem- 
ing to be in ecstacies of joy. As we drew near we quickly 
discerned the cause of their happiness. It was a splendid 
exhibit of toys and dolls of every conceivable taste and 

Here, under the green trees, walking in a miniature 
Champs Elysees, is every kind of automaton doll, peasant 
dolls, baby dolls, nurse dolls, little boy and little girl dolls, 
grand-lady dolls, papa and mama dolls, soldier dolls, bride 
and bridegroom dolls, all wonderfully true to life in every 
detail, except that these little people, judging from appear- 
ances, must take a great deal more care of their clothes 
than do their brothers and sisters in real life. The trees 
were filled with mechanical birds chirping and singing, 
while the proud peacock strutted about the miniature lawn 
displaying all the colors of the rainbow. 

This exhibit was a perfect paradise for the children, and 
we enjoyed it so much that we were willing to admit that 
it was also a paradise for grown people as well. Our party 
purchased several of these beautiful automaton figures to 
delight the little ones at home. 

The children were also very much interested in another 
rare exhibit in a different part of the building. It was an 
immense statue about fifteen feet high on a pedestal, rep- 
resenting the Venus de Milo, and the figure and the pedestal 
were made wholly of sweet chocolate by the celebrated 
manufacturers, Baker & Co. It is presumed that Venus 
is a sweet creature at any time, but this Venus was literally 
and peculiarly sweet ; yes, irresistibly sweet to the chil- 
dren, for they had bitten her toes, fingers, heels and legs, 
and, still being intensely in love with the divine creature 
they had also eaten away the four corners of the pedestal 


on which she stood ! But the temptation to bite that lovely 
figure was truly irresistible to children and grown people 
alike, and we noticed that even some of our party yielded 
and also smacked their lips at the delicious flavor of the 
brown toes of the chocolate goddess. 

To see every department of this immense Exposition it 
is estimated that the visitor would have to walk over fifty 
miles. We therefore concluded that, as we had walked 
something over thirty miles during the two days that we' 
had given to the exhibit, we would try to be content with 
the millions of curiosities that we had inspected, and leave 
the remaining twenty miles of show to some other visitors. 
The subject was not by any means exhausted, but our party 

For those people, however, who desire to see the entire 
affair, there are various modes of locomotion about the 
buildings and grounds. There are rolling chairs pushed 
by a guide for twenty cents an hour ; several railway trains 
to carry you to the different departments at five cents a 
trip ; a thousand Egyptian donkeys are at your service, 
each ready saddled and led by a native of the Nile, for 
twenty-five cents an hour. You may charter a sedan chair, 
borne by two Arabians, for fifty cents an hour ; or you 
can hire a velocipede and do your own propelling, for ten 
cents an hour ; nothing to do but "pay your money and 
take your choice." 

We had all day missed our chaplains, Dr. Marshall and 
Dr. Smedes, in our tramping, and many enquiries were 
made among ourselves as to their probable whereabouts, 
but without satisfaction. Consequently, our surprise was 
considerable when, on reaching our hotel, we found these 
two gentlemen quietly enjoying their dinners. 

" Where on earth have you men been all day?" anx- 
iously asked several of our girls at the same time. 


"We have been up in the balloon," answered Dr. Mar- 
shall, ' ' and enjoyed the novel sensation very much indeed. ' ' 

"Is that really possible!" exclaimed Miss Slater and 
]\Iiss Dowd ; " it is almost beyond belief." 

"Yes," said Dr. Smedes, " I admit that it is hard to 
believe that the two dignified and honored chaplains of such 
a cultivated party of teachers as this should spend nearly 
a day in sailing over the earth in a balloon ! But it is a 
fact, nevertheless, young ladies, for here is the proof" — 
and he produced a photograph which had been taken by 
an amateur artist, showing the two reverend gentlemen in 
the car of the balloon just as it had left the earth on its 
upward flight. 

"Well! well! well! that beats all I ever heard of!" 
murmured a dozen or more of the girls, as we joirfed our 
chaplains at the dinner table and spiritedly discussed the 
viands and the reckless exploit of our esteemed clergymen. 

While we sat at the table the Secretary "passed word 
down the lines" that we would go to the Exposition at 
night to see the grand illumination in honor of the Shah of 
Persia. Accordingly, we were soon engaging cabs for the 
evening, so that we could ride about the grounds wherever 
the scene was most beautiful. 

" Cocker P'' called Mrs, Church to a cabman near by, at 
the same time beckoning for him to come. 

" (9?//, madameP'' he quickly replied as he reined up at 
the curbstone awaiting her orders. 

"I want to go to seethe illumination," said Mrs. Church 
to him, but he looked at her in blank amazement. 

Mrs. Church did not speak French and the cabman did 
not understand a word of English, but she tried again to 
give her order. 

"Illumination!" she said. 

"/%zzVz7f" returned the driver. 

"Fire-works!" Another trial. 


'•'•Plait ilf with a shake of his head. 

"Shah of Persia!" she suggested. • 

' ' Plait il f ' came again. 

"Lights! Red! Green!" More suggestions. 

'•'• Plait ilf'' came the inevitab!e. 

Our puzzled chaperon seemed to despair of ever making 
the cabman understand that she desired to see the fireworks 
and the Exposition illuminated, but finally a happy idea 
occurred to her and she exclaimed with a suddenness which 
nearly threw cocker from his box: 

"Siz-z-z-z! Fiz-z-z-z! Rip-p-p-p! Shew-w-w-w! Whoop! 
Boom-m-m-m ! Slam!! Bang!!!!" throwing up her arms 
with the last word as if a thousand rockets had exploded 
at one time. 

We laughed until our sides ached, and cocker fully took 
in the meaning of this lively pantomime. 

^'■Oiiif Old! ;««<s'rt;«^," he exclaimed in delight. ^'^ Cer- 
tainment P'' and he quickly threw open the door of the cab 
for Mrs. Church and her companions, and they dashed away 
towards the Champ de Mars. 

No wonder that there is an exodus from Paris every night 
to the Exhibition, or that the grounds are thronged. The 
spectacle, although two tickets are charged for admission 
after sunset, even on ordinary nights is one of unparal- 
leled beauty. No other exhibition ever afforded the like 
of it either for extent or splendor. The Champ de Mars 
is a veritable fairy-land. During the day people go to the 
Exhibition partly for instruction; at night they go solely 
to be entertained and to witness a brilliant spectacle. 

When a gun, on the second story of the Tower, gives the 
signal at six o'clock for the closing of the galleries, the 
people pour into the gardens. Others have been streaming 
in through the gates before the price was raised and there 
they remain crowding the grounds and waiting three and 
four hours for the last of the illuminations. 


The Machinery Hall, the central vestibule and gallery 
leading to it, and the Sculpture Gallery are still left open, 
but beyond these and the Tower, entertainments and the 
restaurants, the gardens are only left to the visitors. The 
gardens are exceedingly pleasant, and bands play every 
evening, only there are too few seats — as usual. The area 
illuminated by electricity alone is three million seven hun- 
dred and six thousand square feet, and over three thousand 
horse-power is required to furnish the supply. Gas is used 
for illuminating the Trocadero, the Tower, and the central 
dome of the Exposition Building. 

Standing in the centre of the garden you are encom- 
passed with a blaze of light — a harmonious combination of 
the brilliant lustre of the arc electric light, the softer 
splendor of the incandescent lamps, and the quiet yellow 
hues of the gas. At one end of the axis the great circular 
frontage of the Trocadero is picked out with gas, and the 
cascade underneath resembles terraces of flame. At the 
other end the magnificent dome shines resplendent, cov- 
ered with thousands of colored lamps, until the great statue 
of France overhead gleams like gold. Behind this is seen 
the graceful roof of the Machinery Hall with the electric 
light shining through. 

Then there is the Tower which looks grander and more 
beautiful by night than by day, with its gigantic arches 
rimmed with light, its platforms ablaze with a thousand 
lamps, while high up above the third story a huge electric 
light flashes its radiating search-lights over the whole 
neighborhood — now directing them on the gilded dome, 
then on the river, next over the city of Paris, or piercing 
the darkness to a distance of ten miles. 

Then in the gardens the mingling of the gas and the 
electric light has a very pretty effect. The parterres are 
bordered with rows of incandescent lamps, and small lamps 
shine out from clumps of rhododendrons and from trees. 


These lamps are made of large petals with a stigma of 
electric light in the centre, and resemble a flower. The 
sculpture in the Gallery Rapp and the Machinery Hall 
should be visited at night. It requires eighty-six arc lights 
of three thousand five hundred candles each to light the 
Machinery Hall, and this illumination is supplemented by 
a powerful light-house refraction light in the centre that 
sends a procession of rays round the building, and by Edi- 
son's colossal incandescent lamp. 

The colored fountains play every night at ten. A good 
view of the fountains and of the whole scene may be 
obtained from the balcony over the central entrance, or from 
the first floor of the Tower. Above the basin from which 
rise the jets and colored water is the fountain of Progress, 
representing the town of Paris as a vessel, with a battering 
ram as a prow, and surmounted by a figure personifying 
Progress, surrounded by groups very skillfully executed by 
M. Coutan. 

The colored fountains are a great attraction, and people 
sit round the basin from six o'clock to ten waiting for the 
water to be turned on. The illumination is effected very 
simply. Circular chambers are constructed underneath 
each basin, the roofs of which are pierced with a number 
of openings to receive a series of vertical cylinders, each 
placed below a jet. In each cylinder is arranged a set of 
thick plates of colored glass, which can be made to move 
in various directions by means of cords and levers. The 
rays from a very powerful arc lamp are directed up the 
cylinders by means of a parabolic reflector mirror and con- 
densers, and as the light must traverse one or more thick- 
nesses of colored glass before it reaches the jet of water, 
many combinations of colors may be produced. 

In illuminating the Eiffel Tower the whole structure, 
from bottom to top, is filled with a dense smoke by some 
combustible material, and then this smoke is beautifully 


and brilliantly lighted in all the colors of the rainbow by 
calcium reflectors. The effect is as startling as it is masf- 
nificent, and the occasion cost the management over fifty 
thousand dollars. The sight was witnessed and enjoyed 
by over three hundred thousand persons and the admission 
receipts were near a hundred thousand dollars ! The beauty 
and splendor of that display we do not believe anything on 
earth ever before equalled in grandeur, magnitude and bril- 
liancy. The whole scene seemed to be managed by magic 
hands and every detail of the illumination was perfect. 
Not an order was heard, not an operator was seen and 
there was not the slightest delay or confusion in the entire 

We reached our hotel about midnight, tired and sleep}' 
from a hard day's work of sight-seeing, but in our visions 
through the remainder of the night we saw stars and rock- 
ets, colored fire and smoke, a perfect storm of flashing 
meteors and a dazzling^ ocean of electric lieht. 


A young woman received from Columbia College the 
degree, cum laiide^ of doctor of philosophy. Although she 
is comparatively young, she has shown remarkable mental 
maturity. Mathematics is her forte, and the toughest 
problems are as easy as dancing to her. While at Welles- 
ley College she stood at the head of her class, and after her 
graduation she refused to become a director of the Observa- 
tory of Smith College, and declined a professorship in her 
alma mater. 

Two months later there was a wedding in Trinity Church 
in New York. The party of the second part was Miss 
Winifred Edgerton, the young woman of whom we have 


been writing, and the party of the first part was Professor 
Merrill, a young Columbia professor and graduate. 

It is said that Mrs. Edgerton-Merrill is as much at home 
in the kitchen as in the recitation-room ; that she can sew, 
wash and iron, and is naturally as domestic as a shy coun- 
try maiden. It is expected that she will continue her 
studies, and do more literary work under her new relations 
than she could have done had she remained simply Miss 
Edgerton, and that while darning stockings she will still 
continue reading Mechaniqiie Celeste. 

A thorough course of training will help any man or 
woman. Dr. Vincent says : " If I had a boy who expected 
to be a blacksmith all his life, I should want him to be a 
college graduate. Every man owes it to himself, his Avife 
and his children to be as much of a man as he can be. 
When parents are educated enough to take a real interest 
in the studies and work of their children, it is as easy again 
to teach the boy. The blacksmith needs an education 
because he is a citizen. In this country we cannot afford 
to educate a special class to investigate political subjects 
and to dictate to the masses how they shall vote. Every 
man must think and act for himself. Moreover, it is the 
duty of every man to acquire all the education he can. 
The thought of immortality ought to be an inspiration to 
every man." 

What Dr. Vincent says of the boy applies equally well 
to the girl. A wife ought to know as much as the hus- 
band. Ignorance in either is sure to be productive of evil. 
Ignorant wives suit Mohammedans, but average Americans 
want their wives to know as much as is possible. No 
sensible North Carolina girl has ever made a mistake in 
pursuing her studies to graduation in some of our first-class 
high grade institutions of learning, but she has added 
greatly to her own happiness and to her usefulness in 
society, in the home, or in any other walk of life. 



The girl who goes to the University of Michigan to-day, 
just as when I entered there in 1872, finds her own board- 
ing-place in one of the quiet homes of the pleasant little 
city whose interest centers in the 2,500 students scattered 
within its borders. She makes the business arrangements 
for her winter's fuel and its storage ; she finds her washer- 
woman or her laundry ; she arranges her own hours of exer- 
cise, of study, and of sleep ; she chooses her own society, 
clubs and church. The advice she gets comes from another 
girl student of sophomoric dignity, who chances to be in 
the same house, or possibly from a still more advanced 
young woman whom she meets on the journey, or sat near 
in church on her first Sunday. Strong is the comradeship 
among these ambitious girls, who nurse one another in 
illness, admonish one another in health, and rival one 
another in study only less eagerly than they all rival the 
boys. In my time in college the little group of girls, sud- 
denly introduced into the army of young men, felt that the fate 
of our sex hung upon proving that "lady Greek" involved 
the accents, and that women's minds were particularly 
absorptive of the calculus and metaphysics. And still in 
these sections where, with growing experience, the anxieties 
about co-education have been allayed, a healthy and hearty 
relationship and honest rivalry between young men and 
women exists. It is a stimulating atmosphere, and develops 
in good stock a strength and independent balance which tell 
in after life. — Mrs. Alice Freeman Palmer.^ in The Forum. 

[We do not propose to admit the charge, which some per- 
sons who oppose coeducation intimate that North Carolina 
girls would not behave with perfect propriety in a "mixed 
college," for we have unbounded confidence in our boys 
and girls and know that they will conduct themselves as 
properly in school as in the home or in society. — Editor.] 



Eight gymnastics embrace the use of dumb-bells, bar- 
bells, Indian clubs, wands, hoops, and exercises without 
anything whatever in the hands. Marching, deep-breath- 
ing movements, poising, stretching and equilibrium exer- 
cises, all of which have in a great measure grown out of 
the Delsarte system, also come, says the Ladies' Home 
Journal^ under the general term, light gymnastics. 

The beneficial results of all these are many and varied. 
Hardly anyone is too weak for gymnastics. Gentle mas- 
sage will start the muscles and send the blood into healthy 
circulation. Then the patient should help herself, One 
of the advantages of light gymnastics is that the sick and 
convalescent can make what appear to be trifling efforts, 
and by them, in time, be restored to active health. If too 
feeble to be practically able to make but little exertion, try 
what are known as deep-breathing movements. Lie flat 
upon the back, take as long and deep breaths as possible, 
and while the mouth is closed, slowly throw the arms up 
in front and then at the sides. Rest for ten minutes. Try 
again the same inhalation and exhalation of air, the latter 
being pure and fresh. After awhile attempt the same, sit- 
ting up. These exercises can safely be taken by the sick 
one every day several times, and the whole muscular sys- 
tem will be improved, just as if some revivifying tonic had 
been given, a far better one than any charged with alcohol 
or some like stimulant. 

From this step to the use of light apparatus in the dumb- 
bells is a short one. But the mistake is too often made in 
trying to be too muscular, and using bells of too great a 
weight. Attempt nothing above your strength at the start; 
it is even better at first to go under it than over it. Above 
all things be methodical and regular in these exercises. 


Irregularity in anything — habits, expenditures, diet — 
brings its uncomfortable reward. Exercise must be con- 
stant and systematic to be effective. 

If a beginner, purchase wooden dumb-bells of a pound 
each in weight. 

Stand with the heels together, body erect and head up. 
Place the bells on the shoulders and push up that in the 
right hand to a count of eight or twelve ; then the left ; 
then both together at the same time. 

Place the bells on the chest ; push the right-hand bell 
out in front eight times, thedeft-hand afterward, then both. 

Push the bell in the right hand out from the chest to 
the right j the left the same, and next both. 

Put bells under the armpits. Curl them out alternately 
and at the same time. 

With bells on the shoulders roll out as in the movement 
above described. 

Strike the bells quickly over the head and under the 
right leg ; then the left leg ; then again behind the back. 

With the right-handed bell extended from right side at 
right angles with the body, strike it as if it were an anvil 
eight times with the bell in the left hand as a hammer. 
Do this in the same manner to the left and in front, hold- 
ing the bell that acts in lieu of anvil on the right and left 

These are but simple movements. A teacher in the 
gymnasium will give you dozens more. But just after the 
morning bath, in a cool room, before the corset is put on, 
if tried for five or ten minutes daily, will end in sending a 
glow through the body and bringing a rich tint to the 
cheeks. Beauty is not always born ; it can be made. Not 
with cosmetics ; try light gymnastic exercises, and you will 
prove to your own satisfaction that a light step, a bright 
eye, a clear, good-colored skin, without the faintest tint of 
Touge or powder, makes a woman truly beautiful, as well 
as "healthy, wealthy and wise." 


Apropos of this last assertion, that a woman can grow 
wiser, yes, actually know more, from regular gymnastic 
exercise is an established truth. 

The greatest practical result of both light and heavy 
gymnastics is the fact that the mind grows in proportion to 
the muscle. The muscles need a will, and a strong one, 
to control them. The moving to exact time and to music 
demanded by these exercises when taken in the classes of 
the gymnasium has its effect on the brain, and it is as 
important as the resulting physical gain. Dr. W. G. An- 
derson, the specialist, states that women who, by reason of 
undeveloped will power, cannot compel this servant to aid 
them in works they must perform, are greatly benefited by 
light gymnastic exercises ; and that those women who are 
sensible enough to adopt the methods that make men the 
stronger, the healthier sex, who expect to be known as the 
mothers of healthy children, and, above all, women who 
wish to aid in the realization of the ideal human being, 
whether mentally, morally or physically, are able to be all 
that they would be by gymnastic exercise. 

It is a constant source of complaint that American women 
are not graceful. And the dancing-school has been, until 
recent years, the refuge for the awkward and unbalanced- 
muscled young or old woman. But much more valuable 
is the gymnasium in its education of the feet, and of the 
poise and carriage of the body. 

To this end fancy step movements are given, and grace 
and ease of self results. Then, too, dexterity is a quality 
the phlegmatic, slow-by-nature girl and woman needs to 
get on in this busy, work-a-day world, where she who 
moves the quickest and thinks .the fastest, keeping her 
mind clear and steady on what she has in hand, puts to 
rout the moral of that ancient fable of the hare and tortoise, 
in reaching the goal long before her slower and more delib- 
erate neighbor. 



The Pittsburg Dispatch quotes the opinions of many 
parents and physicians to the effect that much of the teach- 
ing of the study of physiology is worse than a waste of 
time. Has not the matter been practically overdone. 
Surely there is not so much in the science that it should 
be required in every school and taught to every grade of 
pupils, as is required by the usual physiology-hygiene law. 

If the law were rigidly complied with we should do little 
effective teaching in that subject or any other. The inten- 
tion of the ladies who have been instrumental in framing 
and advocating the passage of this law in various States 
has been good, but they have blinded themselves to other 
school interests of equal or paramount importance, and 
nothing has saved the schools from a general demoraliza- 
tion of the teachers who have a condition and not a theory 
confronting them, and they have adapted their practice to 
the demands of the school. 

That the enactment of the law diminishes the evils at 
which it aims has not yet been proved so far as results go. 
The tobacco habit among boys, with all our hygienic teach- 
ing, is on the increase instead of the reverse. It never has 
been from a lack of knowledge of the evil effects of both 
tobacco and intoxicating drink that boys and men have 
been debased by their use. These evils are like many 
others, we have sometimes thought, in this that the less 
they are discussed the less will the innocent be inclined to 
make a personal trial of them in order to experience their 

We believe in teaching the subject of physiology, and 
we believe in teaching and upholding temperance, but we 
believe also that the zeal of those on the outside of the 
school-room walls, may, on this question, overstep the 



bounds of prudence and do quite as much harm as good. — 
Educational Nezvs {Philadelphia). 

[It seems to The Teacher that the subject of "Physi- 
ology, Hygiene," etc., etc., is being somewhat "run in 
the ground." We are likely to have too much of even a 
good thing. We believe that this subject is a most im- 
portant one, and have always strongly advocated its being 
taught in every school. We hold the same opinion yet, 
but when this branch of study, or any other one, becomes 
"a craze," there is certain to be some harm done and much 
of the real merit in the subject will be lost. 

The late Legislature of North Carolina passed an act 
for teaching Physiology, Hygiene and the effects of Nar-. 
cotics. Stimulants, &c. , in the Public Schools. We have 
no doubt that the act was intended for the good of the 
people, but when a law compels a teacher in the public 
schools to teach physiology and the effects of alcohol to 
children or-ally before they have even learned to readmit 
seems to us that somebody is responsible for a little fanati- 
cism on the subject. 

Zeal without proper judgment, even with the best of 
people, is to be deplored. We do not see how any good 
can be accomplished by talking the science of physiology 
and the effects of stimulants to the babies in the school- 
room who cannot read. — Editor]. 



[We heartily commend the following sound and sensible 
thoughts to the most careful consideration of every North 
Carolina teacher. Professor Greenwood is one of the most 


efficient educators in this country, and he is doing a lasting 
service to the children of the United States by ridiculing 
out of the school-room much of the shoe-peg nonsense that 
has been dwarfing the minds of pupils and making mere 
machines of otherwise good teachers. — Editor]. 

Children are usually not admitted to the public schools 
before they are five years old; some of the States keep 
them out until they are six, and a few exclude them, in 
some cases, till they are seven. In general, a child should 
not be started to school before the sixth year. At that 'age 
the brain has attained about 85 per cent, of its adult size, 
and the child is able to use it with as much precision as he 
controls his hands and feet. Without pursuing this remark 
further I wish to call attention to what an average child 
from six to eight years of age will do in numbers the first 
year he attends school, if he has a chance ; and it is the 
chance that I am contending for at this time. If any one's 
toes are tramped he can obtain ample redress by pitching 
into me. 

I assert that the educational doctors, big-pill, little-pill, 
foreign, or native, from Missouri, Massachusetts, or the 
Sandwich Islands, who prescribe "10," or "100," as the 
maximum dose which the child should take the first year 
he is in school, should be "bored with a dull gimlet for 
the simples." Such an educator is a fitter subject to lead 
a mule to a haystack than to outline number work for little 

There are crimes of a more virulent nature than others. 
It is more humane to kill a fellow-creature by one blow 
with a bludgeon than it is to flay him alive, or to starve 
him in a noisome dungeon, or to press him to a pulp by a 
slowly descending heavy mass of wood or iron. But what 
are these methods of torture compared to the person who 
sets himself up as a teacher, and then, in the name of edu- 
cation, starves the mind to a mental death ? Who will say 


it is not a more heinous crime? It may lack the element 
of ijiient^ and, therefore, save the culprit from hanging or 
electrocution, but the effect is the same. If such an 
instructor should be arrested for mental murder, what plea 
could he make that would hold good at the Bar of High 
Heaven? Ignorance by appealing to mercy might save 
him, but outraged justice — never! 

How long does it take the average child to learn his 
letters? How long, reader, were you at that job? 

This question was put to one hundred and sixty-five 
teachers at an Institute in Iowa by the writer, and only one 
person of that number remembered when he did learn his 
"a b c's", and yet a noted educator had spent forty-five 
minutes in showing what an herculean task it is for children 
to learn their letters. How long will it take for the child 
to learn from "o to 9?" Should it take more than a day 
for this job, even if it be let by contract? 

In a week a child will read numbers up to lOO, if the 
teacher will first let him learn lo, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 
80, 90, 100. A little practice each day and the job is com- 
plete. If the child cannot count to a hundred have him 
learn to do so at once. Children at first usually count 
away from the objects to be counted if they are put to 
counting them. That is, they like to exercise their imag- 
ination in counting as well as in other matters. It is a 
good thing for them to do so, irrespective of objects or pre- 
vious conditions of mental, moral, or educational servitude. 
Let the fancy caper^ is an excellent motto. The next step 
is to have them read 11, 21, 31, 41, 51, 61, 71, 81, 91, loi. 
Only one figure changes at each step. Some fellow from 
the rural district, or the city percentage district, will hop 
up and say, "Mr. Speaker, it can't be did!" Hold on, my 
worthy friend. Where is the child that ever went to school 
for a week, unless it be a school for the deaf and dumb, 
that did not learn, "Ten, ten, double-ten, forty-five and 


fifteen," and have these separate things creep np through 
his thinking apparatus as fixed forms for all time — eh? 

But now let us reconstruct. To destroy the foundation 
of belief and not to give something better in its place is 

Teachers, one more sacrifice ! Throw away all your 
shoe-pegs, tooth-picks, beans, grains of corn, and seldom 
or never use them except to illustrate some point. Put 
your children to working with numbers, if you want them 
to pull ahead. If you give a concrete example, follow it 
by an abstract one. If one is to be solved on the slate or 
blackboard, give the next one as a mental problem to be 
solved in the head. 

I can take a class of average children of the age men- 
tioned, and I will give no more time to numbers than I 
give to other subjects proportionately, and in one years' s 
time they will write numbers correctly to 1,000,000; add 
columns of figures up to 100 like a streak of greased light- 
ning; subtract readily, multiply by three or four figures, 
and divide numbers by any one of the nine digits, and not 
hurt or strain or tire their thinkers the least bit. Try it. 

Some years ago I took charge of a class of a dozen little 
boys and girls, and I heard them for forty minutes each 
day recite their number lessons. The first rule was, that 
no one would ever copy or look at another's work till he 
had finished his own. All their written work was put on 
the blackboard during the recitation. 

During the year no one ever copied from another. Hon- 
est failure was meritorious, and they so regarded it. 

This class not only read and wrote numbers to trillions 
rapidly, but they could work by "long division" as well 
as by short, and they had learned all the simpler cases of 
fractions as well as nearly all the tables, by doing them in 


They neglected no other work, but they were always a 
little ahead of time in getting into my recitation-room. 

Instead of having children copy "nonsense" on their 
slates and calling it "little stories in numbers," put the 
children to the blackboard, give problems either to the 
entire class or to each individual member, or to sections 
of the class, and put them to work and let them work with 
a will, not dream and snore, and grow lazy and dull, doing 
a little very laboriously. We want teachers who know 
how to get children to do rapid, intelligent, sensible work. 
Method in general is w^orth something, but that which can- 
not be put into practice, and does not charge the pupil 
with enthusiasm, is not worth raising a disturbance over. 

Throw away the things about numbers and let the chil- 
dren work with numbers, if you wish to succeed and quiet 
your conscience. 

This is getting at the subject in downright earnest. — 
School Joiij'ual [New Yoi'k). 


Under date of September 14th Superintendent C. B. 
Way, of Buncombe, writes The Teacher as follows : 

I will tell you how we •' supplemented " the public school fuud in our 
school district. The committee selected a competent teacher and agreed 
on the salary. We, the people (a part of them), promised to paj' what 
the school fund lacked of paying it, on condition that the whole term 
should be free to the whole district. Result: To-day our school opens 
in charge of Miss Edith F. Smith for a full nine-months' free term ! 
If you think that a good way to "supplement the public fund" you 
can just tell how it's done in The Teacher, and ma}' be some other dis- 
tricts will agree with you and go and do likewise. I believe zealous, 
liberal committeemen could double the school term in half the districts 
in the State if they had a "mind to work. But I would advise them, 


alwaj's, to have the whole term free to all. Not a part free and part 
"subscription." It will make the public school popular as well as 

[This i.s certainly a good way, brother Way; and we 
would like to see the way of the Buncombe county Way 
become the "way of the world," or at least of that part of 
the world within the limits of North Carolina. This is also 
the right way and is a Way ahead of any other way within 
our knowledge. We hope that every other school district 
in Buncombe County will adopt the way of this Way. — 


We have received the following communication from one 
of our friends at New Bern in regard to the proper orthog- 
raphy of the name of that charming little city : 

NmvBERN, N. C, Sept. 21st, 1S91. 
Editor of the N. C. Teachei- : 

I noticed an article published a few days past in your journal which 
saj's: " The editor of The Teacher assisted in a long search of the old 
records for the correct orthography of this name and we found it to be, 
beyond all possible doubt, New Bern." I will be obliged if you will 
inform me where those records are, or give me some extracts from them. 
If so, I will send them to the authorities at Washington City. Of course 
I want no private opi7iions about it, I want legal evidence, such as the 
authorities at Washington City require. 

I will look Avith considerable interest for your journal containing the 
above and your reply to it. 

Very respectfully, 

WiLWAM H. Oliver. 

In reply to the above, we will say that when Moore' s 
School History of North Carolina was undergoing revision 
under the auspices of the State Board of Education, the 
editor of The Teacher was assisting in the work, and in 


order to obtain the correct orthography of the name of this 
city he, with the Secretary of State, the late Col. William 
ly. Saunders, who had the matter of revision in charge, 
spent several hours a day for about two weeks in searching 
the old State records pertaining to the matter in question. 
Col. Saunders was the highest historical authority in North 
Carolina, and he never made a statement upon North Caro- 
lina history until he was sure that he was correct, and his 
opinions have been so accepted by the people. 

The city was founded by Baron De Graffenried, a Swiss 
nobleman, in 1709, about fourteen years before the charter 
of the place was passed by the General Assembly. De 
Graffenried named the place New Bern in honor of his 
former home the capital of Switzerland. The name was 
first spelled with a final "e" only in French maps. 

In all of De Graflfenried's letters, and also in all other offi- 
cial documents, the name is spelled "New Bern." In a 
few instances the " B " was a small letter, but in no case 
was the final "e" added to the Bern. The custom of 
condensing the name into one word is contrary to all pre- 
cedent in names of this class ; the final "e" is a modern 
innovation without authority for its use, and should not be 

The act of Assembly which chartered the city in 1723 is 
not the slightest authority for the spelling of the name, any 
more than it is for several other words in' that same docu- 
ment which were misspelled by the person who wrote the 
bill. That act was to provide for the details in the charter 
of a city and was not to fix the spelling of any certain word. 
In that same session of the Legislature there are many 
proper names of prominent and well known families in 
North Carolina incorrectly spelled, but it has not been con- 
sidered that the act in which the names were mentioned was 
authority for changing the orthography of the names. Nor 
can we accept the mere mention of the word "Newbern" 


in the charter of that city as a reason why the correct spell- 
ing of the name of our charming Elm City, as given by its 
distinguished and intelligent founder, should be so changed 
and mutilated that the tender and patriotic devotion repre- 
sented by the word should be lost. 

Of course the people of New Bern have a right to change 
the name of the city or the spelling of the present name if 
they desire to do so, but if they are seeking to ascertain the 
original and correct name of the city as was given to it by 
its devoted founder, the official records and Baron De Graf- 
fenried's correspondence show that the name must remain 
New Bern. If, however, the name should be adopted as 
Newbern it will be a new name and it will be no longer 
the city which De Graffenried named, but it will hence- 
forth be a city which was named by some member of the 
Legislature of 1723 ! Both of the school histories of North 
Carolina will be compelled to adhere to their present spell- 
ing, "New Bern," because it was so ordered by the State 
Board of Education as the original and only correct orthog- 
raphy of the name. 

That there may be no further doubt in the matter we 
append the following extract from "the manuscript of 
Christopher De Graffenried, copied from the original manu- 
script in the Public Library at Yuerdon, Switzerland, and 
translated by Du Four," as preserved in the office of Secre- 
tary of State at Raleigh : 

"They (the palatines) arrived in the county of Alber- 
marle on the River Chowan at the residence of a rich set- 
tler Col. Pollock, of the Council of North Carolina, he took 
care of them, supplying them with all necessaries, sed pro 
pecunia^ for money, and put them into great boats to cross 
the sound and enter the county of Bath^ where they were 
located by the Surveyor-general on a tongue of land 
between the News' and Trent rivers, called Chatawka, 
where afterwards was founded the small city of New Bern." 


This is an exact copy, following language, punctuation, 
and italics. The city was never known to De Graffenried, 
the Surveyor-general, and his settlers, by any other name 
or style of spelling the name than "New Bern," and thus 
the name should remain if the memory of its scholarly and 
distinguished founder is to be perpetuated, as is most truly 
desired by the people of North Carolina. 

It is a great point to learn to respect the opinions of 
others — even of inferiors. The man who has opinions and 
sticks to them is to be admired ; but the same man is more 
to be admired if he have sufficient broadness of views to see 
that there are other opinions to be held. 

Patrons are more likely to give moral support to a 
teacher who, outside of the school-room as well as in it, 
sustains her reputation for common sense, and shows her- 
self amenable to the motives common to cultivated people 
in other vocations. — A. S. Draper^ State Siipt. of Schools^ 
New York. 

An exchange wisely remarks that a teacher should ever 
remember that among children — however it mayibe among 
adults — respect always precedes attachment. If he would 
gain the love of the children he must first be worthy of 
their respect. He should therefore act deliberately, and 
always conscientiously. He should be firm, but never petu- 
lant. It is very important at the outset that hejshould be 
truly courteous and affable. 



Though the weather be wet, 
And your clothing be mussed, 
Be a brick ; 
Don't grumble and fret, 
For the rain, don't forget. 
Is laying the dust — 
Don't kick. 

Though the weather be hot. 
And boiled be your blood, 
Till 'tis thick; 
Be content with your lot, 
For the sunshine is what 
Is drying the mud — 
Don't kick. 

— Detroit Free Press. 


Worthless, wicked boys I've seen, 

Doing nothing; 
And they grow up worthless men. 

Doing nothing; 
Life to them a pastime proved. 
As they spent it all unloved, 

Doing nothing. 



Ill the street — Hat lifted when saying "Good by" or 
"How do you do?" i\lso when offering a lady a seat or 
acknowledging a favor. 

Keep step with anyone you walk with. Always precede 
a lady up stairs, but ask if you shall precede her in going 
through a crowd or public place. 

At the street door — Hat off the moment you step in a 
house or private office. 

Let a lady pass first always, unless she asks you to pre- 
cede her. 

Ill the parlor — Stand till every lady in the room, also 
older people, are seated. 

Rise if a lady enters the room after you are seated, and 
stand till she takes a seat. 

Look people straight in the face when they are speaking 
to you. 


There is a girl ten years old near Pittsburg, Pennsylva- 
nia, who speaks only in a language of her own invention, 
though she reads and understands English. The only 
person who can translate the peculiar tongue is an elder 
sister. A portion of her vocabulary is as follows: " Chy- 
chy-kyk," a colt; "sota," angry; "phatota," pleasure or 
fun; " tooky tuba," a strong rope; "meli," mamma; 
' ' beloh, ' ' papa ; ' ' popo tikon, ' ' to swing to and fro. Certain 
philologists are studying this new speech with the hope of 
discovering some facts as to the origin of language. 



Don't pronounce "nephew" as nev-ue ; \t is 7ief-tie ; only 
English cockneys S2.y nev-ue. Don't pronounce "beneath" 
as be-neethe (th as in bathe) it is be-neeth. Be very cautious 
in giving "a" the broad sound in such words as "half," 
"calf," "basket," "pastor," "behalf," "casket," "after," 
for such a pronunciation belongs to a certain system which 
is not correct or popular among intelligent people in the 
South ; to be consistent you must use the whole system of 
pronunciation, which makes "i" long in "neither" and 

No other system of pronunciation is so correct or pleas- 
ing as that used by the educated people of the Southern, 
States, and it should be the aim of teachers to keep our 
pronunciation pure and uncorrupted by Northern or for- 
eign innovations. 


Two teachers of language were discussing matters and 
things relative to their profession. 

"Do your pupils pay up regularly on the first of each 
month ?" asked one of them. 

"No, they -do not," was the reply. "I often have to 
wait for weeks and weeks before I get my pay, and some- 
times I don't get it at all. You can't well dun the parents 
for the money. ' ' 

"Why don't you do as I do? I always get my money 

"How do you manage it?" 

"It is very simple. For instance, I am teaching a boy 


French, on the first day of the month his folks don't send 
the money for his lessons. In this event I give |him the 
followinof sentences to translate and write out at home : 'I 
have no money. The month is up. Hast thou got any 
money? I need money very much. Why hast thou not 
brought the money this morning? Did thy father not give 
thee any money?' The next morning that boy brings the 
money ." — Jeivish Messenger. 


BY F. G. B. 

Children, I'm going to give you all 

iV piece of good advice: 
Remember, now, each word I say — 

I cannot give it twice. 
You've doubtless heard it many a time. 
As told in prose and told in rhyme. 

Each morning early be at school, 

There study well, obey each rule; 

Be sure your hands and face are clean, 

Your hair well brushed when there you're seen. 

At home take care to close each door, 

And don't throw things upon the floor. 

Follow these rules, and though you're small. 

You'll find yourself beloved by all. 

— School Journal {Xew Yoi'k) 

Ill-humor arises from an inward consciousness of our 
own want of merit, from a discontent which ever accom- 
panies that envy which foolish vanity engenders. — Goethe. 

£olitt\^ri\ fTdliQatioixal i\550Qiatioi\. 

ORGANIZATION 1891-1892. 

SOLOMON PALMER, President, East Lake, Florida. 

EUGENE G. HARRELL, Secretary and Treasurer, Raleigh, N. C. 

W. T. WATSON, Assistant Secretary, Memphis, Tennessee. 


1. E. B. Prettyman, Maryland. 8. J. G. Harris, Alabama. 

2. John E. Massey, Virginia. 9. J. R. Preston, Mississippi. 

3. B. S. Morgan, West Virginia. 10. W. H. Jack, Louisiana. 

4. S. M. Finger, North Carolina. 11. J. M. Carlisle, Texas. 

5. W. D. Mayfield, S. Carolina. 12. J. H. Shinn, Arkansas. 

6. S. B. Bradwell, Georgia. 13. W. R. Garrett, Tennessee. 

7. A. J. Russell, Florida. 14. Ed. Porter Thompson, Ky. 

15. W. E. Coleman, Missouri. 


Solomon Palmer, ex officio Chairman, East Lake, Alabama. 
E. G. Harrell, ex officio Secretary, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

1. J. H. Phillips, Superintendent Cit}- Schools, Birmingham, Ala. 

2. W. H. Sutton, Superintendent of Schools, Jackson, Mississippi. 

3. Thomas D. Bo\'d, President State Normal, Natchitoches, La. 

4. O. H. Cooper, Superintendent City Schools, Galveston, Texas. 

5. J. W. Conger, President Ouachita College, Arkadelphia, Arkansas. 

6. J. M. Stewart, Agricultural and Mechanical College, Lake Cit)', Fla. 

7. J. M. Greenwood, Superintendent Schools, Kansas City, Missouri. 

8. R. N. Roark, State Normal College, Lexington, Kentucky. 

9. Frank M. Smith, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee. 

10. Euler B. Smith, President State Association, LaGrange, Georgia. 

11. Edward S. Joynes, University- of South Carolina, Columbia, S. C. 

12. Hugh Morson, President Teachers' Assembly, Raleigh, N. C. 

13. L. H. Vawter, Superintendent Miller Industrial School, Crozet, Va. 

14. W. R. White, Superintendent of Schools, Morganton, W. Va. 

15. Daniel Oilman, Johns Hopkins Universit}', Baltimore, Maryland. 



The social enjoyments of the grand meeting on Look- 
out Mountain, Tennessee, in July, have left the most pleas- 
ant impressions with everyone who was present on that 
occasion, and the educational reunion next summer will be 
enjoyed by thousands of Southern teachers. Will you try 
to be present? 

The Secretary has the manuscript copy of the pro- 
ceedings of the recent session on Lookout Mountain about 
ready for the press. There are yet three papers to be sent 
in for publication, and that will complete the work. The 
volume will be near three hundred pages, and we propose 
to make it, in mechanical appearance, as it is in literary 
merit, fully creditable to the Southern Educational Asso- 
ciation and the eighty thousand teachers of our Southland 
whom it represents. 

Hon. Josiah H. Shinn, of Arkansas, the first Presi- 
dent of the Southern Educational Association, attended 
the National Association at Toronto, Canada. It is said 
that his response to the address of welcome was the best 
speech made during the session of that body, and we are 
fully prepared to believe this, knowing, as we do, that Prof. 
Shinn is one of the finest orators in the entire South. His 
eloquence is always intensified by the inspiration of the 
very strongest Southern devotion and patriotism. 

The new President of the Southern Educational 
Association — Hon. Solomon Palmer — is a distinguished, 
cultured, courtly and typical Southern gentleman. He 
has most acceptably served his State (Alabama) as State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction for several terms, and 
he is now President of the Atheneum at East Lake, Ala- 
bama, an educational institution of high grade and most 
gratifying success. President Palmer will have the heart- 
iest co-operation of all Southern teachers in his official' 
work during the present fiscal year. 



The writer of the following letter, Mr. D. S. Richard- 
son, is held in tender memory and esteem by the editor of 
The Teacher, and also by many of our readers who were 
his pupils at Wilson during those dark days of the War for 
Southern Independence. The letter is a most interesting 
one, coming to us from the far-off Pacific Slope, and giving 
pleasant impressions of the wonderful educational progress 
that North Carolina is now making, and setting forth the 
proud reputation which North Carolina bears among sister 

East Oakland, Cal., Sept. 4, 1891, 
EleventJi Avenue and Twenty-fourtJi St.^ No. iSyg. 

Mr. Eugene G. Harrell, 

Editor North Carolina TeacJier. 

Dear Sir — I well remember you and your parents at 
Wilson, and would be glad to hear more of you all. Seven 
years ago I drifted to the "Golden Gate" — "God's own 
Country" — and reside here, just across the bay from San 
Francisco; wife, son and his wife, and the grandchild, all 
together and happy. 

I was seventy years old on the ist inst., and that terrible 
old cowboy. Time, has at last rounded me up and branded 
me "Old ]\Ian," though I still remain, as of yore, a 
"(5(9)^" — kind Holmes' "gray-haired boy." Of course I 
live much in the past, through "memory's mellowing 
glass," and I hardly need say that I cherish, with increas- 
ing fondness, the memory of the "Good Old North State 
forever," where I labored so many years and claim so many 
dear ex-pupils and friends. It gives me much joy to learn 
of her prosperity, especially in educational interests. Never 
has there been a time when I have been slow to "protect 


and defend her" from the tannts of flippant "witlings," 
with "Mecklenburg" and General Lee's panegyric and 
benediction at Appomattox, when with tears in his eyes he 
blessed the " Tar-Heel" boys for having stuck to him and 
the cause the closest of all ; and latterly with the solid facts 
I got from your "Teacher," telling us that North Caro- 
lina pays more to-day, in proportion to her wealth, notwith- 
standing her utter impoverishment from the war, for the 
education of her whites and blacks^ than either of her more 
boastful sister States of New York, Connecticut or Massachu- 
setts. But who in the North and West sees such statements ? 
Continue to let them come. I wish to see a copy of Supt. 
Finger's facts and figures on Education in the South. x\ 
quarter of a century since the war, it is true, but the 
"sober second thought" and intelligence of both sections, 
North and West, are ready now, thank God, to accept the 
"truth of history." Let the evidences still come from 
other Binghams at National Educational Conventions and 
from journals like your own And permit me to congratu- 
late you on the "Teacher" — so elegantly gotten up, so 
well edited and so well supported, I confess to a surprise ! 
I at once went to comparing it with our old "N. C. Jour- 
nal of Education," rather antediluvian now and hard doubt- 
less to find a copy of it amid the debris of the war. It was 
born at Salisbury, at an Educational Convention, in 1857, 
by "Resolution " of your humble servant, and was at once 
adopted by the Association and by Superintendent Wiley 
as the official organ, with W. B. Carr, G. W. Brooks and 
myself the editorial corps, and we carried it forward into 
the first year of the war, upholding the universal cause and 
holding up the hands of Supt. C. H. Wiley as our Moses — 
"Aaron and Hurr on the right and on the left." And your 
late issue well suggests a monument to his honor and other 
pioneers in education. His whole soul and private purse 
were in the cause.. Let Minerva, as well as Mars, have her 


demi-gods. In front of the State House in Boston stands 
the marble statue of Horace Mann, side by side with Daniel 
Webster! May I suggest? Let the "mites" of the school 
children of the whole State be permitted to meet the neces- 
sary " mickle " of contribution, only I would like to add 
a trifle myself. 

This subject brings before me sad reflections — the "giants 
in those days" are nearly all gone, I see. Their records 
and their memories should be timely and suitably embalmed 
by the historians of your Assembly, if only a volume or 
two, to accompany Wiley's and your more recent History 
of the State. Heaven forbid that all "the good" due to 
the faithful, unpretentious "school-master," shall be for- 
ever "interred" with his "bones." 

But your "Assemblies" — they are immense! perfect 
ovations to the cause ! and supplemented with royal excur- 
sions !.....;. 

" God send Rome one such other sight, and send me there to see." 

All these things speak so eloquently for the espi^it die 
corps and character of your whole teaching fraternity. 
Indeed, all things are possible, when each teacher can lay 
his hand on his heart and say truly, with Jean Paul Richter, 
"I love God and little children." Have you any malcon- 
tents? Not many, I feel assured. Some "offences must 
need come" from a few pessimists — "born blind," unwit- 
ting, unamiable, cynical — but get on all the same, " //wr 
ad astra. ' ' 

I notice that State book publishing is in discussion. 
Good — at least so far as each State's editing and publishing 
its own histories. California has been experimenting in 
this line, but the project is a failure. 

In conclusion, I am. 

Yours fraternally, 

D. S. Richardson, 

■- '■ ..•..■ . formerly of 1 he " Wilson Schools,'' Wilson, N. C. 



For the cause that lacks assistance, 
For the wrong that needs resistance, 
For the future in the distance. 
And the good that we can do." 


The following notice we clipped from the Columbia, 
S. C, State^ and we think that it is a strong appeal for 
reliability, and faithful compliance of contract, on the part 
of teachers : 


The Barnwell Graded vSchool is again without a principal, for the 
second time this year, before the session opens. Early in the summer 
the board met and re-elected the principal, Prof. Otis, who kept us wait- 
ing for about a month and then accepted. He afterwards got a better 
offer and resigned. We then advertised for a principal, and out of a 
dozen or more applicants we elected Mr. C. R. Spencer, who had testi- 
monials from vSumter to Germany. He accepted, but in a week resigned, 
although he knew his salary, but got a better offer somewhere else. 

Now, this is a poor way for teachers to do — apply for anything they 
see, and accept and resign at their own will, leaving the board of trvis- 
tees to hunt up another teacher, not knowing then, if elected and accept- 
ing, whether he will be here on time or not. 

We hope that the Teachers' Institute will hav'e a few lectures on legal 
and moral obligations during their summer meeting. 

We want another teacher at a salar}' of I75 per month. A. T. W. 
Barnwell, S. C, Aug. 25tli, 1891. 

After a teacher has applied for a position, well knowing 
the salary and all other conditions of the position, and has 
been elected by the school board, and arrangements com- 
pleted for opening the school, it is not right for him to 
accept the situation and then make any change during the 
term for which he was elected, no matter what may be the 
inducement to go elsewhere. An honest and faithful com- 


pliance with an honest contract is much more expected of 
and due from a teacher than from any other person. A 
teacher of a school cannot afford to be known as an unre- 
liable man or woman. This is not the kind of reputation 
that a real teacher wants to make and this is not the exam- 
ple that a teacher should set for pupils to follow. 

The North Carolina Teacher is read not only in the 
forty-six States of this Union, but we have subscribers in 
England, Canada, Scotland, France, Italy, China, Cuba, 
Germany and South America. 

We have had a number of applications by mail for our 
"Instructions for Organizing Teachers' Councils," and 
several county organizations have been effected during the 
past month. Is jc?^;' county organized ? 

Didn't we tell you that 189 1-2 would be the biggest 
and best educational year in the history of North Carolina? 
The Teachers' Assembly has aroused our State on the sub- 
ject of education more than ever before in its history. 

We will be obliged to limit our Cuban party to fifty 
persons, as only that number of berths can be secured on 
the steamer at our low special rate. If you desire to join 
the party don't delay too long in sending your application 
as, the places are being rapidly taken. 

SiNCEREST THANKS are tendered our friends throughout 
the State for sending us so many interesting news items 
about our teachers and schools. We will not tempt our- 
selves into vanity by publishing any of the very kind and 
friendly words that come with most of the reports. 

There has never been such an educational revival in 
North Carolina as now ; every school in the State has more 
pupils than ever before and the teachers are doing better 
work. The "shoe-pegs, splints and tooth-picks" have 
disappeared from all the principal schools and the children 
are making rapid and honest progress in their studies. 


A MEMBER of the Georgia legislature recently introduced 
a bill making it a misdemeanor for any teacher in that 
State to allow the use in his school of a history which 
refers to the War for Southern Independence "as the war 
of the rebellion." North Carolina teachers are justly dis- 
carding all such books without waiting for a law to pro- 
hibit their use. 

A NUMBER of teachers have taken advantage of the 
special reduction to $3.00 for ninety days made by Messrs. 
Alfred Williams & Co., on their Cobb's "School Map of 
North Carolina," and have supplied their schools. The 
map is in size 4x6 feet, is handsomely mounted for the wall, 
and it is indispensable in every well organized school. 
Your school committee will purchase a copy for you if yoa 
desire it. 

The DATE appointed for "Educational Week" during 
the Southern Exposition at Raleigh is October 12th to 
17th. The Educational committee under the direction of 
its energetic chairman, Captain C. B. Denson, is working 
hard to secure a good representative exhibit by all the lead- 
ing public and private schools in North Carolina. The 
indications are for an excellent display of school work, and 
there will be thousands of teachers in Raleigh to see it. 

The North Carolina Teacher received, during the 
year which closed with the "Assembly Number," /c'wr/^^'/z 
himdred and sixty iiezv subscriptiois^ making an average of 
near one hundred and twenty-five subscribers each month. 
Not another word is needed to prove the popularity of The 
Teacher and how heartily it is endorsed by the teachers 
of North Carolina. This popularity is steadily and rapidly 
increasing, while the subscription list is likewise growing. 

A "Normal and Industrial School for Young 
Women" fully established ; first-class Teachers' Institutes 
in every county ; about sixty Teachers' Councils holding 


live and enthusiastic meetings each month in as many- 
counties of the State ; every school in the State full to 
overflowing ; and over three thousand teachers and friends 
of education in attendance upon the Teachers' Assembly in 
June ! Indeed, the Old North State is far in the lead and 
intends to hold that position. 

' Every school in North Carolina should be interested 
enough in the State and the cause of education as to sus- 
pend work during "Educational Week" at the Exposi- 
tion, and let teachers and pupils come to Raleigh to see the 
biggest display of school work ever made in our State. 
All public school committees ought to give that week of 
holiday — and not deduct anything from the teacher' s salajy. 
The people who pay taxes for schools are liberal and will- 
ing enough to ^z'z'^ " Educational Week " to the teachers. 

The Southern Educator^ of Durham, seems greatly dis- 
tressed because some teachers, whose names did not even 
appear on the programme of the Teachers' x'lssembly, and 
one or two other persons whose names did appear, were for 
various unavoidable reasons not present at the session, even 
after accepting invitations to attend. He forgot to continue 
his investigation long enough to also ask where was Rev. 
John W. Crowell, D. D., the owner of the Southern Edu- 
cator^ and its editor-in-chief, who, upon his ozvn special 
request^ had been given a whole week on the programme 
for a course of lectures upon "Political Economy," and 
yet did not put in an appearance, although he was less 
than a hundred and fifty miles from Morehead City, during 
the session of the Assembly, while the other absentees 
mentioned were each several hundred miles distant from 
the State ! It is sometimes better before we undertake to 
criticise other people to first look around our own homes, 
if we want to keep ourselves from appearing ridiculous to 
those who happen to be posted. 


There are yet a few text-books on Geography which 
persist in telling the children of the United States that 
"North Carolina is noted for tar, pitch and turpentine." 
This statement is a falsehood " from the whole cloth," and 
all authors of Geographies who are so ignorant as not yet 
to know that the great staples of North Carolina are cot- 
ton, corn, tobacco, wheat, rice, oats, and that the State has 
nearly all the valuable metals and minerals, and woods and 
timbers that are to be found in America, is unworthy of 
belief in any statements they make, and their so-called text- 
books should be used by no North Carolina teacher. It is 
well known to ever}-body, except a few yet benighted 
Geography makers, that North Carolina fills more of the 
blanks in the United States census reports than any other 
State in the Union, and we propose to shortly give the 
readers of The Teacher the names of all authors of 
Geographies who have never taken the trouble to enquire 
what are the chief products of North Carolina so as to tell 
the children of our schools the truth in this matter. 

The teachers in some of our colleges and seminaries 
complain that many of the students coming from the pub- 
lic graded schools are deficient in English and in spelling. 
This shows the result of not giving more attention and 
study to the grammar and spelling book. We have stated 
many times before that while "language lessons" and 
"dictation exercises" were good in their place, they could 
not do the indispensable work of the grammar and spelling- 
book. The teacher who thinks he is teaching a child to 
spell without requiring it to thoroughh- memorize daily 
lessons from some regular spelling book, is wasting time 
and the child finds it out when it enters college. A man 
or woman may know all about Latin, Greek and the 
sciences, but if they cannot spell correctly aud write easily 
and clearly they are not educated, but are sadly deficient in 
the foundation of all learning. "Though they speak with 


the tongues of men and of angels," and have not a thorough 
knowledge of English grammar and spelling, they are as 
nothing among educated people, but "are as sounding brass 
or a tinkling cymbal." 

A North Carolina teacher, male or female, is wanted 
as stenographic secretary for the next session of the Assem- 
bly. An expert stenographer and typographist will be 
required, but the work will be light and the remuneration 
will be good. Of course the papers and written addresses 
are not to be reported in short-hand, only the discussions 
and ex tempore speeches. A teacher is preferred for the 
work, but if no teacher desires the position it will be given 
to some pupil in a North Carolina school. Applications 
should be sent to the Secretary. 

It is not the mission of The Teacher to criticise any 
school books, but it is our special work to "protect and 
defend North Carolina" and correct so-called history of the 
State wherever found. A book for schools has been 
recently published entitled " Montgomery's Leading Facts, 
in American History," and the author is so ignorant of 
history or full of sectional prejudice that not even a single 
line or word is mentioned concerning the "Mecklenburg- 
Declaration of Independence" or the "Battle of Ala- 
mance " two of the most important leading facts in Ameri- 
can history. The book would more correctly bear the title 
"Leading Facts (or supposed facts) in Massachusetts His- 
tory," for the author gives many pages to painting the Revo- 
lutionary history of Boston in most brilliant hues, and his 
New England enthusiasm runs away with his veracity so far 
as to cause him to make the most astounding statement that 
"Massachusetts declared for independence in 1772!" North 
Carolina schools have no use for such a so-called history of 
"leading facts. " There are other important omissions and 
inaccuracies in connection with this reputed history which 
concern the South sufficient to fill a volume. 


Dr. Geo. T. Winston, will be formally inaugurated as 
President of the University at Chapel Hill on October 14th. 
We hope that it will be a grand occasion and largely 
attended. ' ■ ■; ,.'.■. .■;- 

When The Southern Educational Association was organ- 
ized at Morehead City in 1890, it had one bitter enemy in 
what purports to be The Southern Educator of Durham. 
The "Southron" editor of that journal was "not in it" 
as he delights to express it ; but the Southern Educational 
Association is marching on to grand achievements just the 
same, while Mr. Sheppe, his spiteful antagonism and his 
little monthly are scarcely heard of beyond the corporation 
of the city of his present abode. 

If the teachers of North Carolina do not think it 
worth their while to subscribe for your Southern Educator^ 
brother Sheppe, don't get into a snarl and denounce the 
teachers and their great and delightful Assembl)' under the 
guise of "friendly criticism." The teachers have made 
their Assembly just what they want it to be, and it will be 
well for you to let them manage their own business as they 
think proper. If you or a few of your allies do not like 
the Teachers' Assembly and its management, 3'ou are at 
perfect liberty to be absent when thousands of the leading 
teachers of North Carolina meet in their grand annual 
gatherings. You have no fees to pay whether you are 
present or absent, and "you never will be missed." Per- 
haps you and your two or three associate growlers can 
spend your time more profitably and pleasantly during the 
summers with your "Southern Association of City Super- 
intendents" and "Education Club of the South," which 
mythical bodies are more congenial to your ideas of what 
an educational organization should be — exist only in name 
and in the imagination of the F. F. V. editor of the .S"^?/////- 
er7i Educator^ their reputed organ. 


The Durham Southern Educator seems to esteem The 
North Carolina Teacher very highly, as it has not 
only tried to imitate this journal as near as possible in style 
and departments, but tne ingenious editor of the Educator 
has made up almost the entire department of " North State 
Notes" in his September number from the personal pages 
of a previous number of The North Carolina Teacher ! 

"He who would honestly edit 
Should always be willing to "credit"; 
But to clip without end, 
And no credit append, 
Is not the fair thing, — we have said it." 

In the September number of the Educator there are fifty- 
six news items and forty-three of them are taken from The 
Teacher, and the astute editor did not have caution 
enough to keep from following some changes that we had 
made in the items wdiich were sent direct to us purposely 
to recognize them again ! 

The North Carolina Teacher most cordially wel- 
comes to this State worthy strangers and teachers from all 
other States and lands, and does all in its power to make 
their residence with us both pleasant and profitable, and 
we are proud to say that there are many such teachers in 
our State. But the educational "foreigner" who "knows 
it all;" wants to reorganize in order to destroy our most 
successful Teachers' Assembly ; tries to rechristen our coun- 
try as "The New South ;" scarcely knows the State well 
enough to find his way to the capital ; hardly "knows 
the alphabet both ways ;" writes the "Queries" for his 
journal in his office, from imaginary correspondents, and 
answers them from a book ; never sees anything good in 
Isiorth Carolina without trying to prove that a like thing 
is much better in some other State ; tries earnestly to 
belittle North Carolina and all her enterprises ; depreciates 
the faithfulness of our teachers ; and whose whole conduct 


shows that he cares nothing for our State except what he 
can make out of it — from all such afflictions "Good Lord 
deliver us." 

When a man tries to accomplish some particular thing 
and realizes that he is devoid of the brain force necessary 
to success, he is always envious and jealous of any other 
person who is successful in similar undertakings. The 
F. F. V. editor, Mr. Edwin S. Sheppe, of the Sotiihern 
Educator alias the Winston School Teacher^ tried to organ- 
ize and keep alive a "Southern Association of City Super- 
intendents" and an "Education Club of the South," but 
failed to secure even a single meeting, consequently he 
hates most cordially the North Carolina Teachers' Assem- 
bly which has been holding such grand and enthusiastic 
meetings for eight years, bringing together annually thou- 
sands of the most prominent teachers of this and other 
States and their friends, increasing in popularity and attend- 
ance at each session until its roll for the meeting this sum- 
mer shows over three thousand persons present. And yet, 
this famous (!) organizer of "Superintendents Associa- 
tions" and "Educational Clubs" asserts that such educa- 
tional leaders as Winston, Burwell, Hume, Dinwiddle, Dr. 
Lewis, Poteat, Morson, Smith, Moses, Finger, Davis, 
Joynes, Claxton, Noble, Alderman, Howell, Mclver, Holt, 
Blair, and other members of the Executive Committees of 
the Teachers' Assembly do not know how to manage the 
affairs of the Assembly! The celebrated "cheek of the 
government mule" would glitter as celestial modesty when 
compared with this brazen effrontery. The Executive Com- 
mittees of the Teachers' Assembly have entire charge of the 
programmes, and engagements with Dr. Talmage and every 
other special lecturer are made by order of the Executive 
Committees. Mr. Sheppe's "fpendly criticism" disguise is 
an enmity dodge as old as the serpent which invented it in 
the Garden of Eden, and North Carolina teachers are fully 


aware that it is only a silly effort to lessen the benefits of 
the Teachers' Assembly, devised by the jealousy of the 
sojourning editor of the SoutJiern Educator. 

Will somebody who happens to be near enough, please 
gently pat on the head the little Southern Educator of 
Durham and its excited Virginia editor, Mr. Edwin S. 
Sheppe, and persuade "Sheppie" to let his "furrin" 
blood cool down. He is too hot to tell the truth even 
about his native State, Virginia, and of course we cannot 
expect him to do any better for North Carolina, where he is 
at present sojourning. But he is only following the well 
known habit of every other envious Virginian who has 
written about North Carolina. They have claimed Vir- 
ginia Dare, declared that Virginia made the first Declara- 
tion of Independence, have tried to rob us of the immortal 
glory won by our gallant Pettigrew at Gettysburg, and now 
this more modern migratory F, F. V. editor of the Educator 
wants to remodel the North Carolina Teachers' Assembly, 
with the hope that he may destroy it as he has done two 
nominal educational organizations that were in his hands ! 
It is very strange that Mr. Sheppe had to leave his home, 
Virginia, where he says there are so much larger schools 
and more school money than in North Carolina, to come 
into the Old North State for a support ! Perhaps his rare 
rhetoric and marvelous organizing skill were not fully real- 
ized and appreciated by those who knew him ; and we are 
not surprised at this when we see in the September number 
of the SoutJiern Educator such elegant editorial headlines 
as " Northampton Gets There," " Davidson to the Fore, " 
and "They All Are In It," and remember the fate of the 
so-called organizations of which his journal professed to be 
the official organ. 



Miss M. E. Ellison is teaching at Fayetteville. 

Miss Laura Holton is teaching at Yadkinville. 

Miss Amelia Eaton is teaching at Cana, Davie County. 

Miss Bettie Graves, of Wilson, is teaching at Asheville. 

Mr. p. E. Johnson is teaching at Rome, Johnston County. 

Miss Fannie Thompson has a crowded school at Pittsboro. 

Mr. Moses Morgan is teaching at Light, Davidson County. 

Miss Ella Morris has a school at Coleraine, Bertie County. 

Miss JosiE PiERSON is teaching at Walnut Cove, Stokes County. 

Miss Jennie O. Grady is Principal of the High School at Halifax. 

Miss Lula Gay, of Wilson, is teaching at Spring Hope, Nash County. 

R. L. Fritz is Professor of Mathematics in Flighland College, Hickor}-. 

Miss HaTTie Lee Atwater is teaching at Rialto, Chatham County. 

Miss Annie Patterson has a school at Mangum, Richmond County. 

Mr. J. H. Ouinn is principal of the High School at Boiling Springs, 
N. C. 

Miss Kate ClEndennin, of Graham, has taken a school at Frank- 

Miss Annie C. LEE, of Vanceboro, is teaching at Ernul, Craven 

Miss vSalliE Maynard, of Graham, is teaching at Corbett, Alamance 

Miss SalliE McCracken has a good school at Crusoe, Haywood 

Miss Anna MerriTT has a fine Music School at Pittsboro, Chatham 

Mr. D. McBryde is Principal of the High School at Faison, Duplin 

Miss Janie M. Hicks is now in charge of a school at Cherokee, vSouth 

Miss Fannie Cobb has been elected a teacher in the Graded Schools 
at Raleigh. • 

Greenville Institute opens with 154 pupils. Mr. W. H. Ragsdale 
is Principal. 

Miss Irene Carroll, of Sampson, is teaching at New Hope Academy 
near Clinton. 



Mr. D. T. W11.SON, of Sampson County, is teaching at Beaufort, Car- 
teret Couut3\ 

Miss Lucie Brinkley is teaching at "South End," near Manteo, 
Dare County. 

Miss Chloe Parker, of Raleigh, has taken a school at Belcross, 
Camden County. 

Miss MaTTIE E. Rouse has a very successful Art School at Washing- 
ton, Beaufort County. 

Mr. W. p. White and wife have charge of Cross-Roads Academy at 
Cape, Randolph Count}'. 

Mr. Leon Cash, of Farmington, has been elected County Superin- 
tendent of Davie County. 

Miss Charlotte Bush has charge of a class in Physical Culture at 
Pittsboro, Chatham County. 

The Public Graded Schools of Raleigh opened on September iSth 
with a very fine attendance. 

Miss Florence Whitlock has charge of the music department of the 
Graded Schools of Asheville. 

Rev. J. B. Newton, of Bertie County, has taken charge of the Academy 
at Fork Church, Davie County. 

Miss Virginia Murphy, of Winston, has been elected a teacher in 
the Graded Schools at that place. 

Miss Cora Conrad, of Lewisville, is teacher of Art in the Baptist 
College for Girls at Danville, Va. 

Miss Viola Boddie, of Nashville, has accepted a position as teacher 
in the Asheville Graded Schools. 

The Durham Graded School bonds have all been sold, and work 
on the building will begin at once. 

There are more pupils in the schools of Raleigh than in the schools 
of any other city of North Carolina. 

Mr. E. L. Crocker (Wake Forest College) has charge of the Acad- 
emy at Williamston, Martin County. 

Miss Helen McVea has opened a school for little boys and girls at 
her home on Halifax street in Raleigh. 

Miss Ada Barwick, of Grifton, has taken charge of Alexander's Acad- 
emy at Edwards' Mill, Beaufort County. 

Misses Ella Houston and Ona Patterson are Principals of the 
High School at Waco, Cleveland County. 

Mr. Holland M. Thompson, of Lincolnton, has taken a position as 
teacher in the Charlotte Graded Schools. 


Mr. W. O. Riddick (Wake Forest College) has been elected Principal 
of the High School at Franklin, Macon County. 

Mr. G. E. Barnett (Randolph-Macon), of Dailsville, Md., is Princi- 
pal of the Academy at Mocksville, Davie County. 

There are one hundred and forty students at Davidson College, the 
largest number since its foundation fifty-four years ago. 

Mr. Perrin BusbeE (University of N. C), of Raleigh, has accepted 
a position as assistant teacher in the Raleigh Male Academy. 

Mr. Hunter Harris (University of N. C), of Raleigh, has been 
appointed Assistant Professor in Mineralogy at the University. 

Mr. W. H. Cralle (Virginia Military Institute), of Blackstone, Va., 
has been elected Principal of the Graded Schools at Goldsboro. 

The Davis Military Schooi, at Winston is preparing to bring a large 
battalion of soldier boys to the Exposition at Raleigh in October. 

Mrs. J. M. Barbee, formerly a teacher in the Raleigh Graded Schools, 
has again accepted the position, much to the delight of the little folks. 

Mr. H. F. Ketron has a school of seventy-five pupils at Mt. Carmel, 
Buncombe County. He is assisted by Miss Eula Campbell, of Asheville. 

Mr. M. L. John, who has been for the past two years Principal of the 
Academy at Mocksville, is now taking the law course of the University. 

Stokes County Teachers' CounciIv is prospering under the manage- 
ment of Capt. S. B. Taylor as President, and Miss Mildred Hill as Sec- 

Mr. Edgar G. Wingfield, of Virginia, a graduate of the University 
of Virginia, has been elected Superintendent of the City Graded Schools 
of Shelby. 

The excellent Graded Schools at Goldsboro, Mr. J. Y. Joyner 
Superintendent, opened September 21st with the largest attendance in 
their history. 

Mr. a. C. Hottenstein is Principal of Piedmont Seminary at Lex- 
ington, and Miss Mattie McLean is assistant. Prospects for a successful 
term are good. 

Mr. John A. Gates (Wake Forest College) is Principal of the South 
River Baptist Institute at Autryville, Sampson County. Miss Annie 
Clute is Music Teacher. 

Greensboro Female College, Rev. B. F. Dixon, D. D., President, 
began the fall term with one hundred and twenty-five charming 3-oung 
ladies as boarding pupils. 

Mr. John B. Spillman (Wake Forest), of Weldon, who was recently 
assistant teacher in the Raleigh Male Academy, is in charge of a large 
school at Starrville, Texas. 


The Raleigh Graded Schools began the fall work on September 
17th with eight hundred and ten white children and about five hundred 
Negro children in attendance. 

St. Mary's School, Raleigh, began its fiftieth term on September 
24th. Near a hundred and fifty pupils in attendance, a larger number 
than ever before at the opening. 

Rev. George W. Greene, Professor of Latin, Wake Forest College, 
has sailed with his family to China as a missionarj-, under the auspices 
of the Southern Baptist Convention. 

Mr. J. D. Barden, of Wilson, has been elected Superintendent of 
vSchools for W^ilson County, in place of Mr. W. S. Barnes, who resigned 
to accept the secretaryship of the Farmers' Alliance. 

Mr. W. H. Clendexnin is Principal of the High School at Plainview, 
Robeson County. Miss Sallie Sinclair is assistant and Miss Virginia 
Coble is Music Teacher. Eighty-five pupils are enrolled. 

The "Westerist North Carolina Teachers' Association" will 
hold a working session at Brj'son City, October 28-30, 1S91. A fine pro- 
gramme has been arranged and a good crowd is expected. 

Miss M. H. Bain, who was a teacher at the Oxford Female Seminary 
for several years, has taken charge of the Portsmouth (Va.) Seminary, a 
long-established and popular English and Classical School for young 

Dr.R. H. Lewis the excellent President of Judson College at Hen- 
dersonville, is increasing the patronage of the institution very much. 
He is assisted by Miss Katharine Lewis, Miss E. H. Draughan and Miss 
Kate Johnson. 

Rev. J. R. Jones is Principal of the Seminary for Girls at Milton, 
Caswell County. His assistants are Miss Corinne Jeffress, of Chase 
City, Va.; Miss Anna C. Ott, of Spottswood, Va., and Miss Mamie Dod- 
son, of Milton, N. C. 

Mr. D. Michael, Professor in " Lillo de Costa Rica" at San Jose, 
Costa Rica, South America, sends a subscription to the Teacher. We 
hope to give our readers some notes upon South American Schools from 
Mr. Michael ere long. 

Miss Mamie Webb, of Richmond, Va., is in charge of the Primary 
Department of Carolina Male and Female Institute at Nashville. Miss 
Lee Parker, of Wilson, is Music Teacher, and Mr. W. O. Dunn, of Nash 
Count}-, is Principal of the Institute. 

F.\iRViEw Academy, W. T. Whitsett, A. M. Superintendent, Gibson- 
ville, has opened with more students than ever before. Over sixty are 
alread}' present from fifteen counties and four States, and others are 
entering almost daily. The school was founded in 18S4. 


Miss Laura P. Moore, of Kenansville, N. C, who taught in Dillon, 
S. C, last year, has returned, and is assisting Prof. Joseph Clay Blanton, 
of Harapden-Sidney College, Va., in the High School at Dillon, S. C. 

The Executive Committee of the " Western North Carolina Teach- 
ers' Association" have called a meeting of the teachers of that portion of 
our State to be held at Bryson City, Swain County, on October 28 and 30. 
The Teacher wishes them a pleasant and successful session. 

The many people who have sons to educate, and who have wished to 
*;njoy the society, the coolness and healthfulness of Chapel Hill, will be 
glad to know that a Classical High School for bo3-s began there August 
31st, with Mr. Caswell Ellis, of Louisburg, as head master. Mr. Ellis 
is a University graduate, and a man of scholarship, character and expe- 
rience in teaching. The Faculty endorses him very highly. 

Apex High SchooIv, under the leadership of Mr. B. D. Barker (Wake 
Forest College), with Miss Emma Parker, Morrisville, N. C, as assist- 
ant, and Mrs. Dr. Rogers, Apex, N. C, as Music Teacher, is progressing 
finely. The number of pupils is flattering already, and still they come. 
On the evening of the 9th of October, 1891, Prof. C. E. Brewer, of Wake 
Forest, N. C, is to make his debut as a lecturer before this school. We 
anticipate for him a large audience. 

Buncombe County teachers organized an Association at Asheville, 
N. C, on the 19th of September. About fifty members were enrolled. 
The following officers for iS9i-'2 were elected: Supt. C. B. Way, Presi- 
dent; Mr. James Cooper, Secretary; Miss Lola S. Stanley, Treasurer. A 
regular programme of work will be arranged at every meeting, and much 
good will doubtless be done. This is the second of the thirteen counties 
west of the Blue Ridge to organize as an auxiliary of the "Western 
North Carolina Teachers' Association." 

The Trustees of the Graded Schools at Wilson very properly and 
wisely decided that only the regular common school course as prepared 
by the State should be taught at the expense of public taxation. This 
is the true basis of public education, and if all public schools would do 
this same right arkd proper thing it would remove much of the antag- 
onism which now exists toward the public schools. People are willing 
to pa}' taxes for the education of the masses, but not for teaching Latin, 
French and Higher Mathematics to a favored few in a public school. 

Fairview CoIvEEGE, twelve miles from Asheville, has opened in pri- 
mary and intermediate work with fifty pupils. The Normal and Collegi- 
ate Departments open November 2. The following teachers are engaged 
in the work: Mr. D. L. Ellis, President; Mrs. D. L. Ellis, Music; Miss Lola 
S. Stanley, Latin, Greek and Higher Mathematics; Miss M. May Ellis, 
Art and History; Miss Mary F. McDonald, Kindergarten Department. 
A prosperous year is looked for, and, with the opening of the college 
■work proper, it is probable that one hundred and fifty students will be 
enrolled bv December. 


Professors Hughes and Graham say that the Montgomery County 
Institute was the best one they had in the State. Nearly all the teachers 
of the county were present, and an enthusiastic Teachers' Council was 
organized, with Mr. T. C. Hoyle as President. The School Committee- 
men also organized an association for the purpose of creating more 
interest among the people in behalf of the schools. Many high com- 
pliments were paid to the efficient County Superintendent Mr. R. H. 
Skeen for his excellent work, which had done so much for the teachers 
and schools of his county. 

The scheme for a Baptist University for Girls to be located in Raleigh 
seems to have failed for the present. The following principal causes 
have been assigned : i. The Trustees did not plan for the establishment 
of such a high grade institution as was expected and as had been 
promised to the Baptists, and therefore many Raleigh subscribers with- 
drew and the whole city became indifferent in the matter. 2. The site 
selected by the Trustees was too small (being less than three acres) and 
not at all suitable for such an institution of learning. The price 
demanded was beyond all proportion to the market value of the prop- 
erty and would have consumed the entire fund without establishing the 
school. 3. The course of study authorized for the institution was only 
an average seminary course, and would have brought the school into 
competition with other Baptist schools of similar grade in the State, and 
the denomination did not desire to do this. If the plan of the institu- 
tion is reorganized, and a suitable site selected, the people of Raleigh 
will contribute promptly and liberally to the cause, and the University 
will be quickly established. The Trustees did not take enough interest 
in the matter to give a quorum of attendance to a very important meet- 
ing on August 31st, when the life of the University was to be considered. 


'Tis said that " figures never He," 

That one and one are always two ; 
But Cupid proves, with work so sly, 

Some wondrous things that figures do. 
And when he claims a teacher's hand 

All rules of figures then are done, 
Though TWO before the preacher stand 

This one and one are always one. 

Prof. Charles L. Wilson, of Raleigh, a teacher of vocal music, 
married Miss Virginia Mayes, of Staunton, Va., on September 17th. 
Rev. D. K. McFarland, D. D., pastor of the First Presbyterian Church 
at Staunton, performed the ceremonj'. 



■ Death hath made no breach 
In love and sympathy, in hope and trust. 
No outward sign or sound our ears can reach, 
But there's an inward, spiritual speech 
That greets us still, though mortal tongues be dust. 
It bids us do the work that they laid down- 
Take up the song where they broke off the strain ; 
So, journeying till we reach the heavenly town, 
Where are laid up our treasure and our crown, 
And our lost, loved ones will be found again." 

On Thursday, September, loth, Mr. H. W. Spinks, Principal of 
Monroe High School, died at his home in that place. He was for a long 
time the faithful County Superintendent of Stanly County. 

Mrs. Varina S. Claxton, wife of Mr. P. P. Claxton, Superintend- 
ent of the Asheville Graded Schools, died at her home, on September 
14th, after a brief illness, aged twenty-six years. Her remains were 
interred in Goldsboro, her former home. She leaves one child. 


The books and slates now put away, 
And let us laugh a little while ; 

For those who work there should be play, 
The leisure moments to beguile. 

BiLi^iE (who snapped school yesterday) — "I gave the fish a big sur- 
prise yesterday." Harry — " Did you ? Catching 'em ? " Billie — " No ! 
I fell in." 

Teacher — "You must not come to school any more. Tommy, until 
your mother has recovered from the small-pox." 

Tommy — "There ain't a bit of danger. She ain't going to give me 
the small-pox." 

Teacher — "Why, how is that?" 

Tommy — "She's my stepmother. She never gives me anything." 

Teacher — "You may answer. Tommy Jones. Why do birds fly?" 
Tommy Jones — "Cause they ain't such fools as to walk when they 
don't hev ter." 


Teacher — "What would the Prince of Wales be if the Oueen of 
England should die ? " "A orphan, ma'am." 

Funny Ways of Conjugating Verbs. — Children have funny ways 
of conjugating their verbs, as was illustrated by a little boy of a writer's 
acquaintance told about in Wide Awake. This little man had been out 
with his sled and came in saying eagerlj': " Oh, mamma! I have been 
out with my sled and I slud clear to the foot of the hill, while Johnny 
Laurence only slod half way. It's such good fun to slide! " 

Apearance was Deceitful. — A beautiful young school girl, dressed 
in the height of fashion, was leaning over the gate when a smitten young 
man approached her. 

" Good evening, miss. Will you kindly inform me if you have noticed 
a stray dog pass here ? " 

She unclosed the rosy portals of speech and answered quickly — 

" No. I ain't saw any other dorg this evenin'." 

And another cherished ideal was smashed to smithereens. 

"Sassing" his Employer. — Sampson (just from the public school) 
was a clerk for one day only at the mammoth establishment of William 
Bobson, in Dallas, Texas. Bobson, although very wealthy is also very 
illiterate. He was writing a letter, when he looked up and asked Samp- 
son Jennings, who was at the next desk : 

" How do you spell inducement — with a ' c' or an ' j' ' ? " 

"Dunno," responded the new clerk. 

"All the clerks I ever had except you knew how to spell." 

" So did all the bosses I ever had," replied Jennings. 

The entente cordiale was spilled over the floor, and a new man stands 
at the desk formerlj^ occupied by Sampson Jennings. 


Frank Preston and Charles Manning, sons of Prof F. P. Venable, 
Professor of Chemistry in the University, were born at Chapel Hill on 
Monday morning, September 3d, 1891. 

EvviE Simpson, daughter of Prof John A. Simpson, teacher of music 
in the Institute for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind at Raleigh, was 
born on September 5th, 1891. 

George Edgar Miller, son of Mr. John P. Haskett and wife, was 
born on September 19, 1891. Mr. Haskett was a member of the Teachers*^ 
European Party, and his wife is teacher of music in Misses Patrick's 
school at Kinston. 

IMJiri*^' f tlillWJ^JiM III IP[ «P7ii||flf lW1WMfT'FiT\ li^Q'TiTl^ilt' m ■ « 

Professor— " \Vn\' is it, Miss Carrie, that your hair is so wavy 
this morning after being so straight on yesterday? if the 
Lord had wanted your hair to curl He would have made 

IT so."' 

Miss Carrie — " Hf; did ^iake it curl for me when I was little, 



Vol. IX. Raleigh, December, 1891. No. 4. 

BXJGJSNB G. tJARRELL, = = = = Editor. 

ar^6 blessed Gl2Kist- 
Witl^ ecl^oes of tl^e 

iA-i^^ peace tl^at c5ii2i2ot pass aWav], 
iA.i2<i l^olv] gla^i^ess caln^ ai^fi stroi^g; 
Ai^^ sV/eet l^eart-carols gloWii^g free! 
Sl^is is oar Gl^ristn^as Wlsl^ to tl^ee! 

-Frances R. HavergaL 

]Vortt\ Qarolii\a I'^aQlx^r^ i\broaA. 



Gngland, Sgotlamd, Ii^eland and Fi^ange. 


Famous Places in Paris. 

The Wandering Minstrels— Something About Guides — A French 
Dairy — The Conciergerie — The Pantheon — Famous His- 
torical Localities — The Gobelin Tapestry Works — Ceme- 
tery Pere la Chaise — The Stock Exchange — The North 
Carolina Teachers Capture the Exchange — Honor to the 
American Flag — The Morgue and its Occupants. 

OW strange a sight it is to an 
American — the vast number of 
wandering street minstrels and 
flower girls which seem to exist 
throughout France ! 

While waiting for our breakfast 
this morning we were amused by 
the songs and antics of a very 
pretty girl and a man who seemed 
to be her father, dancing, playing 
and begging in front of our hotel. 
Their frantic efforts to sing "Yankee Doodle" as a special 
compliment "to the American party" were indeed amusing 
and we "rewarded them for effoj-t and not for results.'''' 

We were tired with walking for the present so we again 
chartered the comfortable and handsome excursion carriages 
of our friends Gaze & Sons. 


We made it a condition of the charter that our incom- 
parable guide with the Cleveland hat, Mr. Gallop, should 
accompany us. 

As a general rule, when travelling in a strange country, 
the less your guide knows the more you will learn about 
that country because he will not be able to talk so contin- 
uously, and thus you will have more time and opportunity 
for observation and investigation. The principal use of a 
guide is to put your enquiries of the people about you into 
their native tongue and translate the answers for you. 
You will therefore ask only the things you want to know 
Avithout having to waste valuable time in listening, or 
appearing to listen, to a guide reciting his lesson like a 
talking-machine fully wound up never to run down. 

The French people are realizing that their language is 
fast losing its hold upon the world as the international lan- 
guage and that English is taking its place. They are, 
however, doggedly resisting this change, and they resort 
to every possible scheme to prevent the speaking of English 
by their people. 

There are thirty thousand cabmen in Paris who receive 
a large portion of their patronage from the English and 
i\mericans and yet they wnll not learn even a single word 
of English, although it might add greatly to their business. 
Just fourteen miles of water separate France from England, 
and yet there is less English spoken in France than in 
any other foreign country on the globe. 

But as the English-speaking people are to-day ruling the 
world so their language is destined to be the universal 
tongue, and the sooner this fact is learned by the French, as 
by all other foreign nations, the better it will be for them. 

When we gathered in the breakfast-room this morning 
the chef^ or head waiter as he was better known to us, with 
many courtesies and Chesterfieldan manners informed us 
that for some cause "ze meelk for ze cafe have not arreeve 


zis mornin'." However, while we were eating there was 
a great tinkling of bells on the street by onr windows and 
the waiter exclaimed "Ze meelk!" Looking out of the 
window we saw a man with a bell and a tin bucket sur- 
rounded by a herd of about fifty goats. This was the "milk 
man and his dairy. ' ' He drives the herd from house to house 
and milks direct from the goats into his pail whatever 
quantity of milk may be needed, and thus it goes at once 
to the table. Some of our habitual milk-drinkers seemed 
to suddenly lose their appetite for this class of nourish- 
ment after the interesting dairy performance that we had 
just witnessed. 

It isn't always well to know too much when you are 
away from home. 

After taking our seats in the carriages the s^uide informed 
us that we would begin the day by a visit to the Pantheon, 
the "Westminster Abbey of Paris." Before reaching the 
Pantheon we spent a few moments in the outer court of 
the Conciergerie, the most famous prison in Europe — a 
prison from which a century ago delivery was but to the 
guillotine, and whose walls have contained the Royalty of 
France. Almost side by side are the cells of Marie An- 
toinette and Robespierre. 

It was just outside these walls where in 1793 there surged 
a howling mob of men and women more cruel and blood- 
thirsty than even the guillotine, whose frenzy was not 
appeased until they had most foully murdered and muti- 
lated over a thousand prisoners of the Conciergerie. We 
looked up at the little barred window of the cell in which 
the beautiful Marie Antoinette proved herself greater and 
nobler in chains than when she sparkled with diamonds 
and sat on the glittering throne of France. 

From the gate of the Conciergerie is seen, only a short 
distance away, the dome of the Pantheon towering above 
the surrounding buildings. This cathedral is erected upon 


the site of the tomb of St. Genevieve, the patron saint of 
Paris, who died in the year 512. 

As we enter the massive stone gateway of this famous 
structure we realize that we stand within a Christian church 
which is devoted to the glorification of men. The altar is 
gone and the building is thoroughly secularized. It is now 
dedicated not to St. Genevieve, who still implores, in mar- 
ble, Attilla the Hun to spare the city of Paris, but to the 
great men of France. Victor Hugo is sleeping here, Vol- 
taire, Rousseau, Mirabeau, and Marat rested in the vaults 
for a time, but they, too, have shared the fate of the exiled 
saints and their ashes have been removed to resting-places 
now unknown. 

The walls of this great cathedral of emptiness glow with 
imposing paintings of the miraculous Middle Age. Saint 
Dennis is pictured as he walks with his head in his hand 
after it was decapitated; Saint Louis is administering jus- 
tice; Charlemagne is displayed in all his glory, and Saint 
Genevieve is everywhere, but the color is only on the walls. 

The colossal building is still full of emptiness, hollow 
as a stone balloon, when Heine saw it cold and chilly and 

Yet the Pantheon is not without its memories. lu June, 
1848, the insurgents had their headquarters here, and in 
1 87 1 it was occupied as the central citadel in the worst of 
a network of barricades by the men of the Commune. But 
they were driven out like a swarm of angr}' wasps, not 
without powder, and smoke, and tumult, and bloodshed, 
now barely audible; and so hurried was their departure 
that they did not have even time to fire the powder with 
which they had stored the vaults beneath, the parting trib- 
ute that they proposed to render to the great men of the 
country to whose memory the Pantheon is now dedicated. 

We followed our guide into the vaults where is the tomb 
of Victor Hugo covered with flowers and wreaths. Some- 


body in autliority, with remarkable bad taste, has caused 
elaborate monuments to Rousseau and Voltaire, the famous 
infidels, to be erected beside the tomb of Hugo! In the 
vaults there is also a most interesting whispering gallery. 

From the Pantheon we drove eastward to the fatal spot 
where the Bastille stood and where the Bastille ceased to 
stand just a century since. The outlines of the famous 
old fortress are still to be seen traced in the square from 
the centre of which springs the Column of July, commem- 
orating yet another revolution. 

The Bastille itself has been rebuilt in fac-simile lath and 
plaster and is one of the adjuncts to the exhibition in the 
Champ de Mars. But better than the lath and plaster fac- 
simile to enable you to realize the great siege is the "Pano- 
rama of the taking of the Bastille" which stands near at 
hand, and where you see rendered in realistic paint the 
features of that ever-memorable assault upon the grim old 
prison by the populace of Paris. It is like the unfolding of 
Carlyle's dithyrambs on colored canvas, the pictured death 
agony of the old regime. It is a hundred years since the 
passionate populace precipitated itself thus upon the-Bastille, 
believing that they were in their headlong way going to 
inaugurate the millennium. 

The destruction of that hated fortress, and the liberation 
of its seven prisoners — only seven within the whole gloomy 
walls — how it seemed, even to Americans like Wordsworth 
and Coleridge, the rising of the day-star of liberty, herald- 
ing the new day! A century has passed, and all those who 
raged so fiercely then have long since ceased their raging. 
The children of that day are now old men. There have 
been many more revolutions — two empires and two Mon- 
archies have come and gone; we have now the third Repub- 
lic, and behind it the shadow of yet another Emperor. The 
millennium is still far off, and France, this "poet of the 
nations," has even ceased to dream of the hopes so oft 


The July Column marks the site of the famous fortress. 
The plan of the Bastille is traced in lines of white granite 
on the west side of the square. Many fiercer fights have 
taken place on the site of the demolished prison than that 
which led to its demolition. The July Column itself com- 
memorates not the destruction of the Bastille but the Rev- 
olution of July, 1830, when Louis Philippe was seated on 
the throne from which the elder branch of the Bourbons 
had just been driven. Eighteen years later, the throne of 
Louis Philippe was publicly burned at the base of the col- 
umn erected in honor of the Revolution which made him 
King. A great barricade was thrown up in June, 1848, on 
the east of the Place fronting the Rue du Fraubourg St. 
Antoine which required much pounding with heavy artil- 
lery before it was captured, and in the fight Archbishop 
Afire was shot dead even while pleading with the insur- 
gents for peace. 

That was on June 25, 1848. On May 25 — twenty-three 
years afterwards — the Communists made a stout resistance 
behind their barricades, which, however, only retarded for 
a time .the advance of the Versaillese. As the victors 
cleared out the "wasps' nest," an attempt was made to 
blow up the Column and overwhelm the district in one 
mighty explosion. The vaults beneath the Column were 
crammed with powder, but in the confusion the match did 
not go off", and St. Antoine was saved once more. De Lau- 
nay also, a hundred years ago, threatened a mighty explo- 
sion, but it did not come off". 

From the Column of the Bastille we drove westward 
along the Boulevards. Battle of the fierce insurrection- 
ary order has often waged along these stately streets. Nor 
is it only insurrection. At a little house. No. 42 of the 
Boulevard du Temple, Fiesche launched his infernal ma- 
chine in 1835 at Louis Philippe, missing his mark but 
killing fifteen people, a Marshal of France included. 


At Porte St. Martin, a triumphal arch erected in honor 
of victories of the seventeenth century witnessed the entry 
of the German and Russian armies, who in 18 14 actually 
arrived at Paris to restore the old regime. They had started 
more than twenty years before, but it took them all that 
time before they arrived. If they had foreseen the vicissi- 
tudes of the journey they would probably never have 
started. Here also and at the other triumphal arch, the 
Porte St. Denis, barricades were thrown up and fierce 
fighting took place in 1830, 1848, and 1871. Another 
famous barricade, alike in February, 1848, and in May, 
187 1, closed the Boulevard end of the Rue du Fraubourg 

Between the Hotel de Ville and the Boulevards lay the 
district in which the insurrectionary forces always barri- 
caded themselves in all times of disturbances. The most 
famous barricade of the Coup d'Etat was not in the Boule- 
vards, but in the Rue St. Marguerite, where Baudin fell, 
shot through the head by a battalion of the line as he was 
endeavoring to assert the supremacy of the law and of the 

The Boulevards, from the Rue du Sentier to the Made- 
leine, witnessed much bloodier work when, on the 4th of 
December, 16,000 soldiers were drawn u]3 in the carriage- 
way in subdivisions at quarter distance, pending the antici- 
pated attack on the great barricade at Rue St. Denis. Sud- 
denly, at three o'clock in the afternoon, with or without 
pretext of the abortive shot fired from a window in the Rue 
du Sentier, the troops shot down in cold blood, without 
warning, the men, women and children who crowded the 
pavement and were gazing from the windows on the mili- 
tary display. For a quarter of an hour or twenty minutes 
the soldiers fired volley after volley upon an unarmed and 
peaceful crowd of sightseers. The Boulevard seems busy 
and delightful now, but then ! Thirty-seven corpses 


lay heaped in the Cite Bergore: men, women and children 
dead in groups or singly all along the foot pavement, and 
around each of the hollows about the trees blood lay coag- 
ulating in little pools. Inside the houses helpless people 
were hunted from room to room and massacred in cold blood. 
At the barricades no quarter was given. By night peace 
reigned in Paris, and Louis Napoleon was established on 
the throne, from which nothing but Sedan could shake 
him off. 

Passing these scenes of sanguinary crime, we come to the 
Madeleine, the great church which Napoleon intended to be 
a Temple of Glory, but which has been completed as a tem- 
ple of the Magdalen — Christ and the Magdalen. The 
building has none of the historic charm of Notre Dame. 
It is not so old as the Revolution, but it also has its memo- 
ries. It was in this church that the Communists rallied 
when the Commune was sinking in the flames of Paris, and 
it was here, before the altar of the God of Pity, that three 
hundred of the wretched Communists were butchered like 
rats in a pit by their Versaillese conquerors. Not in the 
first great Revolution, not in the worst days of the Terror, 
were such wholesale massacres accomplished as those which 
took place only eighteen years ago, under the eyes of 
Europe, and without a single protesting cry of indignation 
and of shame. Such an outrage could not occur in America. 

The pavement, which then ran red with human blood, 
is clean enough to-day. The silent worshipers bow in 
prayer before the altar on which the great sacrifice is being 
represented, all heedless of that holocaust of 1871. And 
high above all forms divine and human in the great church 
soars aloft the sublime figure of the Magdalen, supported 
by the angels who, above the high altar, are bearing her 
into Paradise. Christianity was worth inventing, snarls 
the cynic, if only to raise high above all the saints and the 
ano^els in the most fashionable church in Paris that eternal 


exemplar of trampled womanhood. They worship her in 
the Madeleine. Outside they thrust her into St. Lazare, 
and torment her with the police des nicEii7^s. 

From the Madeleine we went southward toward the 
Seine, crossing the Rue St. Honore, along which there, 
all gay with tricolor, came the death scene of the Queen 
IMarie Antoinette. 

Turning down the Champs Elysees is the Place de la 
Concorde, formerly the Place de la Revolution, best known 
for all time as the Place of the Guillotine. It is a spacious 
square of bloody memory. All round the great palace sit 
the statues of the cities of France. That of Strasbourg is 
half buried beneath the wreaths of unavailing regret. The 
great fountains splash up their water ceaselessly in the sun- 
light, and the Obelisk of Luxor stands as a silent warden 
over the spot where a century since the guillotine made 
France a hissing, a bye-word and a reproach among all 
nations of the earth. 

The knife that struck off the heads of so many French- 
men and women whose names live in history, stood a little 
to one side of the Obelisk. Louis XVI was the first to be 
beheaded here, on the site of the statue of Louis XV, which 
had been melted down into penny pieces. It went always 
for two years, nor did it cease until 2,800 heads had fallen 
to the basket. Louis the Unfortunate was only thirty- 
eight when the axe fell. The spectres of the guillotined 
must often hold sombre tryst round the Obelisk of Egypt. 
Louis is there, and his Queen, and his sister, and with them 
the fair executioner of the foiil Marat. Danton and St. 
Just, Robespierre and Camille Desmoulins, Philippe Egalite 
and Anarchist Clootz, with a vast throng of nearly 3,000 
more, a gruesome company, headless as St. Denis, but less 
blessed. Would that they could speak and tell us what 
they think of it all after a hundred years! 


Turning- from the Place de la Concorde and its headless 
ghosts, we enter the Tuilleries Gardens, It was out of this 
gate that some three hundred Swiss poured, when the order 
reached them to cease firing, on August 10, 1792, and were 
butchered to a man. Inside the gardens it was that they 
stood like a granite mass, pelting with deadly bullets the 
' ' glittering steel tide" which submerged the Tuilleries, and 
slaying some 1,200 men before they were abandoned by 
their King. It was a pitiful massacre — the last death 
struggle of the old regime, rendered abortive bv the King 
himself. How different it was when authority was vested 
not in the son of sixty kings, but in a born ruler of men! 

Leaving the Tuilleries gardens we turn down the Rue St. 
Roch. Here is the church of St. Roch — the tombstone of 
the Revolution. For it was here where Napoleon admin- 
istered that whiff of grapeshot which blew the Revolution 
into space. On October 5, 1795, the insurgent sections 
rose and marched against the Convention. Section Lepel- 
letier, with 40,000 fighting men behind it, storming down 
on the Tuilleries, as three years before St. Antoine had 
swooped down on the palace of the King. But Napoleon 
was in command. Napoleon, with some seven thousand 
men, and artillej'y — drew a steel girdle round the Tuilleries, 
and waited the attack, every gunner having his match 
burning. He had not long to wait. 

" 'Fire!' says the bronze lips. And roar and thunder, 
and roar and again roar continual, volcano like goes his 
great gun in the Cul de Sac Dauphin, against the Church 
of St. Roch; go his great guns on the Pont Royal; go all 
his great guns; blow to air some two hundred men, mainly 
about the Church of St. Roch. The forty thousand yield 
on all sides; scour towards covert. It was all finished by 

How vividly these famous localities call to mind those 
startling events in the history of this nation which caused 


all the world to stand aghast in horror. It will take whole 
centuries of peace and prosperity to wipe from the brow 
of France such dark and devilish stains of blood. 

We gladly turned away from such scenes and memories 
and drove to what is considered the most noted and inter- 
esting industry of Fratice — the Gobelin Tapestry Works, 

These celebrated works, the only place in the world 
where such tapestries are made, were founded in 1450 by 
Jean Gobelin. It has acquired such a reputation through- 
out the world that the product of its looms are used only 
for the decoration of State departments or as gifts to emi- 
nent embassadors. The walls of the building are adorned 
by a number of magnificent specimens of the work repre- 
senting some famous paintings. 

The tapestries are exceedingly beautiful and the work is 
very slow and tedious. About six inches square is con- 
sidered a good day's work for a weaver, therefore many 
years are required for the completion of some of the larger 
designs. The Secretary noticed that the workmen were 
engaged on some pieces which he had seen in their looms 
over three years ago and yet the designs were not finished, 
having several years of work yet ahead of them ! 

We were shown a number of pieces on which the price 
was $10,000. The superintendent of the works permitted 
us to go behind the looms so as to see the actual work of 
weaving. The workman has a copy of the design beside 
him and a basket of wools dyed in unchangeable colors, 
each principal hue represented by twenty-four different 
shades. One thread at a time is most carefully selected 
and woven into place, then examined thoroughly to see if 
it is exactly correct. It was hard for us to realize the 
patience required for such work. Some of the larger pieces 
represent the whole life of the workman given to its man- 
ufacture. As we noted this fact one of our party recalled 
to our minds the following- touchinsf lines from Addison 


Chester, which she impressively repeated as we looked upon 
the weavers: 


Let US take to our hearts a lesson, — 

No lesson can richer be, — 
From the ways of the tapestry weavers, 

On the other side of the sea. 
Above their heads the pattern hangs, 

They^study it with care, 
And while their fingers deftl}- work, 

Their eyes are fastened there. 

They tell this curious thing besides. 

Of the patient, plodding weaver, 
He works on the wrong side, evermore. 

But works_/(?r the right side, ever. 
It is only when the weaving stops 

And the web is loosed and turned, 
And he sees his real handiwork 

That his marvelous skill is learned. 

At the sight of its delicate beauty. 

How it pays him for all it cost! 
Nofrarer, daintier work than his, 

Was ever^done by the frost. 
Then the master bringeth him golden hire, 

And giveth him praises as well; 
And how^happy the heart of the weaver is 

No tongue but his own can tell. 

The years of man are the looms of God, 

Let down from the place of the sun, 
Wherein^we are weaving always. 

Till the mystic web is done. 
Weaving blindly, biit weaving surel}', 

Each for himself his fate; 
We may not see how the right side looks. 

We can only weave and wait. 

But, looking above the pattern, 

No weaver hath need to fear; 
Only let him look clear into heaven — 

The Perfect Pattern is there. 
If he keeps the face of the Saviour 

Forever and always in sight. 
His toil shall be sweeter than honey; 

His weaving is sure to be right. 


And when his task is ended, 

And the web is turned and shown, 
He shall hear the voice of the master. 

It shall say to him "Well done!" 
And the white-winged angels of heaven. 

To bear him thence shall come down, 
And God shall give him gold for his hire, 

Not coin, but a golden crown. 

Returning to our carriages we drove into the commercial 
portion of the city and reined up in front of the Bourse or 
Stock Exchange. It was a lively day on the Exchange, 
and the great building was thronged with members thor- 
oughly excited by their dizzy speculations. 

Of course the party wanted to see the Frenchman engaged 
in his stock operations, so we alighted at the entrance to 
the galleries. Some three or four hundred members of the 
Exchange were crowding the long porch eagerly watching 
our movements. When our party appeared in the galleries 
we looked down upon a moving, yelling, shouting, excited 
mass of humanity which occupied the main floor of the 
Exchange to the number of about a thousand men. In a 
few moments they caught sight of the hundred North 
Carolinians watching them, and immediately their whole 
attention was turned to the galleries, while their significant 
gesticulations indicated that they were trying to learn who 
were their visitors. 

Seeing this, the Secretary waved our American flag over 
the railing, and the effect was truly magical. Instantly 
every man waved his hat in the air, and the noisiest of 
enthusiasm prevailed everywhere. Stocks were forgotten 
for the time and a great burst of applause arose from that 
vast throng borne to us in a grand and continued wave of 
acclamation, "Vive la Amerique ! " The scene was past 
description, and our guide informed us that such a thrilling 
event was never before witnessed in the French Stock 
Exchange, that its entire operations, involving millions of 
dollars, should be suspended while a welcome of intensest 


enthusiasm was being extended to the North Carolina 
teachers ! 

An officer of the Exchange came into the gallery and 
laughingly informed the Secretary that "The Bourse was 
charmed by its fair visitors and did not desire to attend to 
any more business while the handsome American party 
remained in the gallery." 

We remained a few moments longer to enjoy our triumph 
and then retired. As we descended the stairway every 
member of the Bourse left the hall and gathered along our 
walk from the building, keeping up a vigorous shouting of 
"Vive la Amerique," until we were seated in our carriages 
and waved them a farewell with the glorious Stars and 
Stripes while the spectators slowly returned to their opera- 
tions. North Carolina had again scored a victor}-, and honor 
and a recognition such as no other State had ever won. 

It was dinner time and we were hungry, so we headed 
for our hotel.. 

Our route lay past the famous Morgue of Paris, and, at 
the request of some of the party, we stopped for a few 
moments for an inspection of this noted place. It is a 
small building, erected on the Isle de Cite immediately in 
the rear of Notre Dame. There are exposed here the bodies 
of all persons who die either from accident, suicide or sud- 
denly, and the Morgue is scarcely ever empty. 

When we visited the Tvlorgue there were exposed on the 
marble slabs the bodies of three persons, two young women 
and an old man, all of whom had been taken from the river 
Seine that morning. There are about eight hundred bodies 
exposed annually in the Morgue, and a large majority of 
them are suicides. The lower class of French people seem 
to consider the Seine as a panacea for all troubles. Beside 
the bodies exposed are the clothes last worn, for the pur- 
pose of identification, and a new process of scientific refrig- 
eration enables them to keep the bodies as long as three 



All arrangements for our North Carolina Teacher's 
charming winter trip to Cuba are now completed and the 
party is nearly made up in full. 

The number of persons in the party is limited to fifty 
and it is a most congenial, select and cultured company of 
teachers and their friends. Young ladies need have no 
hesitation in joining the party as we have several expe- 
rienced chaperons in the company. 

The party will leave Raleigh for Tampa^ Florida^ via 
Atlantic Coast Line from Goldsboro, on Tuesday, December 
^p, jSgi. Special sleeping cars wiH be engaged for the trip. 
The length of the tour is fifteen days inclusive. 

At g 0' clock ^ joth^ we reach the Plant Line steamer at 
Tampa and step from our cars into our state-rooms. We 
will have a lovely sail through the Florida Keys^ reaching 
Key West at 5 d^ clock on jist, and will remain there about 
four hours, giving ample time to ride over that pleasant 
and interesting city. 

On Nezv Vear''s Day^ just at sunrise, we will sail under 
the guns of the celebrated Morro Castle and enter the Bay 
of Havana^ the most beautiful harbor in the world. From 
our steamer we will be transferred by the wagon-looking 
Spanish boats to the Gran Hotel Afascotte^ most delightfully 
situated immediately on the Bay, which will be our head- 
quarters while in Havana. 

Cuba is a land of perpetual summer and you will need 
while there about such clothing as you usually wear in 
North Carolina during June and July. Carry just as little 
baggage as possible — a very small trunk or a medium size 
valise will be just the thing. 

We will remain in Havana and vicinity until January 
9th, each day visiting the famous places of interest ia 


and about that wonderful "eleventh century city." Special 
examination will be made of the Cathedral^ where repose 
the actual remains of Columbus ; the noted Cigar Factories^ 
the Cemetery^ Obsei'vaiory^ Morro and Cabana Castles^ the 
Avenne of Palms^ the remarkable Cuba Mission in charge 
of Rev. Alberto Diaz, the Cocoamit and Banana Groves^ 
the Plaza de Toros (Bull Fight), the Theatres^ Parks^ Jesus 
del Monte^ the Tacon Alarket^ Matansas^ the Valley of the 
Yumuri^ riding through the most lovely valley in the world 
in the ancient volante, Caves of Bella Mar^ Sugar Planta- 
tions^ Mountains^ etc. 

The entire necessary expenses of the trip will be only 
seventy fve dollars^ which is about one-half usual rates. 
Of course it will be well for you to carry a few dollars be- 
yond this amount for purchases which you will want to 
make. Only the Spanish language is spoken throughout 
Cuba, but we will have competent interpreters with our 
party. Carry with you United States 7noney^ either gold, 
silver or paper. Our money is current at par, and exchanges 
can easily be made when you want "Spanish paper." 

"Necessary Expenses" include round trip fares from 
Goldsboro to Havana, sleeping car berth, meals and state- 
room on steamer, landing fee at Havana, and board at 
Hotel Mascotte while in Cuba. 

The party will be personally conducted by the editor of 
The North Carolina Teacher in the same satisfactory 
manner as were our previous "Teachers' Tours," to Wash- 
ington City in 1887, New York and Niagara in 1888, and 
the memorable "Teachers' European Party" in 1889. 

Each member of the Cuban party will make an advance 
payment of ten dollars to the editor of The Teacher and 
your berth on the steamer cannot be secured for you until 
this amount is paid. All other expenses are paid by each 
person while the tour is being made. The advance pay- 
ment of ten dollars must be made before December loth and 


delay in forwarding the amount may cause the loss of your 
place with the party. If for any reason you cannot go and 
will orive notice not later than December 20th the advance 
payment can be returned to you. This advance payment 
is put to your credit as part payment of your passage on 
the steamer. 

The tour begins at Goldsboro^ and all members of the 
party will assemble at that point on the morning of Decem- 
ber 29, and our train leaves there at 3.15 o'clock p. m. 
Persons along the Richmond & Danville and Raleigh 
& Gaston railroads will take the early morning train for 
Goldsboro to make sure of connection with our train. 

The tickets are good for thirty days thus enabling mem- 
bers of the party to remain longer in Cuba than our tour, 
or to stop over in Florida if desired. For those who remain 
longer in Havana we will secure an extension of our special 
low rates of board. 

Each member of the party will need a Passport and this 
important document may be obtained of the Secretary of 
State, Washington, D. C. , on payment of $1.00. Attend 
to this matter at once. 

Persons desiring to join the party are requested to address, " 
with references, the editor of The North Carolina 

If he (the teacher) can turn your boys and girls into 
honest, earnest, scholarly, self-respecting, high-minded 
men and women, be he tall or short, young or old, grad- 
uate or no graduate, Baptist or Unitarian, Tammany Dem- 
ocrat or Prohibitionist, he is the man you want. — C. W. 



Some educators seem to delight in parading the short- 
comings of the teacher; and many ontside of our ranks are 
wont to speak contemptuously of the district school. Be- 
lieving that our rural school-teachers are, as a class, more 
than abreast with public sentiment, and knowing how hard 
a struggle many of them have had to reach their present 
standpoint, we have little sympathy with these carping 

The country teacher usually needs encouragement rather 
than ridicule; opportunities more than censure. Bring 
him into touch with his fellows, pay him living wages ten 
months in the year, hold up his hands, help him to feel 
that the little red school-house in which he teaches is, 
indeed, a pillar of state, the door to the kingdom of heaven 
on earth to many a child; in every way magnify his ofhce, 
and he will put himself in the way of growing in order that 
he may become great enough to fill it. — School Education. 


The PJiiladephia Times in speaking of the Southern 
Exposition at Raleigh, and of the late material growth of 
the South, has, among others, the following pleasant words 
to say of North Carolina : 

"North Carolina is one of the most promising of the 
Southern States. It offers less temptation to wild specula- 
tion than some others, but it has more substantial wealth 
to invite the immigrant and industrial classes of all kinds 


than any other of the Southern States. It has the most 
homogeneous population and one of the most genial climates 
of any prominent agricultural State. It has fertile lands, 
vast forests, immense mineral resources, superb water-power 
and accessible markets, and is to-day a better field for young 
farmers than any State or Territory in the far West." 

The North Carolina Teacher takes special pleas- 
ure in publishing such kind and truthful mention of our 
beloved "Old North State." The opinion of North Caro- 
lina, as expressed so gracefully by the editor of the Times^ 
is in full accord with the doctrine that we have been pro- 
claiming in The Teacher since the day of its birth, nine 
years ago, that North Carolina is the most pleasant, pros- 
perous, progressive and worthily prominent of all the 
splendid galaxy of Southern States. 


A list of definitions, written by an old Siamese teacher 
who was trying to master English, includes the following: 
Wig — hypocrite hair. Flattery — a good kind of curse 
word. Whisky — sin water. Gold — a very good thing. 
Blew — a wind verb. Kick — a foot verb. Bow — a salute 
verb. Hop — a frog verb. Liar — a bad adjective of boy. 
Modesty — a good adjective of girl. Vine — a string tree. 
Cunning — a good word of philosophy man. Daughter — 
a girl-son. Bullet — a son of a gun. Sponge — water foam. 
Angel — God's boy. Large — an adjective of preacher. 
Preach — a missionary verb. Comfort — word of mother to 
crying child. Adulterate — a bad adjective of lying man. 
Admonition — word of Bible. 



Here are a few live words from Dr. Home, of Allentown, 
Pa., concerning the study of botany. They are good. 
He says : 

"Now for botany ! School is being called, at this sea- 
son, in the great kingdom of nature ! We have just had a 
good, long recess. Now let us up and to work. The 
botany class should be organized at once. If there cannot 
be regular, systematic study made of botany, the next best 
thing, or, perhaps the first best thing should be done, 
namely, to study the vegetable world in an informal man- 
ner as a great object lesson. 

There is vastly more sense, and profit too, in teaching 
children the names, character and characteristics of plants 
than in the distasteful rigmarole, practiced sometimes, of 
holding up an object and asking a number of hackneyed 
questions about it in a stereotyped style. 

What a freshness and beauty, and, withal, what an inter- 
est in the kingdom of plants ! Take out your pupils, and 
commence with the first flower whose head is lifted out of 
the snow-bank. Familiarize the children with every one 
of the first flowers of spring. Pass none, neglect none. If 
you don't know the name of the early peeper out of the 
ground which is brought to you, hunt up your botany and 
be determined that you will know. 

Don't miss the early crocus, the daffodil, the trailing 
arbutus, the various anemones, the violets ; dig up the 
beautiful colored skunk cabbage, smell your fingers after )-ou 
handled it ; you will thus learn to know it by the sense of 
smell as well as of sight ; climb the trees and bring in 
branches of the maple with their early flowers ; ransack 
meadow, field and woods ; there are intensely interesting 
object-lessons to be studied everywhere." 




Did you ever see two girls together to study of an even- 
ing? I have, and it generally goes like this : 

"In 1673 Marquette discovered the Mississippi. In 1673 

Marquette dis What did yon say, Ide? You had ever 

so much rather see the hair coiled than braided? — Yes, so 
had I. It's so much more stylish, and then it looks classi- 
cal, too ; but how do you like Oh ! dear, I can never 

learn this lesson ! 

"In 1863 Lafayette discovered the Wisconsin. In 1863 
Lafayette discovered the — well! what's the matter with 
me, any how! In 1673 Marquette discovered the Missis- 
sippi. I don't care if he did. I suppose the Mississippi 
would have gotten along just as well if Marquette had 
never looked at it. Now, see here, Ide, is there anything 
about my books that would give you to understand that I 
know when Columbus founded Jamestown, and how 
George Washington won the battle of Shiloh? Of course 
there isn't. History's a horrid study, anyhow. No use, 
neither. Now, French is much nicer, I can introduce 
French phrases very often, and one must know I have 
studied the language. What is the lesson for to-morrow? 
Oh, yes; conjugation oi parler. Let's see; how does it 
commence? Je parle^ tu parle il^ par-il pa-il — well, // 

"Conjugations don't amount to anything. I know 
some phrases that are appropriate here and there, and in 
almost every locality; and how's anybody going to know 
but what I have the conjugations all by heart? 

"Have I got my geometry? No, I'm just going to 
study it. Thirty-ninth, is it not? 


"Let the triangle A B C, triangle A B — say, Ide, have 
you read about the Jersey Lily and Freddie? I think it is 
too utterly utter. 

"Oh! theorem. 

"Let the triangle A B C be right-angled at B. On the 
side B C erect, erect the square A I. On the side — did I 
tell you. Sister Carracciola gave me a new piece to-day, a 
sonata? It is really intense. The tones fairly stir my 
soul. I am never going to take anything but sonatas after 
this. I got another new piece, too. Its name is Etudes. 
Isn't it funny? I asked Tom this noon what it means, 
and he says it is Greek for nothing. It is quite apropos, 
for there is really nothing in it — the same thing over and 

"Where was I? Oh! yes; side A C the square A E. 
Draw the line — come on, let's go at our astronomy. It's 
on ' Are the planets inhabited? ' Now, Ide, I think they 
are, and I have thought about it a great deal. I banged 
my hair last night. I wanted a Langtry bang just too 
bad for any use, but pa raved, and I had to give in. 
Yes, I think the\' are inhabited. I should like to visit 
some of them, but you would not catch me living in Venus. 
Eight seasons! Just think how often we would have to 
have new outfits to keep up with the styles. 

"What! you are not going? I am so sorry, but I sup- 
pose you are tired. I am. It always makes me most sick 
to study a whole evening like this. I think sister ought 
to give us a picture." 

And they go to school next morning and tell the other 
girls how awfully hard they had studied. 

Did you attend the meeting of your Teachers' Council 
last month? If not, why not? 



Some ungallant man has said there is no special charm 
in talking with a woman simply on account of her sex. 

This is wrong. There is an especial charm for the right 
kind of man in conversing with a woman for no other 
earthly reason than that she is a woman. Simply on 
account of her sex she calls forth a deference of manner, 
a different train of thought, a different line of conversation, 
a more delicate play of wit and humor, than men gener- 
ally observe in talking to persons of their own sex. 

And all this is only natural. Men are often argumenta- 
tive and didactic in talking to men, but these two mental 
attributes should be laid aside when talking to women. 
They do not like to be preached at or " teached at," and 
they do like to share in the conversation; they like to have 
their opinions asked and listened to. — Selected. 


The teachers of any county of any State in this Union, 
who are not organized into a County association, are 
depriving themselves of an incalculable power for their 
own professional good. The meetings of the association 
should be monthly, and should be managed by the teach- 
ers themselves. 

Numbers are a great consideration, but they are not 
essential. Where two or three leading, active teachers are 
gathered together, there will be profit, mutual improve- 
ment and increased professional power in their midst, and 
that to bless. 


Do not depend on outside, foreign, "distinguished" 
talent for a meeting. This may be called in at times to 
give added power and interest, but while an association 
that is not self-sustaining is feeble, it is better than none. 

The officers needed are a President, Vice-President, Sec- 
retary, Treasurer and Executive Committee. 

The Executive Committee should be composed of the 
President, Secretary and three other members of the asso- 
ciation. These three members may be changed every 
month, to adapt the committee to the neighborhood in 
which the association meets, if it meets at different places 
in the county, which is best until the association is perma- 
nently and prosperously established when it will be found 
best to meet at the county seat. 

The programme of the next meeting should be prepared 
and published at this meeting and no one should be put on 
it whose consent to serve has not been obtained. 

Full accounts of these meetings should always appear 
in the county papers. The Secretary must faithfully see 
to this. In these reports the efforts of home talent, and 
especially of the younger teachers, should always be 
praised, and the interest and profit heartily magnified. 

The public should always be cordially invited to these 
meetings, but their presence is not essential. The more 
successful and prosperous the organization, the less will it 
depend on the public, and the more it will be a teachers'' 

The President should exert himself, spend money, write 
postals, talk and push the work. 

Teachers who will not invest two or three dollars, if 
necessary, in traveling and other expenses to attend these 
meetings, should not expect people to invest much in 

Organize, friends, organize, and have good times. — Nor- 
mal Exponent. 


[There are now about sixty live, working and interesting 
Teachers' Councils in North Carolina. They are doing a 
vast amount of good and furnish much enjoyment and 
mutual improvement to their members. It is a fact worthy 
of special note that those counties which have an energetic 
Teachers' Council at work stand first in educational activ- 
ity and progress, and are of very great assistance in 
furthering the efforts of the County Superintendents. — Edi- 


The method of teaching Geography has undergone a 
revolution and the same changes are now being applied to 
the teaching of History. 

In our boyhood days our study of Geography began with 
the hemispheres and the continents and it was only the 
children who remained at school long enough to complete 
the whole course that ever learned anything of their own 
country and state. The present and true method of teach- 
ing Geography begins with the school room and a careful 
study of directions, then through the town, the county., 
the state, the country and then the study of foreign 
geography becomes more practical and intelligible to a 

History should be taught in the same manner. The 
study of general history as a beginning is entirely too dis- 
tant and vague and the average pupil thus taught does not 
remember enough of history to pay for the time wasted in 
trying to study it. Even history of the United States is 
much too broad for a beginning. 

Why not commence with the history of our own State, 
North Carolina; with events which occurred in places 


we are familiar with and among people we know, and with 
canses that were prominent in the formation of onr own 
individnal surroundings and the establishment of our 

The importance of the battle of Alamance in 1773, the 
Mecklenburg Declaration of 1775, and the Halifax Reso- 
lutions of 1776 have been underrated in the making of this 
American republic. The "Boston Tea Party," Plymouth 
Rock, Fanuel Hall and the battle of lycxington are con- 
stantly magnified and taught to our children; but the Jirs^ 
resistance to the Stamp Act at Wilmington, the yfrj/' inde- 
pendent government of North Carolina, the /irs^ bloodshed 
of the Revolution at Alamance, and they/rj-/ North Caro- 
lina martyr to Southern Independence at Bethel, the 
splendid bravery of North Carolina soldiers in the wars of 
our country, the proud record of the state also in peace, 
are uncertain facts even to the people of North Carolina. 

How this colony planted the first English settlement in 
America; how the high spirit of honor guided our people 
in all the early colonial days and has actuated all their 
transactions ever since; how the resistance of our pioneers 
to English tyranny influenced all the other thirteen colo- 
nies; how the action of this state in 1778 secured those 
important amendments to the original Constitution which 
have ever since formed the surest basis of American lib- 
erty; how Norch Carolina soldiers, though comparatively 
few in number, exhausted the army of Cornwallis, thus 
largely influencing his surrender at Yorktown; how North 
Carolina gave the first mart}T to the cause of Southern 
Independence; how her soldiers saved many a hard-fought 
battle to the southern arms; the noble conduct of our peo- 
ple during the dark days of reconstruction oppression; how 
all these things were done ought to be taught with patriotic 
pride to the children of every school in North Carolina. 



One of the most distinguished gatherings of educators 
the State has ever had was in the rooms of the Commis- 
sioner of Agriculture at Raleigh on Friday evening, Octo- 
ber 16, during "Educational Week" of the Southern 
Exposition. The call was issued by a committee of the 
Teachers' Assembly, consisting of its president, Prof. 
Hugh Morson, and Prof. W. A. Withers, of the North 
Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. 

All the leading educational institutions of the state were 
represented in person while many letters of regret were 
read from those who were absent. Among those present 
were: Pres. Geo. T. Winston, from the University; Pres. 
Taylor and Profs. Lanneau, Poteat, Brewer and Sledd 
from Wake Forest College; Profs. English, Welsh and 
Bandy from Trinity College; Prof. Currell from Davidson 
College; Pres. Holladay and Profs. Hill, Massey, Chamber- 
lain, Kinealy, Withers and Emery from the Agricultural 
and Mechanical College; Pres. Abernathy from Rutherford 
College; Prof. Dinwiddle from Peace Institute; Prof. Bag- 
ley from Louisburg Female College; Pres. Brewer from 
Chowan Baptist Female Institute; Pres. Hugh Morson 
(Raleigh Male Academy), Secretary E. G. Harrell of the 
Teachers' Assembly, Superintendent of Public Instruction 
Finger, ex-Superintendent Scarborough, Prof. F. P. Hob- 
good, Prof. E. McK. Goodwin and Mr. B. S. Skinner. 

Expressions of regret at their absence, but promising 
cordial co-operation in the cause, were sent by Pres. 
Shearer and Prof. Smith of Davidson College; Profs. Hume 
and Venable of the University; Pres. Crowell and Profs. 
Weeks, Armstrong and Steadman of Trinity College; Pres. 
Long of Elon College; Profs. Mills and Carlisle of Wake 
Forest College and Prof. Ellis of Fair View College. 


Prof. Morsoii, of the Teachers' Assembly, called the 
meeting to order, and after explaining the object of the 
meeting, and how the movement originated at Morehead 
City in a suggestion by Pres. Taylor during the session of 
the Teachers' Assembly last June, he called Pres. Winston 
of the University to the chair. Prof. W. A. Withers was 
asked to act as temporary Secretary. 

Pres. Taylor of Wake Forest College was called on and 
in a few well chosen words showed how much good could 
be done to the cause of higher education by union, and 
not only to higher education, but to secondary education 
as well, for each had a mutual beneficial effect on the 
other. He stated that if the Association were to die here 
without ever being born he would feel fully repaid, as he 
had met more of the professors of the state than he had 
ever known before. He stated that his own case was 
probably representative of many others. 

Prof. Withers spoke of the success of the College Asso- 
ciation of the Middle States and Maryland, and the good 
accomplished by it, and thought "we can find a good 
model in it for our work." 

On motion of Prof. English a Committee on Permanent 
Organization was appointed, with Pres. Taylor as chair- 
man. The Constitution as recommended by the commit- 
tee was adopted. The Association was organized with the 
representatives present from the colleges and the Uni- 
versity as members. 

Major S. M. Finger, State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, was called upon, and stated how, as " President 
of the People's University of North Carolina," he felt a 
deep interest in the work of this Association and in all 
forms of education. He spoke of the present unusual pros- 
perity of the University and colleges, and attributed it to 
the prosperity of the public schools. He "would be glad 
for this Association to help the public schools, if possible, 


and in doing so it would help itself. More money is 
needed, this State having less than any State in the South 
for the public schools. It is practically impossible to get 
more at present for the the tax for schools cannot be 
increased without making the amount for State and county 
purposes too small, so long as the Constitution remains 
unchanged. The public schools should be able to turn 
out boys ready for college, and for this more money is 

President Winston called attention to the fact that in 
Massachusetts the majority of students entering the Fresh- 
man class at Harvard College came from the city free high 
schools. This, too, is an institution which has as high 
requirements for admission as any in America. If it is a 
necessity for Massachusetts, it is also a necessity for North 

Professor Hugh Morson, President of the Teachers' As- 
sembly, congratulated the Association on the step taken, 
and wished for it success. 

On motion of Professor Lanneau, a committee consisting 
of Professor Hill as chairman. Professor Brewer, President 
Abernathy and Professor Bandy was appointed to nominate 
officers. The following were elected: President, Dr. George 
T. Winston, of the University; First Vice-President, Pro- 
fessor Charles E. Taylor, of Wake F'orest; Second Vice- 
President, Professor N. C. English, of Trinity; Third 
Vice-President, Professor W. S. Currell, of Davidson; Sec- 
retary, Professor W. A. Withers, of Agricultural and 
Mechanical College, Raleigh. 

After a discussion, which was participated in by Professor 
Hill, President Winston, President Abernathy, Professor 
Massey and Professor English, it was decided to have the 
next annual meeting in Greensboro about next Easter. It 
was also decided to request the Teachers' Assembly to set 
apart a day during its session as "College Day." 


A vote of thanks was tendered to the Commissioner of 
Agriculture for the use of his rooms. 

The Constitution provides that the object of the Asso- 
ciation shall be "to consider the qualifications of candidates 
for admission to the colleges, and the methods of admis- 
sion, the character of the preparatory schools, the courses 
of study to be passed in the colleges, including their num- 
ber above; the relative number of required and elective 
studies in the various classes; the kind and character of 
degrees conferred, the organization, government, etc. ; the 
relations of the colleges to the State and county, and any 
and all questions affecting the welfare of the colleges or 
calculated to secure their proper advancement. 

The active membership consists of the Professors in the 
University and colleges of the State, while the associate 
members are the assistants in these institutions. Retired 
college Professors in this State and active or retired college 
Professors in any other State may be elected honorary 

The decisions by the Association of questions not per- 
taining to its own government shall be always considered 
advisory and not mandatory, each institution preserving 
its own individuality and liberty of action upon all subjects 

The work has certainly begun under the most favorable 
auspices, and it is a grand step in the right direction. 

Upon motion, Major Finger, State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction; Hon. John C. Scarborough, Ex-State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction; Dr. H. B. Battle, 
Statej Chemist; Col. Eugene G. Harrell, Secretary of the 
North Carolina Teachers' Assembly, and Mr. B. S. Skinner, 
superintendent of the Model Farm of the Agricultural and 
Mechanical College, were invited to meet with the College 
Association at Greensboro in 1892. 




We have received the following letter from a friend in 

Editor North Carolina Teacher: 

Dear Sir: In the November number of The Teacher you state that 

Mr. Sheppe, editor of the Durham Educator, is a native of Virginia. 

This is a mistake. It is true that he did live in Virginia for a while, but 

he is from Ohio! Please make correction and necessary apology to 

Virginia. Yours truly, 

C. F. K. 
LvNCHBURG, Va., October 29, 1891. 

We were led into this error by Mr. Sheppe' s own state- 
ment that he was a Virginian — an "F. F. V." We now 
gladly make the correction and most sincerely apologise to 
the grand Old Dominion for such a libel, though uninten- 
tional, upon her good name. 

The Teacher will have nothing more to say upon this 
subject at present, as we are too busy to waste our time in 
resenting the slander and abuse which an Ohio sojourner 
may see fit to heap upon North Carolina and her teachers. 
They have never received any better treatment from such 
men and they do not expect anything different, nor do 
they mind it in the least. 

North Carolina is now attracting more attention than 
all the other Southern States. The noble character of our 
people, the fertility of our soil and the charm of our cli- 
mate are beginning to be known and appreciated through- 
out this country. Much credit is due to our teachers for 
this happy condition. 




President Western North Carolina Teachers- Association. 



John W. Starnes, Asheville President. 

Wai^TER Hurst, Barnardsville Secretary. 

David L,. ElwS, Fair View Treasurer. 

This Association held a very pleasant and profita- 
ble meeting October 29-30, at Bryson City, in Swain 
County. The good people of the city vied with one 
another in their hospitality, and would not suffer the Asso- 
ciation to be quartered at the hotels, but open doors and 
warm hearts made the teachers feel at home around their 
fire-sides ft-ee of charge/ And not only did they do this, 



but en 7?iasse they visited every sitting of the Association, 
and made their visitors feel their welcome. 

Among the many good papers we noticed the following 
as being unusually full and interesting: 

"Forming habits and developing character at school," 
by John W. Starnes. (By the way, Mr. Starnes was among 
the first to second the movement looking to the organization 
of the North Carolina Teachers' Assembly, and he has 
ever been its warm friend and supporter.) 

" How should a teacher proceed to obtain a public school 
in North Carolina — to open, organize, conduct and close 
it?" by Superintendent C. B. Way, Buncombe County. 
This was the finest, most thoughtful paper we ever heard 
touching this very important topic. 

"What are the prominent causes of failure in teaching?" 
]\Iiss Florence Stephenson, Principal High School, iVshe- 
ville. A most able and practical paper, full of inimitable 
wit and humor and solid blocks of common sense. 

But the event of the Association was the address of Dr. 
G. T. Winston, President of the University of North Caro- 
lina, on "Education." The Doctor was never happier in 
speech nor of finer humor than in this address, which 
touched every heart in the crowded hall. The visit of Dr. 
Winston made every teacher better, for it would be impos- 
sible to associate with such an eminent scholar for two 
days and not be greatly benefited. 

The Indian School, located in Swain County, under Gov- 
ernment patronage, paid the Association a visit, and the 
bright faces of the "red-skins," rendered handsome by the 
impress of instruction, lent a peculiar charm to the gather- 
ing. The school has organized a full brass band; it can 
hardly be excelled in North Carolina for proficiency in 
volume and qualit}' of music. 

During the sessions a most cordial message of sympathy 
and encourao-ement reached the Association from the 


officers of the North Carolina Teachers' Assembly, and 
several letters of friends of the organization also came 
from various parts of the State. 

Among the committees appointed was one on "Profes- 
sional Standing," to which was referred the matter of a 
training-school for Western North Carolina teachers, pre- 
sented and discussed by the editor of the Western North 
Carolina Journal of Education. 

At the close of the Association all the vehicles of the 
city were at the disposal of the teachers, and they enjoyed 
a drive out into the beautiful country about Bryson City. 

The next session of the Association will be held at 
Waynesville sometime in July, 1892. 

There are signs of a grand onward march in the educa- 
tional arm}- in Western North Carolina, and we expect to 
see five hundred of the teachers of the thirteen counties 
west of the Ridge at the great x\ssenibly gathering at 
Morehead City, N. C, June 21-July 2, 1892. — D. 

[For the North Carolina Teacher.] 


I am not given to writing for journals and newspapers, 
but Mr. Sheppe, from Ohio (he is not a native of Virginia), 
says some things in the Southern Educator{^) which do not 
strike me as just the things to say. Perhaps he expresses 
himself awkwardly and does not mean a reflection on the 
people of our Old North State. 

In his leading editorial he virtually says that the people 
of North Carolina do not want better school-houses, better 
schools, better teachers. TJie Educator quotes The 
Teacher in referring- to him as follows: "Tries to belittle 


North Carolina and all her enterprises," and then calls on 
The Teacher for "the proof or stand convicted of self- 
confessed nialicions falsehood." 

The proof is in October number, 1891, of The Educator^ 
page I. "Teach the people," says The Educator. "It is 
folly to attempt to supply a demand that does not exist," 
says The Southern{?) Educator'. ' ' For if the people wanted 
longer terms they would have them," says Mr. Sheppe, 
of Ohio. "If they wanted better teachers they would 
get them," says the October number of The Educator. 
"If they wanted better school-houses it would be so or- 
dered," says Mr. Sheppe. "The truth is, where school 
facilities are bad (^poor)., the demand for better education 
does not exist," sa)-s this editor from the Buckeye State. 
Stand up and receive your sentence, Mr. Educator^ for you 
are j'^^convicted. We quote from your leading editorial 
and prove that you not only "belittle " the people of North 
Carolina, but reflect upon her teachers. 

On page 350 of TJie Educator you refer to "the self- 
constituted defender." In North Carolina you will find a 
very large number of people "constituted" in the same 
way. The Educator intended sarcasm, yet he could not 
possibly have paid Colonel Harrell a higher compliment, 
for the true Southerner knows how and when to defend 
his people from "belittling" attacks and unjust reflections. 
So mote it be! 

If our poverty, and division of funds from taxable prop- 
erty owned by the whites goes to educate the "brother in 
black," and which largely prevents longer school terms, 
it does not prove that we do 7iot want more education. It 
is, however, very unkind for The Educator to misrepresent 
us, and to send these misrepresentations throughout the 
Northern States or elsewdiere. 

"Wake up public sentiment," says this "belittling" 
editor. He reminds us of a man riding in a car back- 


wards, for he does not see aii)-thing until his attention is 
called to it or he has passed it. Is not "pnblic senti- 
ment" on a boom in North Carolina? The Normals at 
University of North Carolina and Trinity; the Normals 
for five years in the Congressional districts; the County 
Institute work by Messrs. Mclver and Alderman, aided by 
Messrs. Moses, Jo}'ner, Blair, Hughes, Claxton, Noble, and 
others — all able workers in the cause — under the wise 
administration of the State Superintendent, Major S. I\I. 
Finger, aided still further by the press of the State, the 
teachers, and especially that able and "self-constituted 
defender," The North Carolina Teacher, and our 
Teachers' Assembly — have made education (^(961/;/ in North 
Carolina more lively and earnestly than in any other State. 
Better repeat the call, with a little variation, and make it 
loud— "Wake up, Mr. Sheppe!!.^" 

The Educator (page 350), it seems, would have us forget 
our Pettigrew, the scholar and soldier. Now the names of 
Pettigrew, Pickett, and a host of others, should be as 
household words to our children. To have these names 
in our copy-books, readers and histories is not sectional- 
ism; it is the preservation of our history — of the names 
and noble deeds of our ancestors — and it is both right 
and proper that it should be so. 

In a very recent number of The Teacher appeared a 
just criticism on "Montgomery's History of the United 
States." Perhaps The Educator would have us use in our 
schools "Anderson's New Grammar-school United States 
History." On page 300: "Seven States were united in a 
confederacy, of which Jefferson Davis was the President, 
and Montgomery, Alabama, the capital." On page 327: 
"And though the news of the surrender of Johnston and 
of the capture of Davis reached them," etc. This is every 
word that is said of Mr. Davis; does not mention that he 
was from Mississippi, neither does it state that he was Sec- 


retary of War during the administration of President Pierce, 
was in the Mexican and other wars, was in the United States 
Senate, and held other important and honored positions. 

On page 326 of this same so-called history, fine print 
(foot-note), we find as follows: "On this occasion Grant 
exhibited the greatest magnanimity. He declined to receive 
Lee's sword, and in his capitulation paroled him and his 
confederates. — Alexander W. Stevens, Vice-President of 
the Confederacy." Now here are two, if not three, wilful 
and inexcusable falsehoods: (i) Grant did not have the 
privilege to receive Lee's sword, for it was not tendered to 
him; (2) we do not believe the Vice-President and historian 
made use of any such statement; (3) the name of the Vice- 
President of the Confederacy was "Alexander H. Stephens." 
Nowhere else in Anderson's book does the name of Mr. Ste- 
phens appear. There is not a picture of a Southern man, 
who was in the Confederate service in any capacity, in this 
book. Bull Run (Manassas), page 304, the name of the 
General in command of the Southern soldiers does not 
appear. This book is advertised as "New, both in subject- 
matter and illustrations," and to this we most heartily 
agree, as there is but little of the truth between the covers 
of the book concerning the struggle for Southern Inde- 

The Educator^ s quotation from The Teacher, "North 
Carolina for North Carolinians," is properly understood by 
us, for Mr. Sheppe doubtless would have Ohio furnish 
the teaching force for "tar, pitch and turpentine" boys and 
girls, as some Northern geographers delight to call them. 

This sentiment, ' ' North Carolina for North Carolinians, ' ' 
as ridiculed by The Educator^ pervades every section of 
country. If not expressly stated, it is so plainly implied 
that "reading between the lines" in very many Northern 
books is an easy matter. We take it that you, Colonel 
Harrell, simply meant that sectionalism should be kept 


out of our schools, and that such books only as are national 
in their make-up should be used. To this all will agree, 
hence we can understand and do fully appreciate the warn- 
ing you give against the use of school histories (so-called) 
which wilfully and knowingly and grossly misrepresent us. 
Preference should be given to home people, and we know 
of no reason why we should go from home to get teachers. 
If our University, male and female colleges, to say nothing 
of our most excellent and thorough city and private schools, 
cannot furnish our teachers, then we are, indeed, in a bad 
fix. But who will dare question these things? At the 
same time, we have built no wall to keep out good men 
and women from other States, and we welcome all, includ- 
ing Mr. Sheppe, who will come, to come in earnest, to be 
one of us, and to help us on to further prosperity. As 
The Educator ssiys^ "Get in the swim!" 

Now, Mr. Editor, this communication is written with 
kind motives, with the hope that Mr. Sheppe will, in 
future, so frame his language as to not reflect upon North 
Carolina and her people. We like Mr. Sheppe; we wish 
him abundant success, and we attribute his lack of appro- 
priate language to express himself to his youth. As he 
grows older he may improve. We want him to remain in 
North Carolina; to "put a little tar on his heels" to help 
him to stick and to have the "sticking qualities" of our 
native Tar-heels. * * * 

Chowan County, N. C, November 4, 1891. 

I WOULD have my children able at each moment from 
morning to evening to read on my face and to divine upon 
my lips that my heart is devoted to them; that their hap- 
piness and their joys are my happiness and my joys. — 



North Carolina has again placed herself proudly at the 
head of the column of States by the fine exhibit of her 
schools and their work at the Southern Exposition. 

In nothing is the importance and progressiveness of a 
State estimated more than by the efficiency of its educa- 
tional institutions. Superior school advantages first attract 
people to a State or city even before its material wealth is 
fully realized. In this test of merit, as in many others, 
North Carolina is specially and peculiarly successful. 

First in magnitude, importance and interest in the edu- 
cational exhibit is that made by our honored University. 
The display occupies about six hundred square feet, and 
includes a fine collection of specimens and models from the 
Scientific and Biological departments; the Chemical and 
Geological and Botanical laboratories; the Natural History 
Museum, and the Libraries. A number of elegant life-size 
oil paintings of prominent members of the Alumni adorn 
the walls, among which are the faces of Hon. James K. 
Polk, President of the United States; Hon. William A. 
Graham, Vice-President of the United States; General 
William R. Davie, General Bryan Grimes, General J. 
Johnston Pettigrew, Judge William Gaston, Judge 
Archibald D. Murphey, and Rev. Francis L. Hawks, 
LL. D. 

The arrangement of the exhibit was personally planned 
and superintended by Dr. George T. Winston, President 
of the University, and Mr. Hunter Harris, instructor in 
the Chemical and Geological departments. 

Next to the University is the "North Carolina Teachers' 
Assembly Exhibit," which we have elsewhere noticed in 
full. The familiar faces of Presidents Fray, Lewis, Alder- 


man, Winston, Smith, Mclver and Morson, and of many 
well-known teachers in the various groups interest the 
visitor, while the North Carolina flag extends a patriotic 

Next we have the splendid display of mechanical and 
industrial drawing and modeling from that department 
of the Charlotte Public Schools. Many of these speci- 
mens, which is the handiwork of children, would do credit 
to older and more experienced hands, and the entire exhibit 
is fully creditable to the splendid system of public schools 
of that greatly esteemed North Carolina city. A great 
many people carefully inspected the designs, drawings and 
models with special interest. 

The Seminary for Girls at Lexington (Professor W. J. 
Scroggs, principal) is well represented b)' a number of 
excellent paintings and drawings from its Art Department. 
The high grade of work shown places this school among 
the best in our State, and is an earnest of the efficiency 
and thoroughness of its teaching. 

Louisburg vSeminary for girls also makes a highly cred- 
itable exhibit from its Art Department. Professor S. D. 
Bagley is principal of the school, and the Art Department 
is represented by a number of excellent paintings. North 
Carolina is proud of all such schools. 

The "Miller Manual Labor School," of Crozet, Virginia, 
has a very large and fine exhibit of work from the various 
departments of that most excellent institution. Professor 
L. H. Vawter, a member of the Executive Committee of 
the Southern Educational Association, is President of the 
Miller School, and a more zealous, energetic and efficient 
worker in this special branch of our educational system 
can scarcely be found in the United States. The exhibit 
consists of drawings and models from the engineering 
department, mouldings and castings from the foundry, 


and a large number of specimens of work from the car- 
penter and blacksmith shops. 

The Virginia Military Institute, the most celebrated 
military school in the South, has a good exhibit of 
mechanical drawings representing the excellent work of 
the senior classes of that institution. 

The graded school at Reidsville, under the direction of 
Mr. E. L. Hughes, the Superintendent, makes a very 
creditable display of "free-hand drawing" by the pupils 
in the school, ranging from ten to twelve years of age. 
The little folks have done well in their work, and they 
show evidence of very careful training. Drawing is a 
most important subject and should be taught thoroughly 
and carefully in every school. The work exhibited by 
Mr. Hughes has been frequently examined and much com- 
plimented by educational visitors to the Exposition. 


A teacher gave out words for analysis. "Banknote" 
was one of them, and the teacher's astonishment may be 
imagined when one youug lady brought the following 
unique analysis: "Bank-note is a compound, primitive 
word, composed of 'bank' and 'note.' 'Bank' is a sim- 
ple word, meaning the side of a stream; 'note,' to set 
down. 'Bank-note,' to set down by the side of a stream." 

The man who is poorest in grammar will usually prove 
loudest in his denunciation of it. He turns to language 
lessons to let himself down easily. — School Mod erato7\ 

;^0RTH Carolina Teachers' Assembly 


Hugh Morson (Raleigh Male Academy), President, . . Raleigh. 
Eugene; G. Harreli, (Editor Teacher), Sec. and Treas., . Raleigh. 

J. J. Blair (Supt. Graded Schools), .... 
J. E. Kelly (Model Male School), .... 
Miss Catherine Fulghum (Graded School), 
W. J. Ferrell (Wakefield Academy), . 
Miss Lizzie Lindsay (Graded vSchool), 
P. M. Pearsall (Count}' Superintendent), 
Miss Lina McDonald (Graded School), 
T. J. Drevvry (Horner Military School), . 
Mrs. S. Montgomery P'unk (Chowan Bap. Fem. Inst.), 


Hugh Morson, ex officio, President, .... 

Eugene G. Harrell, ex officio, Secretary, 

Eben Alexander (University of North Carolina), . 

W. L. Poteat (Wake Forest College), .... 

James Dinwiddle (President Peace Institute), . 
Charles D. Mclver (Pres't Normal and Industrial School 
for Women), ........ 

J. Y. Joyner (vSuperintendent Graded School), 

A. C. Davis (Superintendent Military School', . 

E. E. Britton (Principal High School), .... 

Ninth Annual Session— June 21 to July 2 










Chapel Hill. 
Wake Forest. 


, 1S92. . 

F YOU want to know how to interest your 
school on the subject of drawing, be sure 
to attend the course of lessons given by 
the inimitable artist Frank Beard at 
the Assembly next Jime. i\Ir. Beard 
has no equal in x\merica as a "chalk 
artist," and his work with the teachers 
at the Assembly next summer will be 
of the greatest practical value to them. 
The entire course of lessons and the 
., . ^ evening entertainments will be free to 
.ik-^«^!.^ all members of the Assembly. 


The Secretary of the Assembly will be glad to 
exchange "Proceedings" with every other State Teachers' 
association in the United States. 

Mrs. Idalia G. Myers, President of the Normal School 
at Washington City, has accepted an invitation to attend 
the next session of the Teachers' Assembly Mrs. Myers 
is one of the most efficient and progressive instructors in 
the art of teaching to be found in this country, and she 
will give our teachers the benefit of her large experience, 
study and observation in the work of the school-room. 

One of the most interesting and valuable discussions 
at the next session of the Assembly will be upon the 
subject, "School Advertising." An entire day will be 
given to this practical topic, and many of the prominent 
teachers of the State who have made their schools success- 
ful by advertising will give their views to the Assembly 
for the benefit of the younger members of the profession. 

The "North Carolina Teachers' Assembly Exhibit" at 
the Southern Exposition attracted a great deal of attention. 
Strangers from a distance were specially interested in it, as 
it set forth the fact that North Carolina was far in the lead 
of all other States of the Union in the magnitude, pleas- 
ures and benefits of our great State organization of teachers. 
The exhibit included life-size portraits of each of the seven 
Presidents of the Assembly and of Hon. S. M. Finger, 
the State Superintendent of Public Instruction; also a 
number of photographs of the teachers on their various 
Assembly tours to Washington City, Niagara, Canada, 
Mount Vernon, and Europe. The North Carolina coat- 
of-arms was displayed with the group of pictures and 
the State flag proudly waved over all. A large printed 
tablet in the centre of the exhibit gave a short history of 
the Teachers' Assembly and its grand v/ork during the 


eight years of its existence, and the results of its work were 
briefly summarized as follows: 

1. Brought together thousands of teachers and friends of 
education in pleasant social intercourse. 

2. Carried the teachers over North Carolina from the 
mountains to the sea. 

3. Visited most of the prominent cities of the North and 
made a tour of Great Britain and other European countries. 

4. Secured pleasant and remunerative positions for over 
five hundred of its members. 

5. Erected a handsome and commodious Teachers' As- 
sembly building at IMorehead City, costing seven thousand 
dollars, for its annual sessions. 

6. Brought to its meetings many of the most prominent 
educators and literary men and women of this country for 
special lectures, 

7. Created a general educational revival in North Caro- 
lina, resulting in a large increase of the public school fund. 

8. Secured the establishment of State Teachers' Insti- 
tutes in every county of the State, and the institution of 
the State Normal and Training School for Young Women. 

9. Fostered a sentiment of greater appreciation of our 
teachers and increased the attendance upon the schools. 

10. Organized the Southern Educational Association, 
which represents over eighty thousand teachers in the South. 

Every pupil should be required to memorize each day 
a lesson from some standard spelling-book. Nothing less 
than this daily exercise will make correct spellers, and 
you cannot afford to let your pupils go through life as a 
"bad spell." 



BY F. G. B. 

HILDREN, I'm going to 

give you all 
A piece of good advice. 
Remember now each word 

I say — 
I cannot give it twice. 
You've doubtless heard it 

many a time, 
As told in prose and told in 


Each morning early be at 

There study well, obe}' each rule; 
Be sure \ our hands and face are clean. 
Your hair well brushed when there you're seen. 
A.t home take care to close each door, 
x\nd don't throw things upon the floor. 
Follow these rules, and though you're small. 
You'll find yourselves beloved by all. 

— N'ew York School Jo2trnal. 

"God asks, not 'To what sect did he belong?' 
But 'Did he do the right, or love the wrong?' " 

— Persian Poet. 



Questions are asked in Kate Field'' s Washnigion as to 
whether the young ladies who read essays at their gradua- 
tion on "The Archaic Heroine," "Lockyer's Meteoric 
Hypothesis," "Mediaeval Universities," "The American 
Referendum," and other erudite themes, know anything 
about the subjects that "good wives" should be familiar 
with. "What do they know of domestic economy? Have 
they studied the properties of foods? Can they discourse 
on the relation of candy to loss of appetite? Can they do 
one thing well enough to earn their salt?" 

Here is the opportunity for some of these girl graduates 
who have been through a course in "domestic economy" 
to take a simpler theme now and answer these pointed 
questions. The domestic department in education has 
existed lomj enouoh to have its defenders. 


To prepare for conducting \'Our reading classes, try some 
such plan of study as this: 

1. Make out a list of new or difficult words requiring 
class drill. 

2. Decide what line of questioning will bring out the 
meaning of each sentence, paragraph, or entire lesson. 

3. Decide what anecdote you may tell. 

4. Decide what stories the children may be led to tell in 
connection with the lesson. 

5. Form a definite idea of the benefit which individual 
pupils and the class as a whole should receive from the 
lesson. — ExcJiange. 



If anything unkind you hear 

About some one you know, my dear, 

Do not, I pray you, it repeat 

When you that some one chance to meet; 

For such news has a leaden way 

Of clouding o'er a sunny day. 

But if you something pleasant hear 

About some one you know, my dear. 

Make haste — to make great haste 'twere well, 

To her or him the same to tell; 

For such news has a golden way 

Of lighting up a cloudy day. 

— Housekeeper'' s Weekly. 


Locate each large town in your State on an outline map, 
drawn on paper or the board, and tell of each one — 

On what railroad is it located? 

On what river or coast? 

Tell its business. 

How large is it compared v, ith New York City? Chicago? 

What large towns would you pass through in going from 
Raleigh to New York? 

Name some city or village in which you are interested. 

Describe (i) its location; (2) arrangement of streets; 
(3) principal public buildings; (4) one private building; 
(5) employment of its inhabitants. 

Make an imaginary visit to-day to Raleigh ; take one 
thousand dollars with you; tell what you see and what 
}• o u buy. — Exch a nge. 


[For the North Carolina Teacher.] 



Now the earth is wrapped in splendor, 
Clothed in garments gold and crimson; 
Nature's summer garb of emerald 
Has been changed by Autumn's fingers. 

Touched as by a magic paint-brush, 
Bright and gay with flames of scarlet. 
Now we hear the merry husker 
Singing as the sheaves he garners. 
Singing as the brown leaves rustle. 
Reaping rich reward for labor. 

Hearts with one accord are praising. 
Thanking God for all His blessings 
Showered upon His loving children, 
Like the gentle rain of spring-time. 
Skies of blue are bending o'er us. 
While we sing to God our chorus. 
God of all the earth and Heaven, 
Prince of Peace to sinners given. 
Hear Thy humble servants sing 
Praises to our Lord and King ! 
Great has been Thy loving-kindness 
LTnto Thy unworthy children; 
Help us all to love Thee more, 
Do Thy will and serve Thee better, 
And, when life on earth is ended. 
And the Harvest Day has come, 
May we be among the garnered — 
Gathered to the Home above! 



There comes many a day in every term of school when 
it seems that the children are less attentive than usual; in 
fact, the teacher feels that she is lacking in inspiration and 
enthusiasm. For just such days Professor Beer has pre- 
pared his "Talks with Pupils." The teachers who use 
it freely find that it "bridges over" these trying days and 
renews interest in the work when listlessness appears to take 
possession of the school, and, to some extent, even the 
teacher. Try the " Beers Talks" for your dull days. 



They'd all sat down but Bess and me, 

I surely thought Pd win. 
To lose on such an easy word. 

It was a shame and sin ! 
We spelled the longest in the book — 

The hardest ones — right throu^di; 
"Xylography," and "pachyderm," 

And "gneiss," and "phthisic," too. 

I spelled " immalleability," 
"Pneumonia" — it was fun! 
"Phlebotomy," and "zoophyte," 
Each long and curious one. 
Then teacher gave a right queer smile 

When Bess spelled "aquarelle," 
And backward, quick, she turned the leaves, 
And then she gave out "spell." 


I'm sure I never stopped to think 

About that "double 1," 
It seemed like such an easy word — 

But one can never tell. 
"S-p-e-1," I spelled it — 

And how they all did laugh ! 
And teacher said, "I think, my dear, 

Too easy 't was, by half." 

Now Bessie was not proud or mean; 

She said: "No wonder, Jane; 
For were we thinking of big words, 

YouM spell it right again." 
I'm glad that it was Bess that won. 

And not those others. Well, 
If I did miss one little word, 

I showed that I could spell ! 

— SL NicJiolas. 


Every now and then you hear some }-oung man, with a 
cigarette between his teeth, bewailing the fact that he 
can't get to the front because the old men are in the way. 
They should know that there are plently of old men who 
are anxious enough to get out of the wa}^ of the young men 
if the young men will only get in the way of taking their 

The trouble is that such a proportion of men have to 
live until they are old before they know how, or before 
they are willing to knuckle down. Be earnest, active and 
diligent in business, and you'll find no one will hold you 


** (SiaroUtta, tf avoUua, ^xtMtiV^ Mmm^ niUml htv, 
WlxxU \v( Uce we trill dt^inislt, \noUtt Mt\ tUfemX Ittv; 
S^homjU i\H $tov\m may $\utv at and ii1tliu0Si (Ufame 

0UV Ixtm^ mcM vu'xtU %\U\m$ wlxtnevtt we name 


OUTHERN teachers have been 
interested in the Southern Inter- 
states Exposition, which was a 
grand thing, bringing together 
thousands of our people to see 
the splendid resources of the 
various sections of our State and 
of the South. October 12 to 17 
was set apart as "Educational 
week," at the request of the 
Teachers' Assembly, and it was 
a most successful occasion. There were present a large 
number of our most prominent educators, representing 
most of the leading schools of the State. Many of the 
teachers brought most of their larger pupils with them, 
and it was truly a pleasure to see these young people have 
so much enjoyment in their visit. It was a happy week. 
The weather was delightful, and both the elements and the 
people seemed to combine their powers to make school week 
the brightest, best and happiest time of the whole Exposi- 
tion. Teachers met teachers and pleasant acquaintances 


were formed which will be cherished through life. The 
occasion was almost equal to one of our Morehead City 
Teachers' Assemblies if social enjoyment and professional 
social intercourse is to be, for several years, the key-note of 
the educational prosperity of North Carolina. The exhibits 
of educational work by many prominent institutions 
throughout the country, which, through the energetic 
and efficient labors of Capt. C. B. Denson, chairman of 
the committee appointed by the Southern Educational 
Association, was so large and excellent, gave the teachers 
both pleasure and instruction. 

Send for our splendid "Premium List" of The North 
Carolina TEx\cher. We think it will interest you. 

The Creator has given a great many more people the 
power to talk than He has the discretion as to what to say. 

North Carolina is to be developed, educationally, by 
her teachers. What are you doing towards this develop- 

We are indebted to the School Bulletin^ of Syracuse, 
New York, for the cut which we use as a frontispiece in 
this number of The Teacher. 

If you know of a teacher in this State who is not now 
a reader of The North Carolina Teacher will you 
kindly send the name to us on a postal card? 

Don't let the Christmas Holidays pass without having 
some kind of entertainment at your school. This will 
give enjoyment to your pupils and please your patrons. 

The Southern Educator of Durham and its Ohio editor 
must now do their own advertising, as we have "had our 
say" for the present, and now have other matters of more 
importance to talk with our readers about. 


Do YOU KNOW that North Carolina has the reputation of 
doing more "practical work" and less "foolishness" in 
her public schools than any other State in the South? 
This is a very desirable record and we are proud of it. 

iVRE THE city public schools amenable to the gen- 
eral School Law of the State — if so, how far ? is asked by 
some of our correspondents. We refer the question to our 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Major S. M. 

Only one North Carolina teacher attended the National 
Kducational Association at Toronto, so far as we have been 
able to learn. There were present from the State some 
eight or ten other persons, comprising merchants, clerks, 
bankers and lawyers, all on a vacation sight-seeing tour. 

The colored people of North Carolina have a very 
creditable history of their race for the use of schools, and 
they have adopted the name "Negro." The Teacher 
will therefore conform to their expressed desire and will 
also in future designate them as Negroes. It is the true 
name of their race and makes them a "nation," the same 
as any other distinct class of people. 

IvET THE school supported by public taxation do its own 
work and do it well — thoroughly instruct a child in the 
regular public school course — and the people will be fully 
satisfied. This is all that the public school system is 
expected to accomplish, and it is all that it can, success- 
fully, do. Do your duty well and attempt nothing else is 
all that is, or should be, required of every public servant. 

Hon. J. G. Harris, State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction of Alabama and one of the Vice-Presidents of 
the Southern Educational Association, visited Raleigh on 
' 'Alabama Day ' ' of the Southern Exposition — November 
28 — and addressed the people in the main building on the 


subject of "The South 's Wonderful Development." We 
partially claim Mr. Harris as a North Carolinian, as both 
of his parents were natives of Wake County. 

The Teacher has enjoyed an unparalleled rush of 
renewals and new subscriptions during the past month. 
We have sent as premiums twelve sets "Six Great Books," 
forty-two sets "Ten Greatest Novels," twenty-seven sets 
"Dickens," five sets "Waverly," nine copies "Beers' 
Talks," fourteen "Black Beauty," and have also received 
thirty-one subscriptions without premiums, making one 
hundred and forty new subscriptions for the month. We 
thank you, friends! 

The visit of Hon. W. T. Harris, of Washington City, 
the United States Commissioner of Education, to the Expo- 
sition at Raleigh during Educational week was a proud 
and notable event. Since our teachers met Dr. Harris so 
pleasantly during his visit to the Teachers' Assembly at 
Morehead City last June, he has been a great favorite with 
the people of North Carolina. We hope to give our readers 
his strong address in full in an early number of The 
Teacher and commend it to their careful consideration. 

Every school and college in North Carolina, whether 
public or private, should have displayed prominently the 
"North Carolina State Flag." The flag can be easily and 
cheaply made and we will gladly send the design to any 
teacher on application. The highest order of patriotism 
is State pride, and we want every child of North Carolina 
trained to love and honor "The Old North State" as truly 
and sincerely as we do, and to cultivate and cherish an 
unwavering faith in North Carolina and a sacred pride in 
being a North Carolinian. 

The most appropriate of all gifts for any occasion is a 
good and beautiful book. It is always in excellent taste and 
it is a constant reminder of the donor, as it is also a con- 


tinual well-spring of joy to the recipient. Messrs. x\lfred 
Williams & Company can supply anything you may want 
in this line as a gift for the holiday season. For school 
prizes, gifts to teachers, to pupils, to friends or relations, 
for every style and novelty in the popular Christmas or New 
Year Card, send to Messrs Alfred Williams & Company, 
and your order will be filled by return mail. 

Dr. Kemp P. Battle, of the University, has done a 
good work for North Carolina in the preparation of his 
most excellent and instructive address on "The Life of 
Jethro Sumner." Dr. Battle has done more to perpetuate 
the memory of North Carolina than any other man in this 
State, and his latest work is conceded to be his best. Gen- 
eral Jethro Sumner was one of the most prominent men 
in the history of our State, always "standing by" North 
Carolina Avith a firm and patriotic devotion, and Dr. Battle 
has done our State a great service in perpetuating the 
memory of one of her most distinguished sons. 

Of all the fort}'-four States of the Union the only one 
which has "State Songs" is North Carolina. Our "Ho! 
for Carolina" and "The Old North State" are cheered with 
enthusiasm whenever sung, and they inspire a proud spirit of 
patriotism throughout our State. Every true North Caroli- 
nian is in tenderest and heartiest accord with the patriotic 
sentiment, "Carolina! Carolina! Heaven's blessings attend 
her" and "Oh, there is no land on earth like this fair land 
of ours." This spirit of devotion should be taught early 
and continually to all the children in our schools until they 
realize as we do the fact that North Carolina is truly the 
greatest, grandest and bravest of all the States of America. 

You CAN greatly increase the efficiency of your school 
and arouse the interest of your patrons if you will introduce 
a "drill feature." The manual of arms is a most admira- 
ble and beneficial exercise, and will be as much enjoyed 



b}^ the girls as by the boys. You can procure from Alfred 
Williams & Co., of Raleigh, an outfit of wooden guns, 
same size and style of the regulation army rifle, for fifty 
cents each, and a copy of the drill tactics for fifty cents. 
There is no sight more beautiful or interesting- than a 
"company" of girls marching or executing the manual of 
arms. The exercise is as healthy as it is enjoyable, and 
for public entertainments or exhibitions nothing else takes 
near so well. 

Many of our educational exchanges are republishing 
Professor Greenwood's excellent article, "To Ten Thousand 
in a Year," which appeared originally in the N'ezc York 
School Journal. We notice, however, that some of the 
journals have stricken from the article the most valuable 
part, consisting of Professor Greenwood's strong and just 
denunciation of all the "shoe-peg, splint and tooth-pick 
nonsense" as so-called aids in teaching figures. The arti- 
cle appeared in full in Thp: North Carolina Teacher 
last month, and it was enjoyed by our readers. The shoe- 
pegs and tooth-picks must go — yes, they are going — out 
of all leading North Carolina schools, because such non- 
sense cannot continue in the face of public sentiment and 
educational experience. 

Combined with the literary, musical and artistic educa- 
tion of the girls in the higher institutions there should be 
as much practical instruction as possible. For a long time 
a large company of young girls, under the charge of a lady 
of mature age, has appeared each morning at a meat mar- 
ket of New York, and while the lady orders the trades- 
people to deliver certain quantities of the viands at her 
address, the girls stand about listening. The lady explains 
the different kinds of meat to the girls, and defines for them 
various ways of cutting. It is a class from a fashionable 
boarding-school obtaining instruction in the business of 


marketing and house-keeping. This kind of education 
should be given to every girl in the leading boarding- 
schools of North Carolina. 

The story of our "North Carolina Teachers Abroad" 
is now nearing completion and will be issued in handsome 
book form. The volume will comprise some four hundred 
pages, and will be illustrated by many engravings specially 
made for us, and thus the most important tour ever under- 
taken by the teachers of any State will be preserved in 
permanent form. Only a small number of copies of. the 
book will be published, and as a souvenir of the tour it 
will be invaluable to every member of the North Carolina 
party and their friends. The book will be beautifully 
bound in cloth and copies may be obtained for ^1.50. Orders 
may be sent to the editor of The Teacher, and they will 
be filled as soon as the book comes from press. More than 
half of the entire edition is already sold. 

Somebody has started a publication in Richmond, Va., 
entitle "The New South." The misnomer should be 
promptly repudiated by all Southern people. Simply 
because the South is now the most prosperous portion of 
the American Union does not change our name to "The 
New South. ' ' All such efforts to ' ' foreignize ' ' our glorious 
South "makes us tired." No true Southern man can be 
guilty of a greater insult to our Sunny South than to 
try to change the name of our beloved country into "The 
New South." All these attempts tore-christen our beloved 
home comes from "The New North." Our country is 
The SoiitJi^ and nothing but the South. Persons who are 
not content to live in our country under the original and 
true name "The South" have full permission to go else- 
where or remain at home. 

There have never before been such prosperous times 
with our schools as at the present. All the private schools 


are crowded with pupils, many of them being compelled to 
enlarge their buildings or seating capacity in consequence 
of so great an increase of patronage. This is specially 
gratifying, as the private school is to do the higher and 
finishing education of our children. The public schools 
are expected to give the masses a practical English educa- 
tion, but we look to the private institutions for the higher 
and complete education of our children. The private 
school has a place in our educational system which has 
never been, and cannot be, filled by the public schools. 
There is not the slightest conflict except when the public 
school tries to do what it should not, and cannot, do — 
assume the place of the Academy and prepare a pupil for 
college. It is far better for the public school to do its duty 
well than to attempt something greater and fail. 

Our TEACHERS have certainly done their part faithfully 
by the Exposition. A large number of them have indi- 
vidually visited the Exposition, while many more have 
acted upon the suggestion made by The Teacher and 
brought their schools with them. Our teachers have made 
the Exposition a great "Object Lesson" for their schools, 
and the pleasure and profit derived from the lesson have 
been of invaluable benefit to the pupils. There has 
scarcely been a pleasant day since the Exposition was 
fairly open that did not find from one to four of our enter- 
prising and progressive schools from various sections of 
the State in charge of their teachers inspecting and enjoy- 
ing the big exhibit of the State's resources, in a body. 
Some of the schools remained in the city from two to four 
days, and it has given us great pleasure to see the young 
people have such a good time. If all other people of our 
State were as true to North Carolina and her interests as 
are her teachers, what a grand forward movement w^ould 
we see! 


The large majority of the so-called "criticisms" of 
the North Carolina teachers and their grand Assembly by 
the pompous Mr. Sheppe, editor of the Durham Educator^ 
is conceived in jealousy and born in his excessive vanity 
and conceit. His disease is therefore chronic and his pres- 
ent case is hopeless. His "adopted" native State, Virginia, 
could not tolerate his arrogance and pomposity, but North 
Carolina will try to be more lenient with this immigrating 
educational missionary and "organizer." North Carolina 
is as noted for her forbearance as for her other noble quali- 
ties, and this divine virtue will be exercised in Mr. Sheppe's 
behalf. Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes has said a multitude 
of good things, but none better than this: "The human 
race is divided into two classes — those who go ahead and 
do something, and those who sit still and inquire, 'Why 
wasn't it done the other way?' " We commend this 
choice bit of human philosophy to the careful study of 
the editor of TJie Southern Educatoi'^ and will now leave 
him to his meditations. 

We extend a most cordial welcome to The Western 
North Carolina Journal of Education^ a new fraternal 
monthly co-worker for North Carolina and North Carolina's 
schools, admirably edited by our friends ]\Ir. D. L. Ellis, 
President of Fairview College, and Mr. Walter Hurst, 
Principal of IMountain Dale Seminary, of Barnardsville. 
The publication is helpful to a teacher and patriotic in 
sentiment — the two principal elements desired in a jour- 
nal for North Carolina teachers — and we wish it abundant 
success. The price is only fifty cents a year, and for $1.25 
it will be sent with The Teacher for a year, including 
our premium for single subscriptions. We suggest to 
Messrs. Ellis and Hurst that they strike out the word 
"Western" in the name of their Journal, as North Caro- 
lina is but one State. There is no "Western North Caro- 


lina," "Eastern North Carolina" or "Central North Caro- 
lina ' ' — we know of only North Cai^olma. North Caro- 
lina does not become a new State when it crosses the Blue 
Ridge or touches the seaboard, and it should not have a 
new name. 

The AWARD for the best account of "The Battle of 
Alamance and its Causes" has been given to T. W. Cos- 
ten, Jr., of Guilford College, and the complete set of 
Dickens's works has been forwarded to him by express. 
We will publish the story as written by T. W. Costen, Jr., 
in next issue of The Teacher, and we think you will 
enjoy reading it. The committee of award was Capt. C. B. 
Denson of Raleigh Male Academy, Miss Edith Royster of 
Centennial Graded School, and JNIrs. Eizzie Battle of St. 
Mary's School. The papers were all good, and specially 
meritorious were those written by John Goldsmith Bra- 
GAW, of Washington; Mattie H. Carraway, of Halifax; 
Joseph Phillips and Percy Rawlins, of Battleboro; 
Cornelia Deaton, of Mooresville; Samuel Long, of 
Guilford College; John A. Martin, William Martin, 
J. E. Martin and Jennie Thompson Gainey, of Sher- 
wood; E. E. Alexander, of Hedrick; x\nnie Belle 
Slade, of Lennox Castle. We wish that we could send 
a set of Dickens to each of these boys and girls, for their 
work richly deserves it. Some of these young people are 
but eleven or twelve years old, and their story of the Battle 
of Alamance would do credit to maturer years. 

The North Carolina Teacher is the official organ 
of the Teachers' Assembh', and whenever any envious 
thrust is made at the Assembly, or at any other educational 
organization in North Carolina, by any person, native or 
foreigner, The Teacher will always be heard from very 
promptly and in unmistakable terms. It is the mission, 
as it is the pleasure of The Teacher to uphold without 


question the Executive Committee in any and all plans 
they may devise for the Teachers' Assembly, and for the 
pleasure, recreation and improvement of its members and 
friends. Besides, the Secretary and Treasurer has doubt- 
less proven his love for the Assembly by his work during 
the past eight years-, having given a very large part of his 
time and labor for it, always refusing even the slightest 
remuneration for his services, while spending considerable 
sums of money in its interests. His reports have been 
promptly and regularly submitted at the proper times to 
the proper committees appointed by the Constitution to 
receive and audit them, and the reports have shown that 
there has not been a time within the past four years when 
the Secretary and Treasurer was not paying from three to 
eight hundred dollars months in advance for the Assembly, 
to be used in its building purposes and for expenses of the 
various committees. The reports have all been officially 
and regularly audited and duly signed by the committees 
and are filed for reference. The Secretary and Treasurer, 
the editor of The North Carolina Teacher, has also 
paid the annual fee of $2 each year, although the Consti- 
tution did not require it of him. 


Miss Li^WAN Collins has a school at Newsom's, Va. 
Miss A. C. Hooker is teaching at Manteo, Dare Count5\ 
Miss Blanche White is teaching at Nestoria, Dare County. 
Mr. John A. Matthews is teaching at Pamlico, Pamlico County. 
Mrs. George D. Drake is teaching at Castalia, Franklin County. 
Miss Bessie C. Bechan is teaching at Troy, Montgomery County. 
Miss Ida T. Frost has a school at Poplar Branch, Currituck County. 
Miss Lizzie Jones is in charge of a good school at Mill Creek, Per- 
son County. 


Miss Mamie Webb, who is teaching at Wilson, visited the Exposition 
November 13. 

Miss Nellie Carpenter (Trinity College, '92) is teaching at 
Tatum's, S. C. 

Mr. W. M. Gilmore is teaching in the High School at Tempting, 
Moore Connty. 

Mr. C. L. Haywood (Wake Forest College), is principal of the school 
at Brysou City. 

Miss W. T. Drake is in charge of the school at Willow Green in 
Greene Count}'. 

Miss SalliE Shaw, of Pender County, has taken a school at St. Paul's, 
Robeson County. 

Miss Lillie Lea, of Anson County, has taken charge of a private 
school at Rome, Ga. 

Mr. Sell Brinson (Wake Forest College), is teaching in the Graded 
School at New Bern. 

Miss Mamie L. Carver has accepted a position in the Peabody High 
School, Lake City, Fla. 

Mr. J. C. LiNNEY (Trinity College), is principal of the High School 
at Richlands, Onslow County. 

Greensboro has been chosen as the location for the Agricultural and 
Mechanical College for Negroes. 

Mr. J. C. Maske has been elected Adjunct Professor of Ancient 
Languages in Wake Forest College. 

Mr. Wayland Mitchell (Wake Forest College), is principal of the 
High School at Aulander, Bertie County. 

Miss Annie E. Spain, one of Pitt County's teachers, has taken a 
school at Whitaker's, Edgecombe County. 

Miss OlliE Moye, of Wilson, has taken a position as teacher in Mr. 
C. H. James' school, at Grifton, Pitt County. 

Mr. Allen Jones, Jr., and Mr. W. M. Gilmore, A. B., are principals 
of the High School at Pocket, Moore County. 

Mr. Z. D. McWhorter is principal of the Institute at Greenville, 
with one hundred and ninety pupils enrolled. 

Mr. John Benson has a fine school a Juniper Bay near Lake Com- 
fort, Hyde County, assisted by Miss Williams. 

Miss Carrie Carpenter (Trinity College, '92) is principal of the 
Methodist Seminary for girls at Durham, N. C. 

Mr. B. W. Glasgow (Davidson College), has accepted a position as 
teacher in the graded school at Coleman, Texas. 


Professor W. J. Scroggs, principal of the School for Girls at Lexing- 
ton, spent some daj's at the Exposition in October. 

Mr. Mott Morehead (University North Carolina) is teaching French 
and Mathematics in the High School at Leaksville. 

Mr. W. O. Howard (Wake Forest College), is Professor of Latin and 
Mathematics in Jefferson Davis College, Mississippi. 

Mr. J. L. KeseER (Wake Forest College), formerlj' assistant in Ral- 
eigh Male Academy, has a fine school at Beaver Creek. 

Mr. H. a. FousheE (Wake Forest College), is Professor of Mathemat- 
ics in Chowan Baptist Seminary for Girls at Murfreesboro. 

Wake Forest College has an enrollment of two hundred and thirty 
students, the largest in the history of that splendid institution. 

Mr. E. C. Wingeieed, of Virginia, is making a fine reputation in 
North Carolina as superintendent of the graded school at Shelb)-. 

The College News is a lively young publication in the interest of Wake 
Forest College, edited by Mr. B. H. Matthews and Mr. B. W. Spillman. 

Mr. S. E. Warren, principal of the Collegiate Institute at Wilson, 
visited the Exposition with a large party of his pupils on November 13th. 

Mr. John A. Graham, principal of the High School at Ridgeway, 
visited the Exposition on October 15th with a good number of his pupils. 

Mr. G. T. Adams, principal of the Academy at New Bern, visited the 
Exposition on November 29th with twenty-five young ladies of his school. 

LouiSBURG College for girls wuth its president. Professor L. W. 
Bagley, spent November 13th at the Exposition. The girls had a good 

Mr. B. K. Mason (Wake Forest College), is in charge of Cokesbury 
High School at Chalk Level, Harnett County. Over fifty pupils are 

The High School at Menola, Hertford County, has an enrollment of 
forty-five pupils, and the number is increasing. Mr. J. P. Leitner is 

Mr. Banks Withers (Davidson College), is principal of the Thj'ra- 
taria High School at Mill Bridge, Rowan County. The school is 

Mess Annie Patterson (Peace Institute), who has an interesting 
private school at Mangum, spent October 29th and 30th at the 

Miss Annie Hughes, of Tarboro, attended the Exposition October 
15th, accompanied by about twenty attractive young ladies of her excel- 
lent school. 


Rev. \V. E. Ormand, principal of the High School at Burlington, 
spent Thursday, November 29th at the Exposition accompanied by sixty 
of his pupils. 

On November 29th Captain John Duckett, principal of the High 
School at Hamilton, showed twenty young ladies of his school through 
the Exposition. 

Mr. A. P. Whistenhunt, of Catawba County, is principal of the 
Academy at Granite Falls. The school has bright prospects for a very 
satisfactory term. 

Mr. Hugh Mileer (University North Carolina), of Goldsboro, has 
accepted the Chair of Chemistry in the Agricultural and Mechanical 
College at Raleigh. 

Livingstone Coeeege at Salisbury is greatly prospering. It is a first 
class institution for the Negroes, and publishes a very creditable monthly 
entitled The Living-Stone. 

Misses Jessie O. Jones, Daisy Newsome and Grace Brown, three of 
Hertford County's excellent young teachers, visited the Exposition on 
October 28th, 29th and 30tli. 

Mr. B. T. H. Hodge, of Pocahontas, Va., has established an excel- 
lent school at Summerfield, Harnett Count}-. It is an Academy of high 
grade and has a fine patronage. 

St. Augustine Schooe for colored boys and girls, at Raleigh, has 
an enrollment of seventy-eight pupils, the largest in its history. Rev. 
R. B. Sutton, D. D., is President. 

Mr. E. L. Hughes, superintendent of the public school at Reidsville, 
accepted the same position in the schools of Greenville, S. C. We 
hoped he would decide to remain in North Carolina. 

Bingham School, now located at Asheville, began its fall term with 
seventy-five students, and there are new arrivals almost daily. We hope 
the enrollment may reach 300 during this term. 

Mr. Leon Cash is doing a fine work as County Superintendent of 
Davie County. He is inspiring his teachers with his own progressive 
spirit and consequently his schools are flourishing. 

Thirty lovely young ladies, pupils of the High School at Wakefield, 
Wake County, spent October 23rd at the Exposition, " chaperoned" by 
Mr. W. J. Ferrell, one of the principals of the school. 

Mr. E. W. Sikes has been elected Director of Physical Culture in 
Wake Forest College. He spent the summer in the gymnasium of 
Harvard College, preparing for the duties of his position. 

What a handsome publication is The Trinity Archive is in its new 
form. It is, besides, exceedingly well and ably edited, and is one of the 
very best college journals published in the United States. 



There is to be hazing "no more forever" at the University or any 
North Carolina College. Davidson College gave her Freshman a royal 
welcome and reception at the opening of the present term. 

Wake Forest Academy is in charge of Misses Fort and Simmons, 
and a more excellent school of its class cannot be found in the South. 
The principals are teachers of rare ability and their school is " full to 

Miss Claudia E. Waff, of Gates County, is teaching at Cochran, Ga. 
Georgia seems to be very fond of North Carolina teachers, as they have 
captured a number of our best ones, for which they have our con- 

Rev. J. A. Beam is principal of the Institute at Bethel Hill, Person 
County. His assistants are Mrs. J. A. Beam and Miss Lula Ballentine. 
The school is in a most prosperous condition and has as many boarding 
pupils as can be accommodated. 

Captain W. B. Kendrick, the veteran school-book agent, has 
been quite an invalid for some time, but we are glad to see him getting 
well and again at active work. He is a native Georgian and a clever 
representative of a worthy State. 

Raleigh was proud to welcome the faculty of Trinity College with 
some two hundred of the students on " Trinity College Day," November 
4th, at the Exposition. The unanimous opinion of Raleigh is that 
Trinity has "a splendid lot of boys. " 

KiNSEY School, at LaGrange, Professor Joseph Kinsey, principal, 
sent eighty-one of its fair young "School Girls" as its representatives 
to the Exposition on November 12th. The girls presented a handsome 
appearance in their neat gray uniform dresses. 

A DELIGHTFUL Soiree Musicale and Reception was given by Pro- 
fessor Baumann's music class at Peace Institute on the evening of October 
30th. The sweet music and charming company of the host of beau- 
tiful young ladies was enjoyed by hundreds of visitors. 

Miss CoRiNNE Harrison, of New Bern, has accepted a position in 
the Hemenway School at Norfolk, Va. , specially being in charge of the 
Physical Culture Department. Miss Harrison is a fine teacher, and we 
congratulate our Norfolk friends on securing her services. 

The Academic Institute at Carthage, Moore County, has an excellent 
faculty, consisting of Misses E. A. Cole (Guilford College), and W. E. 
Evans (Hampden-Sidney), principals; with Miss Mary C. Bagwell, Miss 
Mary B. Mclver, and Mr. W. P. Cameron, Jr., assisting. The school is 

Mr. J. E. KiNSLAND has for several years been principal of the High 
School at Clyde, Haywood County. Under his judicious management 
the school has steadily prospered and increased its usefulness, and is now 


enjoying as wide a range of patronage as any other school in Western 
North Carolina. 

Rev. J. M. Rhodes and wife, of Littleton Female Seminary, with 
twenty-five sweet yonng ladies of the institution visited the Exposition 
on November i8. It was a very cold day but the girls enjoyed their trip 
in spite of the weather. We are glad to know that this fine school is 
greatly prospering. 

Davidson ColIvEGE was represented at the Inter-collegiate Southern 
Convention, held in Charleston, S. C, to organize a "Jefferson Davis 
Monument Association." We hope that every North Carolina college 
will join this Association, and thus honor the South's most distinguished 
and beloved statesman. 

On "Masonic Day," November iS, the Oxford Orphan Asylum was 
represented at the Exposition by Dr. William S. Black, the Superinten- 
dent, several teachers, and about one hundred and twenty pupils. The 
pupils gave an excellent concert in the Exposition building, which was 
greatly enjoyed by a large audience. 

The University Rlagazine (Chapel Hill) is doing a splendid work in 
encouraging its students and Alumni in the special original study of the 
History of North Carolina. And its work is meeting most gratifying 
success, as is shown in a number of most excellent historical articles 
which have recently appeared in its pages. 

Mr. Charles Hai<l D.wis is principal of the "University School " 
at Wilson. The institution is enjoying a marked prosperity, about sixty 
pupils being enrolled at the opening. Mr. Davis has introduced quite 
an innovation in school custom by chaaging the weekly holiday from 
Saturday to Monday, and the change seems to be preferred by both 
pupils and patrons. 

" Wake Forest DAY " at the Exposition brought President Charles 
E. Taylor and almost the entire faculty and some two hundred students 
and many friends to the city on October i6th. The boys came through 
the city in grand style, making the air ring with their "college yell." 
They conducted thijmselves in an admirable manner throughout their 
visit and made many friends for the institution. 

One of the brightest days at the Exposition was " Greensboro day," 
October 23d, specially' made so by the presence of one hundred and fifty 
lovely young ladies of Greensboro Female College, accompanied by the 
President, Dr. B. F. Dixon. The " City of Flowers " was honored in its 
charming representatives. There are enrolled at Greensboro Female 
College 200 students, 160 of whom are boarders. This is the largest 
enrollment in the history of the institution. The school enjo3's a splen- 
did reputation at home and abroad for its very fine educational advan- 


The schools for the Negro race in North Carolina are likewise 
enjojdng an unusual prosperity, which is very gratifytng. Shaw Uni- 
versity and Estey Seminary at Raleigh, Dr. H. M. Tupper, President, 
have an enrollmeut of about three hundred pupils. The Medical Depart- 
ment of this excellent institution is well patronized, and it has a faculty 
unsurpassed by any Medical College in the country. 

November 5th was another big educational day at the Exposition. 
On that day there were' present Horner School with about one hundred 
handsome soldier boys in charge of Colonel T. J. Drewry; Oxford Semi- 
nary for Girls, about eighty young ladies accompanied by Rev. Penick 
and several members of the faculty; Granville Institute, twenty j'oung 
ladies with .Miss Bettie Clarke, their principal; Oxford Home School, 
Mr. Faucette, the principal, with fifteen pupils, and one hundred and 
fifty pupils of Goldsboro Graded School in charge of Mr, J. Y. Joyner, 
the superintendent. 

Elon CoIvI^EGE is destined to be one of the most prominent educa- 
tional institutions in the South. It is a co-educational school of high 
grade, and its graduates quickly secure good positions in schools as 
teachers or in business life. The institution is greatly prospering and 
well it deserves it. The Elon College iMonthly for October is an excel- 
lent number, and specially fine is the article "Womanly Women," by 
Miss Irene Johnson, one of its editors. On November 5th Dr. Long, 
president of the College, accompanied eighty of his pupils to Raleigh 
for a day's visit to the Exposition. 

During the Teachers' Institute at Ashboro October 2Sth to November 
4th, there was a spirited public discussion between Mr. Marmaduke Rob- 
bins, of Ashboro, and Professor Charles D. Mclver, the Institute con- 
ductor, as to the relative merits of the old and new sj-stems of education. 
These public discussions are very beneficial, as they not only interest the 
people in the cause of education, but they rid our schools of useless 
"old fogyism," while they protect us from much of the objectionable 
machinery and humbuggery of the "new education." W^e hope these 
matters will be publicly discussed at every Institute. 

"University day" at the Exposition was October 15, and the Occa- 
sion was honored by the presence of Dr. George T. Winston, President 
of the LTniversity, accompanied by two hundred of the students. They 
filled the electric cars at the railroad station, rode up Fayetteville Street 
giving the "University yell" in thunder tones. At the Exposition 
grounds they formed columns of twos and marched through the build- 
ings and halted before the University exhibit where they gave three 
rousing cheers for " The University," "President Winston," "North 
Carolina," " The Exposition," " The colleges for boys," "The schools for 
girls," "The city of Raleigh." Dr. Winston, upon call, spoke a few 
words of enthusiasm and the boys then had a " field day." 



'Tis said that " figures never lie," 

That one and one are always two ; 
But Cupid proves, with work so sly, 

Some wondrous things that figures do. 
And when he claims a teacher's hand 

All rules of figures then are done, 
Though TWO before the preacher stand 

This one and one are always one. 

Miss Emma Wynne (Greensboro Female College), principal of the 
Sutherland Seminary, was married on October 5th, at her home in War- 
ren County, to Dr. W. P. Horton, of Watauga County. The bride and 
groom are spending the winter ii: Baltimore. 

Miss Linda Lee Rumple, an accomplished teacher of music at Salis- 
bury, was married on October 27th to Rev. C. G. Vardell, pastor of 
the Presbyterian church at New Bern. Rev. Jethro Rumple, D. D., 
father of the bride, officiated at the ceremony. 

Miss Lula A. vSpeed, a member of the Teachers' Assembly, who has 
been teaching at Lake Landing for several terms, was married on Tues- 
day, October 27th, to Mr. Stuart J. Beckwith, of Hyde County. The 
ceremony occurred at Sunny Side, her home in Franklin County, and 
she will in future reside at Lake Landing. 

Professor Charles E. Brewer, of Wake Forest College, married 
Miss Love Bell, of Shawboro, a member of the Teachers' Assembly, 
on October 2Sth. After spending several days most delightfully at 
Chowan Baptist Female Institute at Murfreesboro, the guests of Professor 
J. B. Brewer, the bridal couple returned to their home at Wake Forest. 

Miss Hannah Shine x^llen, of New Bern, a teacher in the academy 
at that city, and a charter member of the North Carolina Teachers' 
Assembly, was married on November the 4th to Mr. Charles LuTher 
Ives, of New Bern. 

Mr. Thomas J. Simmons, of Wake Forest, Superintendent of the 
Graded Schools at Dawson, Georgia, married Miss LESSIE MuSE SouTh- 
GATE, principal of the Music School at Durham, on Wednesday, Novem- 
ber II. The ceremony was performed in Trinity Church at Durham. 

Mr. J. H. Smith, one of Wake County's teachers, married Miss Amma 
V. Dunn, of Neuse, on November 12th. 

Miss Laura Bailey, a teacher in the Deaf and Dumb and Blind Insti- 
tution at Raleigh, was married to Mr. John M. Wyatt, of Raleigh, on 
November 12th. Rev. W. B. Wingate, of Greensboro, officiated. 



■ ' Death hath made no breach 
In love and sympathy, in hope and trust. 
No outward sign or sound our ears can reach, 
But there's an inward, spiritual speech 
That g^reets us still, though mortal tongues be dust. 
It bids us do the work that they laid down — 
Take up the song where they broke off the strain ; 
So, journeying till we reach the heavenly town. 
Where are laid up our treasure and our crown, 
And our lost, loved ones will be found again." 

One of God's saints on earth has gone to his eternal reward. 
Rev. Dr. Brantley York passed away in great peace at Forest City, 
N. C, on the 7th of October, aged eighty-eight years. Sixty-four 
years ago he married Miss Fannie Sherwood, and fifty-four years ago 
he married Miss Mar}' W. Lineberry, who survives him, aged seventy- 
four. He was the author of an English Grammar; formerly known as 
"The Blind Man's Grammar." He was a man of talents, was a teacher 
for sixty 3-ears or more, and was blind for full fort)' years. In addition 
to this affliction, some ten years ago he was thrown from a buggy and 
suffered from a broken rib or otherwise. A most useful, benignant) 
graciotis life has closed, and the man of God is now in the " saint's ever- 
lasting rest." He was a Methodist minister. 

Dr. York was a remarkable man. He was twenty-four years old 
before he could read, and at thirty he was stricken with blindness. 
Notwithstanding early disadvantages and subsequent infirmity, he accom- 
plished a work in life which will cause his memory to be honored as 
long as any who knew him shall live. He was the founder of Trinity 
College, of the college at Olin, and York Collegiate Institute, Alexander 
County; spent his life in teaching and preaching. 


The books and .slates now put away, 

And let us laugh a little while ; 
For those who work there should be play, 

The leisure moments to beguile. 

Katie (aged five }-ears, who doesn't like to say "please") — "Papa, 
pass the bread." Papa — "If — what, my dear?" Katie — " If you can 
reach it." 

" Who's WHISTLING in the school-room ? " asked the teacher. "Me," 
said Johnny Jones; "didn't you know I could whistle!" And then the 
band played and the fun commenced. 








Vol. IX. Raleigh, January, 1892. No. 5. 

EUGETSIB G. HARREUL, = = = = Editor. 



She is a college graduate. Packed in lier little head 
Are all the living languages and many that are dead; 
She thinks her thoughts in Latin and she whistles in high 

While with a Chinese washee-man she easily can speak. 

The whole array of sciences are at her finger tips, 
And problems mathematical just bubble from her lips; 
Whene'er she talks her hearers try their hardest to look 

But, to conceal their ignorance, they venture no replies. 

Not only is her learning far ahead of any dream. 
But she in college tennis was the captain of a team ; 
And in the college races on the lake and on the land. 
Was always crowned the victor, to the music of the band. 

A dainty pair of glasses on her dainty little nose 
Adds to her look of culture and her statue-like repose; 
But when discussing subjects with a Boston maiden's might 
Her eyes flash through her glasses like a locomotive's light. 

Oh, she is just a daisy. Though the drawback of her sex 
Keeps her from being President, her mind it doesn't vex. 
For there are higher stations she is able to attain 
By having so much knowledge in her active little brain. 


And now the wonder cometh; this sweet colleg-e o;irl, who 

Reform the very universe which men have ruined quite, 
Stays at home to help her mother in the kitchen where 

she makes 
The most delicious puddings, pies and home-made bread 

and cakes. 

A man who thinks a woman's higher education tends 

To make her hate domestic work, on which his bliss 

Should taste tliis maiden's cooking, for the more that 

women know 
The more of sweet home happiness they're able to bestow. 


If you read these learned maxims and take note of each 
small thing, you may come to be a prophet and foretell the 
gladsome spring. When trees begin to blossom and the 
violets to bloom ; when the bull-frogs in the meadow warble 
boom-ah-booni-ah-boom ; when ducks are flying northward 
and bright butterflies are out, and robins go housekeeping 
in the broken waterspout; when grasshoppers are hopping, 
and black bats come out at night, and venture in your bed- 
room attracted by the light; when birds fly down the chim- 
ney, and hens walk in the door, and beetles hold conven- 
tions in the center of the floor; when the mud is o'er your 
shoetops as you cross the new-plowed land — you may count 
on it as certain that sweet spring is near at hand. — Hm^per'' s 
Young People. 

]Vortt\ (^arolii\a I'^aQlx^r^ i\broad 






Arranging the Trip — A Lovely Drive— The Bois de Boueogne- 
A Tower Built in Ten Days — Ruins of St. Cloud— Roadside 
Beggars — The Grand Trianon at Versailles. 

^0-MORROW is our last day of sight-seeing in 
Paris," said the Secretary to the party while at 

.u^^^^o the dinner-table on August 3d, "and we leave 
for London on Monday morning soon after breakfast." 

"But we haven't seen Versailles yet," responded several 
of the girls, and we must visit that most beautiful palace 
in Europe, you know." 

"Yes, I am anxious for you all to see the lovely and 
historic St. Cloud and Versailles," answered the Secretary, 
"but we haven't another day to spare unless you will con- 
sent to make a night journey to London on Monda3^ This 
will give us another day in Paris, and we will leave here at 
8 o'clock Monday evening and thus we can have to-morrow 
at Versailles." 

"We are willing to do that," said the girls. "We can 
certainly stand a night trip across the Channel in order that 
we may go to Versailles." 

"All right," answered the Secretary, "that will be the 
plan then for to-morrow. But you girls must retire earlier 
this evening for you will have a rough trip on the Channel 
Monday night. We'll take a day, however, for resting in 


London, Be ready at 9 o'clock to-morrow morning for a 
visit to St. Cloud, Versailles, and the porcelain works at 

'■'• AppIez-7noi a sept heiires I^'' said one of our prettiest 
girls, who did not neglect any opportunity to air her newly 
acquired language. 

"y<? vciix appellez voiis de bon heiire^''^ in reply ventured 
the hall porter, who happened to be passing just then. 

At 9 o'clock next morning our handsome excursion car- 
riages were ready at the door of the hotel. In view of the 
longer drive than usual, an extra number of horses had 
been harnessed, and there were five beautiful iron-gray 
horses to each carriage. 

"All aboard!" shouted Mr. Gallop, our clever guide 
with the "Cleveland white plug hat," and we were quick 
to obey the order. 

The drivers cracked their whips and the impatient and 
spirited animals darted away at a full run with the heavy 
carriages and their thirty passengers. The air resounded 
with the deafening noise made by the great wheels of the 
vehicles and the clatteriug hoofs of the fiery horses over 
the cobble-stone pavement of the narrow Rue Matignon. 

Our route through Paris was up the Champs Elysees to 
the Arc de Triomphe then turning to the left in the lovely 
Avenue du Bois de Boulogne which led to the Bois. This 
celebrated place covers nearly twenty-three hundred acres 
of land, and it is known throughout the world as one of the 
most beautiful parks on the globe. It is a favorite resort 
with the French people; it is equally so with the English, 
and more so w'ith the impulsive American. 

We entered the Bois de Boulogne at the popular hour — 
about 10 o'clock in the morning — for there were thousands 
of pretty and gay women and handsome men enjoying a 
delightfal promenade, while the drives were crowded with 
rich turnouts and horse-back riders. 


As the American flag was flown by the Secretary from 
our front carriage it won many a recognition and pleasant 
smile. Every American who caught a glimpse of the 
beloved, and honored star-spangled banner invariably took 
off his hat and waved it as enthusiastically as a Frenclunan 
does at the sight of Meissonnier. 

The Bois was originally a great forest and was kept filled 
with game. It was partly destroyed in 1814 by the allied 
forces, but Louis XVIII undertook the work of restoring 
its beauty, and under his direction new trees were planted. 
A little later Charles X kept game again in the forest, but 
during the Revolution, in July, the game, as likewise 
many Frenchmen, totally disappeared never to return. The 
completeness and beauty of the park now is the combined 
work of Louis XVIII and Charles X, assisted by over 
$400,000 in appropriations by the city. 

Within the park are two very fine artificial lakes, and 
they are thronged with water-fowl which are on most 
friendly and intimate terms with the public. The lakes, 
in accordance with the Frenchman's fondness for big names, 
are called Lac Inferieiir and Lac Superieii7\ The signifi- 
cance of the names are, however, reversed, and "Lake 
Superior" is not more than one-third as large or pretty as 
"Lake Inferior." In the larger lake is a picturesque 
island, upon which is an exceedingly Frenchy restaurant. 
It is reached by a bridge or ferry, and by either route the 
fare is "rt'/jt' centimes^'' (two cents). 

The Route de St. Cloud took us through the Bois de 
Boulogne into "the country" towards the little historic 
village of St. Cloud. We w^ere all familiar with this place 
from our geographical and historical studies, but when the 
Frenchman spoke of it as "Son Clu" we hardly recog- 
nized it as Saint Cloud of our school-days. We were still 
more mystified when the Versailles of our childhood and 


our American tongues became "Varecae" when given to 
us in the language of the Napoleons. 

It was a question for frequent discussion among the 
teachers, while in Paris, whether or not in their future 
work the patrons of the schools and the public generally 
would tolerate the true French pronunciation of the French 
proper names by their pupils. Shall these foreign words 
be presented to the children of North Carolina in English 
dress or in the costume of their native country? We have 
not been informed that the query was satisfactorily and 
unanimously answered. 

"Ladies and gentlemen," said our guide as we ap- 
proached a neat suburban residence surrounded by a grove 
of thick trees — and we were all attention — "a few years 
ago a French nobleman made a wager that he could build 
a tower within ten days. The bet was taken up and he 
hired his workmen and set to work on the task, and it was 
actually completed within the time. There it is just to 
your right, its top rising above that grove of trees." We 
all looked and saw the trees and the tower in the midst of 
them, and exclaimed, "How wonderful!" 

A lovely ride of about four miles, partly along the pic- 
turesque bank of the Seine river, then diverging slightly 
among those elegant suburban chateaux which delight the 
traveler's eye, again turning toward the river, brings us 
across the famous bridge and immediately our horses were 
reigned up in the historic village of St. Cloud. The stop 
was just in front of a restaurant and a cool fountain. As 
the horses were watered we indulged in a light luncheon 
of grapes and other fruit. 

A short five-minutes walk up a little slope of a hill 
brought us to the Palace of St. Cloud — or rather its ruins. 

This beautiful palace in the days of its full glory was one 
of the most attractive places in the environs of Paris. 


It was built by Louis XIV in 1658, who afterwards pre- 
sented it to his brother the Due d' Orleans. The lovely 
Marie Antoinette was so charmed by the place that it was 
purchased for her in 1782 by Louis XVI. The Palace was 
built upon a hill which is cut away just in front of the 
building some twenty feet down into a level space which 
forms an exquisite garden. At the top of the flight of steps 
which leads to the garden our party stood for a few moments 
to enjoy the charming scene before them. In the distance 
the city of Paris is spread before us as some great panorama 
of beauty, in the midst of which rises the immense Eiffel 
Tower, like some sudden spectre, startling us with its near- 
ness and its marvelousness. Then looking higher into the 
heavens we see the huge captive balloon, some thousand 
feet nearer the sky than the tower, swaying in the wind 
and seeming eager to break from its captivity and soar with 
its human voyagers into fatal freedom beyond the clouds. 

The magnificent gilded dome above the tomb of Napo- 
leon is flashing the rays of the noonday sunlight towards 
us as from a glittering mountain of gold. Surely nowhere 
else in Europe, nor in any other country, is there spread a 
landscape of such exceeding grandeur and loveliness as that 
upon which we now look! 

The Palace of St. Cloud was a favorite resort with the Em- 
peror Napoleon I, and he said it was because from this ele- 
vation he could see the whole of Paris like a map lying 
before him. In 1815 Blucher established his headquarters 
at St. Cloud, and on the third of July the second capitula- 
tion of Paris was signed in the chateau. The famous proc- 
lamations by Charles X, abolishing the freedom of the 
press and establishing a most unpopular election law, were 
signed here on July 25, 1830, which resulted in the revo- 
lution of July. Napoleon III was also very proud of St. 
Cloud and spent his summers there, and Queen Victoria 


was entertained here on the occasion of her visit to Paris in 


The park and garden of St. Cloud and the Trocadero 
adjoining are noted for their rare beauty, and they are orna- 
mented with many artistic fountains and numerous statues 
and vases, some of which are genuine antique and exceed- 
ingly valuable. The fountains play occasionally during 
the summer and they always attract great crowds of people. 

This elegant Palace, of which now only the outer walls 
remain, forming a hollow square opening towards the 
Seine, was destroyed by the French in 1870, while throw- 
ing shells from Fort Valerian into the wood to dislodge the 
German army. 

Of course the French people assert that the Germans 
burned the Palace while they occupied the town, therefore 
history is likely to have a continual conflict of opinion as 
to which nation belongs the credit for the present ruins of 
the St. Cloud Palace. 

Our carriages were sent to the rear of the town to meet 
us at the northern entrance to the park while we strolled 
leisurely through these most charming grounds so as to 
enjoy all the fairy-like pleasure of the place. At the steps 
of one of the park terraces we found an amateur French 
photographer, and the party were soon posed upon the steps 
for a picture of the group, which we intended to present 
to our Teachers' Assembly. 

Again taking our carriages we continue the drive to 
Versailles. The route is through the magnificent forest of 
Ville d' Array, in which are buried the Prussian officers who 
were slain during the siege of Paris. The road through 
the forest is quite hilly and at each ascent where the horses 
came to a walk the party was beset by beggars of various 
ages and degrees of ingenuity. They ran by the side of 
the carriages as they moved slowly up the hill, and while 
they collected a few centimes they accompanied their peti- 


tions by a most horribly squeaky accordeon, which tried 
to render the Marseillaise, but about half the notes were 
cut short by its consumptive bellows. 

The most successful of the roadside beggars presented 
their claims in rather a novel manner. There was the 
same short-winded accordeon, the same dirty, half-clothed 
child-performer on the instrument. There was a girl 
about thirteen years old, rather good looking, dressed 
in full-rigged ballet costume, though wearing long panta- 
lettes ruffled at the bottom and fastened around her ankles. 
She was mounted on stilts which were strapped to her 
legs, lifting her about four feet from the ground, and on 
these stilts she danced with considerable skill to the music 
of the accordeon, She kept good time, never lost a step 
or her balance, and the movements were executed with 
remarkable skill. Of course when the girl came along- 
side our carriages with the plate held out in her hands she 
received a liberal contribution. 

About half a mile from Versailles we came to the Grand 
Trianon, a lovely villa, built by Louis XIV for Madame 
de Maintenon. The building is all on the ground, there 
being but one story; it is semi-circular in form and contains 
a number of most beautiful and richly furnished apart- 
ments. In the principal rooms but one color prevails in 
furnishing, and in some rooms the color is blue, in others 
light green, but the most attractive one is the golden 
room of Napoleon I. In the Grand Vestibule the celebrated 
trial of Marshal Bazaine was conducted in 1873. There 
are several magnificent paintings to be seen and some 
very fine and valuable specimens of Japanese and Sevres 
porcelain add to the adornments of the rooms, particularly 
the "Victoria Room." 

A short distance from the Grand Trianon is the Alusee 
des Voitiires^diXs. exceedingly interesting place. This build- 
ing contains a fine collection of state carriages and harness 


from the time the Empire was founded to the baptism of 
the Prince Imperial in 1856. The imposing vehicles pre- 
sent an imposing scene of glitter and gold, and a visitor 
from such a plain, practical country as America is almost 
dazzled with the gorgeousness of these royal equipages. 
The bridal carriage of Napoleon I and the coronation 
carriage of Charles X were specially magnificent. They 
were made entirely in gilt, nothing but the tires of the 
wheels appearing different from gold. The coronation 
coach is said to have cost over $200,000 ! 

Through a long, straight and wide avenue of incon- 
ceivable beauty we proceeded to Versailles. 



Trying to Order Lunch — The Famous Palace — Glories Departed 
YET Lingering— The Home of Emperors — A Presentation— 
" Carolina, Carolina, Heaven's Blessings Attend Her " — His- 
toric Apartments— A Waltz in the Grand Gallery. 

We reached Versailles about noon, and it was planned 
that we would have a lunch before visiting the palace. 
Accordingly we repaired to a caffc^ and as neither the pro- 
prietor nor a single servant about the premises knew a 
single word of English, some of the party found it quite 
interesting in trying to get their orders filled. 

" GarconP^ said one of the girls to a waiter, '''' apportez- 
vioi\ if you please dit bocuf roti — roast — caffc and milk — dii 
la it — dii pain — ' ' 

^''Excuse Dioi^'''' interrupted the man, "yV ne puis pa7'Ie 
pas Anglaise^'^'^ and he gave his shoulders a shrug and a lift 
to his eyebrows such as is seen nowhere but in Paris. 

"Ah! Miss Mattie," said Prosessor Winston after we 
had all laughed heartily at the struggle of the young lady 


with the language, " }ou must give him a very different 
kind of French before you will get the roast beef, coffee, 
bread and milk." 

"But I know the French /s correct. Professor," returned 
Miss Mattie, "because it is just as I learned it at school." 

"And it may do very well for the school room," said our 
guide, "but the average Frenchman must hear his lan- 
guage pronounced very differently before he can under- 
stand it. Conversational French cannot be learned except 
from a French teacher, or by a residence in France." 

As we were taking lunch we were besieged by numbers 
of vendors of French caps, flowers, music, fruit, "the only 
complete Guide-book to the Palace," pictures, souvenir 
albums, etc. These street merchants comprise children from 
four years of age to the grandfather of sixty, and their per- 
sistency was both interesting and amusing. 

Having concluded our lunch, we followed our guide to 
the famous palace, which has figured so prominently in the 
sad history of France since 1671. The central portion is the 
original chateau of Louis XIII, who was so much pleased 
with the spot during a rest on the hill while hunting that 
he determined to erect the chateau as a hunting-lodge. To 
Louis XIV the palace owes its beauty and magnificence as a 
royal residence, and he constructed it according to designs 
by Mansart, the most celebrated architect who ever lived. 

The amount of material used in the building and the 
vast number of workmen and horses that were engaged in 
the work seems almost beyond belief It is said that 
there were at one time working upon the terraces and park 
over 36,000 men and 6,000 horses. The palace and its 
furniture cost over $200,000,000, and Louis XIV bank- 
rupted the Empire twice by his extravagance in this build- 
ing. At the time of his death, in 1750, he became ashamed 
of his reckless waste of the treasure, and that the cost of 
his extravagance should never be known he commanded 


that all papers, records and bills connected with the erec- 
tion of the palace shonld be brought to his bedside and 

Louis XV was born here and also died here. The 
unfortunate Louis XVI resided here until 1780, when he 
was taken to Paris and imprisoned. Shortly thereafter the 
palace was visited by an infuriated mob, which included 
many thousand women, and as they thronged the court- 
yard the Empress appeared at an upper window, and by her 
appeals quieted the clamor and the mob returned to Paris. 
Since that time the palace has remained uninhabited. 

In 1795 the building was used as a great manufactory of 
arms, and in 181 5 it was pillaged and greatly injured by the 
Prussians. It was temporarily occupied by Louis XVIII, 
Charles X and Louis Phillippe, and from September, 1870, 
to March, 1871, during the Franco-Prussian war, it was 
the headquarters of the King of Prussia. A large portion 
of it was then used as a military hospital. King William 
of Prussia, on the i8th January, 1871, was here proclaimed 
Emperor of Germany. The negotiations between Prince 
Bismarck and Jules Favre on January 23, 24, 26, 28, which 
decided the capitulation of Paris were here held, and on 
March 12, 1871, the seat of the French Republic under 
the presidency of M. Thiers was located here after the Ger- 
man troops had departed. From this place the plans for 
crushing the French Commune were directed by INIarshal 

In the centre of the court is a splendid bronze equestrian 
statue of Louis XIV, and the pavilion near bears an inter- 
esting inscription, which indicates the vanity of the Emperor 
in these words, "y^ toutes les glories de la France^''^ which 
the guide interpreted for his American company as "To 
all the glories of France." As our party gathered about 
• the statue to examine it. Professor Winston stepped upon 
the pedestal, raised his hand to command attention and 


" Ladies and gentlemen: In behalf of this most pleasant 
party I desire to express our appreciation to Major Eugene 
G. Harrell, who so wisely planned our trip and has so safely 
and satisfactorily conducted the party through all these 
thousands of miles of travel and sight-seeing. His unceas- 
ing care and attention have brought us to our journey's 
end without accident, loss or trouble, and as a slight token 
of our appreciation of his services we present to him this 
diamond scarf-pin, which we beg that he will accept." 

"And, ladies and gentlemen," said Col. W. J. Martin, 
of Davidson College, "that is not enough. I move that 
this party do give to Major Harrell a formal vote of our 
hearty thanks for the unprecedented success of the trip, and 
for his uniform patience, kindness, courtesy and good 
nature at all times, which have promoted in such large 
degree the pleasures of our tour." 

The vote was cordially and unanimously given; and the 
Secretary, as best he could, expressed his appreciation of 
the exceedingly kind sentiments of good will so heartily 
and pleasantly uttered, and his thanks for the beautiful and 
valuable souvenir of the friendship of the party which had 
been presented. In return he felt compelled to say that a 
a very large part of the credit for the success, pleasure and 
satisfaction of the tour was due to each member of our 
memorable party, who had exhibited likewise such good 
nature, congeniality, patience, consideration and thought- 
fulness on all occasions. 

The whole party then sangi" Carolina, Carolina, Heaven's 
blessings attend her," with such spirit and enthusiasm, 
and the beautiful Stars and Stripes were worn so patrioti- 
cally as astonished our guide, the natives of Versailles, the 
guards of the palace and perhaps even the colossal statue of 
Louis XIV, which was then being so highly honored. 

Again following our guide we crossed the threshold of 
this splendid palace, the glories of which have thrilled all 


the world with admiration, though it is sad to reflect while 
we enjoy these famous works of beauty and art that they 
were provided at the cost of bankrupted and prostrated 

As we enter the Historic Miisee the effect of the gran- 
deur is almost overpowering, and we can find expression 
for nothing more than "Isn't it grand! superb! magnifi- 
cent!" The foundation of this museum alone cost over 
$3,000,000! There is nothing else on earth to rival the col- 
lection of historical paintings which are to be seen in this 
interminable number of apartments in the palace. To 
walk through the rooms hastily without stopping to exam- 
ine a single painting would require over two hours' time, 
there being something more than five miles of pictures to 
be seen. We were not surprised to know that under Louis 
XIV the inhabitants of the Castle numbered over ten thou 
sand, comprising princes, lords, flatterers, high and low 
officers and servants of the king, queen, dauphins, dau- 
phinesses, princes and princesses, and valets of all sorts and 
ranks for the royal family. 

To describe everything that is beautiful and bewildering 
in this famous palace would require a year of hard work 
and comprise several volumes. The massive ceilings, 
exquisitely lovely in their paintings and their wedge-wise 
gilded stones, the great marble, mosaics, sculptured and 
gilded wainscots, door tops, chase and gilded copperworks, 
ancient furniture, pictures, statuary, busts, tapestry and 
drapery, and the greatest profusion of the finest and most 
costlv specimens of decorative art of the seventh and eigh- 
teenth centuries, combine in a scene of magnificence and 
grandeur that the recollection of it as we now write seems 
but some day-dream of loveliness which we once enjoyed — 
we scarcely know wdiere. 

Under the leadership of our excellent guide (who, by 
the way, is an Englishman, and he delights to tell of the 


departed glories of France while occasionally sandwiching 
a word or two about the present glories of England) we 
visit in the most satisfactory manner each of the noted 
rooms of the palace, while the leading points of interest 
are clearly explained to ns. We are impressed with the 
great number of historical paintings which are intended 
to glorify the great Napoleon and Louis XIV. Specially 
beautiful are the apartments of Louis XV and Madame 
Adelaide, which required eight years in their preparation. 
Madame Adelaide performed on the violoncello, and all the 
fresco decorations in her room represent musical instru- 
ments. Everything in the apartment is sculptured and 
gilded in the finest manner. The Opera Hall, which occu- 
pied nearly twenty years in its construction, was used for 
great banquets imder the reign of Louis XV; the apart- 
ments of the brilliant Marie Antoinette represent the com- 
bined taste of both Louis XIV and Louis XV, and they 
are indeed brilliant. The Hall of Hercules has one of the 
largest ceiling and single paintings in existence, being 150 
feet, and in the picture there are one hundred and forty- 
two figures represented. The various halls are named for 
the special style and designs in paintings and sculpture 
which adorn them, and particularly noticeable and lovely 
are the Halls of Abundance, where it was the custom of 
Louis XIV to receive, three times a week, all the nobilit}' 
who inhabited other portions of the castle; Hall of Venus, 
in which is the Ambassador's Staircase, a masterpiece of 
architecture and decorative art; Hall of Diana, where is 
to be seen a table of Louis XIV in Florentine mosaic, 
which is one of the rarest pieces of furniture to be found 
anywhere; Hall of Mars, for the concerts and balls; Hall 
of Mercury, occupied by Louis XIV in 1701 as a bed- 
room. Before the bed there is a chased silver rading which 
cost over $200,000. Hall of Apollo, in which is a mag- 


nificent silver throne nearly seven feet high, most expen- 
sively npholstered in crimson velvet. 

ivcaving- the Hall of Apollo, we entered the Great Gal- 
lery, or Glass Gallery, which exceeded anything in beauty 
which we had heretofore seen. This Great Gallery is two 
hundred and forty feet long, thirty wide, and forty feet 
high. There are seventeen large windows, between which 
are seventeen arcades wholly of magnificent mirrors, which 
multiply objects innumerably. 

From the windows is an exceedingly lovely view of the 
park, the gardens and their picturesque sheets of water, in 
which are located the wonderful fountains which have 
excited the admiration of the world. Immediately in 
front of us are the Fountain of Apollo and the Basin of 
Neptune, two of the grandest of the water-figures. In 
their construction the imagination of heathen mythology, 
combined with French art, have begotten exquisite designs 
which fascinate the beholder with their massiveness, extrav- 
agance, and loveliness. There is such tasty grouping of 
nymphs, dolphins, gods, goddesses and chariots, that if 
we were suddenly and unexpectedly to look upon such 
a scene we would be prone to believe that we stood upon 
the borderland of that country in which lived the all- 
powerful genii of the Arabian Knights. 

In this room Queen Victoria led the dance in a celebrated 
feast of Ivouis XIV, and as soon as we were informed of 
this by the guide of course a number of our ladies and 
gentlemen participated in a waltz on the same floor in 
memory of the Queen and Louis XIV. Among the couples 
were seen our affable Professor Winston and the Governor's 
daughter. Miss Fowle. The French say that this beautiful 
hall was desecrated and disgraced by the Germans on Jan- 
uary i6, 187 1, when they here proclaimed the King of 
Prussia Emperor of Germany. 


We next entered the Bed Chamber of Louis XIV, con- 
taining the bed upon which he died September i, 1715. 
From the balcony of this room the chamberlain announced 
to the people the death of the King by exclaiming, " Z,^ 
Roi est mort!''^ and then he broke his wand of office. He 
then took a new one and exclaimed, '•''Vive le Roi!'''' and 
the government began to exist under its new king. From 
the balcony of the window in this room Louis XVI and 
Marie Antoinette appeased the howling and infuriated mob 
of Parisians and promised that they would make their 
residence in Paris. In the private apartments of Marie 
Antoinette are some very rare and fine specimens of cab- 
inets of the Louis XVI era. Near these apartments is the 
Queen's Room, which has been occupied by Queen Marie 
Therese, wife of Louis XIV; the Dauphiness of Bavaria, 
wife of the Grand Dauphin, son of Louis XIV; the 
Duchess of Burgundy; the Infanta of Spain, betrothed to 
Louis XV; and Queen Marie Antoinette for nearly twenty 
years. The guide added to our interest by informing us 
that nineteen princes and princesses were born in that 
room ! 


1. Add to the children's conversational vocabulary all 
the new words in the reading lesson. 

2. Develop the power of oral expression in }'our pupils 
by a few well prepared questions on the lesson. 

3. Let children describe pictures in books, each write a 
sentence about it on slate ; then on blackboard. Let 
teacher correct what pupils cannot. Then a!l write sen- 
tences correctly. 



4. Let the teacher write questions on the board about 
the lesson; the children write the answers at their seats on 
slates, and bring them to recitation. 

5. Occasionally read a short story and require the chil- 
dren to reproduce it in their own language. 

6. Allow impromptu composition to take the place of 
reading ever}' Friday afternoon. 

7. By judicious management letter-writing may come in 
at the close of the second school year. 

8. Whenever the pupil can tell a story pretty well, 
require him to write out the same. 

9. Correct one fault at a time. 

10. In all your methods in all studies, develop the power 
of correct expression. 

11. There should be much pen, pencil and crayon-work 
in our schools. 

12. Commend the best your pupils can do. 

13. Business forvns should also be taught. 

14. All exercises should be carefully criticised, and one 
criticism to each pupil is better than many general ones. 

15. ]\Iethods that lead to composition writing are: [d) 
Sentence making; {b) filling blanks in sentence making; 
(r) capitalization; {d^ punctuation. 

16. Results of oral instruction should be expressed in 
composition. — TJie Fountain. 


Speaking generally, it is statistically shown that the 
average school-girl is brighter than the average school-boy. 
And since this is so it is but fair to conclude that a woman 
who has had the same social advantasres as the man with 


whom she is conversing is actnally superior to him in clev- 
erness and tact. She may not have had equal educational 
advantages, but perhaps she had those which, in rounding 
up character, are quite as good as his, though different, for 
while the young man is in college studying books the young 
woman is learning life at first hand. 


It is "the worshipped daughter," who has been taught 
that her whims and wishes are supreme in a household, who 
makes marriage a failure all her life. She has had her way 
in things great and small; and when she desired dresses, 
pleasures or journeys which Avere beyond the family purse, 
she carried the day with tears or sulks, or by posing as a 
martyr. The parents sacrificed and suffered for her sake, 
hoping finally to see her well married. 

The average man is blind to the faults of a prettv girl. 
He thinks her little pettish ways are mere girlish moods ; 
but when she becomes his wife and reveals her selfish and 
cruel nature, he is grieved and hurt to think that Fate has 
been so unkind to him. 


We all know how much greater is the need of sleep for 
children than for grown persons, and how necessary for 
their good it is to be able fully to satisfy this need; but how 
great it is generally at any particular age of the child is 
very hard to define exactly. 


The amount varies under different climatic conditions. 
In Sweden we consider a sleep of eleven or twelve hours 
necessary for the younger school-children, and of at least 
eight or nine for the older ones. Yet the investi<;;ations 
have shown that this requirement lacks much of being met 
in all the classes through the whole school. 

Boys in the higher classes get little more than seven hours 
in bed; and as that is the average, it is easy to perceive 
that many of them must content themselves with still less 
sleep. It is also evident from investigations that the sleep- 
ing time is diminished with the increase of the working 
hours, from class to class, so that the pupils of the same 
age enjoy less, according as they are higher in their classes. 

It thus appears constantly that in schools of relatively 
longer hours of work the sleeping time of the pupils is cor- 
respondingly shorter. In short, the prolongation of the 
working hours takes place at the cost of the time for sleep. — 


A writer in the Nciv York Sun asks: "Does it pay to 
educate young men?" It pays to give all young men a 
common school education, provided Religion be joined as a 
fourth to the three R's, though it may not be possible to 
acquire it at school. 

But whether it pays to give a college education to young 
men depends. It would be a woeful waste of money, time, 
and nerve tension, if all the young farmers, and mechanics 
and clerks of the country were made to take a four years' 
college course — four valuable years lost to the farm, shop, 
and store. 


On the other hand it pays to send young men to college 
who will utilize that education in after-life by contributing 
to the cause of popular knowledge and by doing something 
for the benefit of others. 

When improvements are made in the country a careful 
survey of the land is made, that its facilities may be utilized 
to the best advantage. When it is proposed to educate a 
boy, make a careful survey of him and find out whether 
he has facilities for acquiring and utilizing a college educa- 
tion, before sending him for a prize which he would not 
value. A painter assayed to become an artist and stopped 
at a sign-post. A farmer took his boy out of college where 
he was idling, learning nothing, because he did not "pro- 
pose to spend a thousand dollars on a five-dollar boy." 
Both incidents are suggestive, and may serve a purpose in 
helping answer the interrogative, "Will it pay to educate 
the voung man?" — Christian at Work. 


A writer in The Christian JVorld sends up this little 
rocket to shed light upon the confusion existing in the 
minds of many very well educated people in regard to the 
use of the two words "sit" and "set" — a confusion simi- 
lar to that which seems to attend upon the choice of saying 
"will" or "shall": 

"A man, or woman either, can set a hen, although they 
cannot sit her; neither can they set on her, although the 
old hen might sit on them by the hour if they would allow. 
A man cannot set on the wash-bench, but he could set the 
basin on it, and neither the basin nor the grammarians 
would object. He could sit on the dog's tail if the dog 


were willing, or he mioht set his foot on it. Bnt if he 
should set on the aforesaid tail, or sit his foot there, the 
grammarians, as well as the dog, would howl. And yet, 
strange as it may seem, the man might set the tail aside 
and then sit down, and neither be assailed by the dog nor 
the grammarians." 


Sound health is a prime necessity for any worker in the 
world, no matter what the line of work may be, but it 
becomes of the greatest importance if the work is to be 
carried on in the school-room, writes Caroline B. Le Row in 
the September Ladies' Hojne Joiirnal. There not only the 
physical, but the nervous and mental forces are taxed to 
their utmost. 

The young graduate has hitherto gone to school to sit 
comfortably at her desk; to stand occasionally for recita- 
tions; to use her voice but little; to have constant variety 
in her work; to enjoy her recess with perfect freedom and 
in congenial companionship. 

As a teacher she goes to school to stand upon her feet all 
day long; to use her voice incessantly, perhaps, too, in a 
large room filled with the tumult of the street; to keep 
noisy, and, very likely, rebellious and disobedient children 
not only quiet, but interested, and to spend the recess in 
care of them in the halls and the yard. 

Besides this she is to stimulate their brains, and a cer- 
tain amount of time — usually prescribed by a board of edu- 
cation, the members of which know little of the capacity 
and possibilities of the youthful mind — is allotted her, in 
which she must, somehow or other, succeed in teaching 
them a certain number of facts — no allowance beinof made 


for the slowness, stupidity or disorder which increases the 
friction of the work and delays the doing. 

No matter how complete the education, or how enthusi- 
astic the spirit, the power for physical endurance is abso- 
lutely necessary. 


One hears and reads more about the hoyden than the 
well-bred woman, but some one has recently taken occasion 
to say the following words for the latter: This sweetly 
austere and gently repellant lady does not wear paint on 
her lips or lampblack on her eyebrows. She does not make 
up a gaudy toilet for the street, there are no diamonds in 
her ears, no feathers in her bonnet, no stick pins in her 
jacket nor jewel pins in her hair. 

Her umbrella is not silver trimmed, neither is her purse. 
She doesn't stare you out of countenance; her remarks are 
not cutting, and her voice is never audible to a third per- 
son. She is a gracious creature; her influence is divine, 
her acquaintance a boon and her friendship a blessing. 
Best of all her name is legion. — Exchange. 


"Which of these young ladies would I select for the 
ideal teacher?" asked an observer of herself as she watched 
the bright-faced students of a normal school strolling arm 
in arm through one of the corridors of the building. "Not 
this one," looking at a pretty girl whose disordered, even 


untidy, dress betrayed a very unpromising carelessness. 
"Nor this," as her eyes fell on an intelligent looking 
young woman, severely neat in dress, but, alas ! laced into 
a long, tapering bodice that made one wonder on what 
anatomical principal she could possibly have been con- 

"If I were selecting an assistant for a school of my own 
would I really reject an intelligent, energetic, and capable- 
seeming candidate because her ideas of dress did not agree 
with my own ?" Not quite that, but, other things being 
equal, I should certainly prefer a teacher whose dress was 
neat, well chosen, and hygienic, to one who was untidy or 
dressed in violation of well-known laws of health. 

For one thing, no woman in a tight dress, collar, or shoes 
can possibly have thorough command of her mind or her 
temper; the whole intellectual and emotional tone is 
lowered, just as the physical powers are limited. The 
energy used merely in resisting the disadvantages of a 
hampered dress might accomplish much if set free and 
properly employed. 

Then, too, I should be somewhat unwilling to trust the 
practical judgment of a teacher who was so ?^;zpractical as 
to wear a dress that must be more or less injurious to her. 
However high her intellectual aims and ideas, I should fear 
there was something lacking in her conception of well- 
rounded development for her pupils. — A^. Y. School Journal. 


A boy who is good for anything does not want a long 
vacation that he may do nothing, or in order to rest. 

Most boys are not tired, even at the end of the school 
year. What they do want is activity, and that means 


education of another sort from what school-life ordinarily 

The summer vacation is too long- for any one, teacher or 
scholar, who does not use a good part of it for education. 
There is a growing appreciation of this fact among educa- 
tors and among parents. 

Summer schools and summer camps have grown rapidly 
in number and consequence of late. The study of Nature 
interests more people every year. The development of 
amateur photography means a great advance in outdoor 
facilities for education. Everybody travels nowadays, and 
there is no better way to learn. — Exchange. 


It is a strange fact that ' ' the ugly girl ' ' is rather a favorite 
than otherwise, although "a thing of beauty is a joy for- 
ever." When we look at her we lament the shape of her 
nose, we sigh over the cast in her eye, we deplore the 
dullness of her complexion, we can find nothing to praise; 
but perhaps she smiles, or she has a bewitching manner. 
She knows the spell which puts everyone at his ease; she 
owns the charm which makes others pleased with themselves; 
and then we are wont to say that there is no such person 
as the ugly girl. But to those who do not know her, who 
do not come under the magnetism of her presence, she 
remains the ugly girl to the end of the chapter, and when 
she marries and carries off the best match of the season, per- 
haps, prettier women are at their wits' end to know what 
attractions she possesses superior to their own. 

What is it that redeems the ugly face and makes it shine 
with comeliness, so that we sometimes would not exchange 
it, with all its misshapen features, for the beauty of Aph- 


rodite? The plain face which is alive with intelligence, 
which beams with an expression of refinement and good 
nature, which culture and high-mindedness animate, 
becomes sometimes finer and more effective than mere 
prettiness, mere pink and white loveliness, mere shape- 
liness and symmetry of feature. 

A pretty face has been known to pall upon one, but who 
has sounded the depth of attraction which resides in a 
mobile countenance where the features may be found to 
swear at each other, so to speak ? But the ugly girl must 
choose her colors and fashions wisely. She must not be 
ultra and conspicuous; she must know how to bring out 
whatever charms exist in her face or figure, if she would 
overcome the defects; if her nose is large, the hair on the 
top of her head will be most becoming; if her face is 
heavy, a turban hat that covers the forehead will add to its 
disfigurement; if her ears are large and ill-shapen, she 
should not wear ear-rings. She should first of all recog- 
nize her defects. 

The ugly girl has some advantages over her pretty sister; 
she does not fade so early, or at least her fading is not so 
palpable, and she is usually a better-looking matron than 
a orirl. — Selected. 

The Session of the Teachers' Assembly at Morehead 
City this summer will be a grand educational jubilee in 
North Carolina. Everything that the teachers have asked 
of the Legislature has been granted, and all the schools of 
the State are in a prosperous condition. Such a satisfac- 
tory state of affairs will be duly celebrated when thousands 
of our teachers gather at Morehead City in June. 



Don't look for the flaws as you go through life; 

And even when you find them, 
It is wise and kind to be somewhat blind 

And look for the virtue behind them, 
For the cloudiest night has a hint of light. 

Somewhere in its shadows hiding; 
It is better by far to hunt for a star 

Than the spots on the sun abiding. 

The current of life runs every way 

To the bosom of God's great ocean; 
Don't set your force 'gainst the river's course 

And think to alter its motion. 
Don't waste a curse on the universe — 

Remember it lived before you; 
Don't butt at the storm with your puny form. 

But bend and let it go o'er you. 

The world will never adjust itself 

To suit your whims to the letter; 
Some things must go wrong your whole life long. 

And the sooner you know it the better. 
It is folly to fight the Infinite, 

And go under at last in the wrestle; 
The wise man shapes into God's plan 

As the water shapes into a vessel. 

— Ella Wheeler Wilcox. 



A hearty laugh, which is ever in order, stirs up the 
physical man from the center to the circumference, and 
tends to improve the whole physical and spiritual being. 
It promotes animal health and spirits, and is to the man 
\vhat the tides are to the ocean; it stirs up the sluggish 
depths, prevents stagnation, and keeps the whole system 
fresh and wholesome. It is what the Gulf Stream is to 
the ocean — a vivifying and warming element. The con- 
vulsion produced by hearty laughter penetrates to the 
minutest blood vessel, and causes the blood to flow with 
a freshened impulse. 

Laughter shuts the mouth of malice and opens the brow 
of kindness. Whether it discovers the gums of infancy 
or age, the grinders of folly or pearls of beauty, whether it 
racks the sides or deforms the countenance of vulgarity, or 
deep-lines the visage, or moistens the eye of refinement — 
in all its phases, and on all faces, comforting, relaxing, 
overwhelming, convulsing, throwing the human form into 
happy shaking and quaking, a laugh is a glorious thing. — 


Now comes the days of trial to the district school-teacher. 
The bad weather, the cold and the wet will compel the 
pupils to remain indoors at recesses and noonings. The 
room will lack ventilation, pupils will feel the effects of 
it, and it will take tact, patience, wisdom, pluck to make 
all go along smoothly now. Secure, if possible, some 
good reading — some choice story — reading it during half of 
the nooninof. 


Geography games, history recitations, spelling matches, 
puzzles, conundrums, dissected maps, sliced pictures, etc., 
will prove helpful. At any rate, have order in the house 
at all times. No loud talking, uproarious laughter, scuf- 
fling, running or the like, should be tolerated for a moment 
at any time in the school-room. Sing, march, visit, study, 
read — but at all times have it understood that the teacher 
governs uninterruptedly and on all parts of the school 
premises from morning till night of every school-day. — 
South Wester )i Journal of Education. 


A stooping figure and a halting _gait, accompanied by 
the unavoidable weakness of lungs incidental to a narrow 
chest, may be entirely cured by the very simple and easily 
performed exercise of raising one's self upon the toes leis- 
urely in a perpendicular position several times daily. 

To take this exercise properly one must be in a perfectly 
upright position, with the heels together and the toes at 
an angle of forty-five degrees; then drop the arms life- 
lessly by the sides, inflating and raising the chest to its 
full capacity muscularly, the chin well drawn in, and the 
crown of the head feeling as if attached to a string 
suspended from the ceiling above. Slowly rise on the 
balls of both feet to the greatest possible height, thereby 
exercising all the muscles of the legs and body, then 
come again into standing position without swaying the 
body backward out of the perfect line. Repeat this same 
exercise, first on one foot and then on the other. 

It is wonderful what a straightening-out power this 
exercise has upon round shoulders and crooked backs, and 
one will be surprised to note how soon the lungs begin to 
show the effect of such expansive development. — Exchange. 



Pretty refers to external beauty on a small scale. 

Grace of manner is a natural gift; elegance implies cul- 

Well-bred is referable to general conduct rather than 
individual actions. 

Beautiful is the strongest word of its class, implying 
softness and delicacy in addition to everything that is in 
similar words. 

Courtesy has reference to others, politeness, to ourselves. 
The former is a duty or privilege to others; the latter is 
behavior assumed from proper self-respect. 

Benevolent refers to the character of the ag-ent actine; 
beneficent, to the act performed. 

Charitable is restricted to alms-giving, except when 
used in reference to judgment of others. 

Lovely is used only where there is something more than 
external beauty, when there is a combination of personal 
beauty and pleasing manner. Faultless features do not 
make a lady lovely who is disagreeable in disposition. 


He who knows not, and knows not he knows not, is a 
fool ; shun him. 

He who knows not, and knows he knows not, is simple ; 
teach him. 

He who knows, and knows not he knows, is asleep ; w^ake 

He who knows, and knows he knows, is wnse ; follow 



The other day one of my girls opened a letter from a girl 
friend and read: "While I was away this summer I learned 
something to be ashamed of: all other girls had some 
accomplishment, and I had not one. So I came home and 
cried about it, and thought m}self all over, and found I 
couldn't sing, or play (well), or paint, or — anything. Then 
I cried again, and what do you think? Mamma suggested 
the kitchen. Awful thought ! But I am doing it. Come 
and eat my bread and cake and ' pisen things. ' " 

Now, girls^ before you are fifteen, do you not wish to 
learn (and do) the pretty accomplishments of home? 

Here are fifteen rules: (You do not believe there can be 
so many ?) 

1. Shut the door, and shut it softly. 

2. Keep your own room in tasteful order. 

3. Have an hour for rising, and rise. 

4. Learn to make bread as well as cake. 

5. Never let a button stay off twenty-four hours. 

6. Always know where }-our things are. 

7. Never let a day pass without doing something to 
make somebody comfortable. 

8. Never come to breakfast without a collar. 

9. Never go about with your shoes unbuttoned. 

10. Speak clearly enough for everybody to understand. 

11. Never fidget, or hum, to disturb somebody. 

12. Never help yourself at the table before you pass the 

13. Be patient with the little ones, as you wish your 
mother to be with you. 

14. Never keep anybody waiting. 

15. Never fuss, or fret, or fidget. 


How many can you add ? Look at your own faults and 
see. I might add fifteen more, but I would rather you 
would think of them yourself. The girl who wrote this 
letter is one of the most attractive girls I know, because 
she is so sweet at home. 

Oh ! I wish I had put in: Never contradict or be pert, 
and think you know best. 

You think it is too bad to give you so much to do at 
home, when home is the stupidest place in the world, and 
you like the other girls' homes better than your own ? And 
it is so much easier and pleasanter to do these things in 
the other girls' homes. 

When I was a little girl I liked a great deal better to 
dust, or sweep, or take care of the baby next door, and it 
never made me tired. 

And you say I haven't made a rule about fancy-work or 
plain sewing. That is for you to do. Or charity work, 
and you love to do that. 

Have you heard the story of the Princess Maud of Wales 
and her new way of doing "charity work " ? 

Her mother gives her an allowance, a part of which she 
spends in charity, but she has so many calls upon her 
sympathy that the allowance cannot meet them all; but as 
she cannot have anything more from her mother, she must 
make it herself There's nothing, girls, like finding things 
out for yourselF. That is the blessing of the " short allow- 
ance. ' ' 

There is a great flock of pea-fowl at Sandringham, and 
Princess Maud gathers the feathers that are continually 
dropping and weaves them into fine screens and fans to be 
sold at charity fairs. 

Because they are made by a princess people are eager 
to buy them; but they would not buy them if they were 
not well made, and something that lasted. — Home Journal. 

£olitt\^rr\ frdliQatioixal i\550Qiatioi\. 

ORGANIZATION 1891-1892. 

SOLOMON PALMER, President, East Lake, Florida. 

EUGENE G. HARRELL, Secretary and Treasurer, Raleigh, N. C. 

W. T. WATSON, Assistant Secretary, Memphis, Tennessee. 



1. E. B. Prettyman, Maryland. 8. J. G. Harris, Alabama. 

2. John E. Massey, Virginia. 9. J. R. Preston, Mississippi. 

3. B. S. Morgan, West Virginia. 10. W. H. Jack, Louisiana. 

4. S. M. Finger, North Carolina. 11. J. M. Carlisle, Texas. 

5. W. D. Mayfield, S. Carolina. 12. J. H. Shinn, Arkansas. 

6. S. B. Bradwell, Georgia. 13. W. R. Garrett, Tennessee. 

7. A. J. Russell, Florida. 14. Ed. Porter Thompson, Ky. 

15. W. E. Coleman, Missouri. 


Solomon Palmer, ex officio Chairman, East Lake, Alabama. 
E. G. Harrell, ex officio Secretary, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

1. J. H. Phillips, Superintendent City Schools, Birmingham, Ala. 

2. W. H. Sutton, Superintendent of Schools, Jackson, Mississippi. 

3. Thomas D. Boyd, President State Normal, Natchitoches, La. 

4. O. H. Cooper, Superintendent QXty Schools, Galveston, Texas. 

5. J. W. Conger, President Ouachita College, Arkadelphia, Arkansas. 

6. J. M. Stewart, Agricultural and Mechanical College, Lake Cit}', Fla. 

7. J. M. Greenwood, Superintendent Schools, Kansas City, Missouri, 

8. R. N. Roark, State Normal College, Lexington, Kentucky. 

9. Frank M. Smith, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee. 

10. Euler B. Smith, President State Association, LaGrange, Georgia. 

11. Edward S. Joynes, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S. C. 

12. Hugh Morson, President Teachers' Assembly, Raleigh, N. C. 

13. C. E. Vawter, Superintendent Miller Industrial School, Crozet, Va. 

14. W. R. White, Superintendent of Schools, Morganton, W. Va. 

15. Daniel Oilman, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. 



The "papers " of the session at Chattanooga are about 
all in hand and the proceedings are in press. We regret 
the delay, but you know that young organizations must 
move a little slowly at first, and as the Southern Educa- 
tional x\ssociation has not yet accumulated a large fund for 
current expenses, it was necessary for us to secure a certain 
amount of advertising patronage before sending copy of 
proceedings to the printer. 

The interest of teachers throughout the South in their 
Southern Educational x'Vssociation is dailv g-rowino;. The 
universal sentiment, as gathered from letters to the Secre- 
tary, is for the next session to he held in Atlanta, July 4 to 
7, 1892. We have been promised one-fare rate by the 
railroads, and the people of Atlanta will do their best to 
make the meeting a most enjoyable one. Of course the 
question of time and place of meeting is to be officially 
chosen by the Executive Committee. There is every indi- 
cation that the attendance at next session will reach the 
thousands. The committee will meet February 5. 

Will the brethren of the Southern educational press 
please urge that on the programme of each State Teachers' 
Association in the South, there be set apart a day specially 
devoted to the consideration of the objects and interests of 
the Southern Educational Association. There are over 
eighty thousand white teachers in the South, and we want 
to see the time when at least fifteen thousand of them will 
attend the meetings of their Southern Educational Asso- 
ciation. The North Carolina Teachers' Assembly has 
already placed on its next programme the discussion, 
"What the South Expects from the Southern Educational 
Association." At the close of the Assembly session the 
North Carolina teachers will have an excursion to x^tlanta, 
and we hope to have the State represented by several hun- 
dred teachers in the meeting of the Southern Educational 

]Vortt\ C!arolii\a 1 ^a^tx^r^' i\55^ii\bly. 


Hugh Morson (Raleigh Male Academy), President, . . Raleigh. 
Eugene G. Harreix (Editor Teacher), Sec. and Treas., . Raleigh. 


1. J. J. Blair (Supt. Graded Schools), .... Winston. 

2. J. E. Kelly (Model Male School), .... Charlotte. 

3. Miss Catherine Fulghum (Graded School), . . Goldsboro. 

4. W. J. Ferrell (Wakefield Academy), . . . Wakefield. 

5. Miss Lizzie Lindsay (Graded School), . . . Greensboro. 

6. P. M. Pearsall (County Superintendent), . . Trenton. 

7. Miss Lina McDonald (Graded School), . . . Winston. 

8. T. J. Drewry (Horner Military School), . . . Oxford 

9. Mrs. S. Montgomery Funk (Chowan Bap. Fern. Inst.), Murfreesboro. 


Hugh Morson, e.v officio. President, .... Raleigh. 

Eugene G. Harrell, e.v officio, Secretary, . . . Raleigh. 

Eben Alexander (University of North Carolina), . . Chapel Hill. 

W. L. Poteat (Wake Forest College), .... Wake Forest. 

James Dinwiddle (President Peace Institute), . . . Raleigh. 
Charles D. Mclver (Pres't Normal and Industrial School 

for Women), ........ Greensboro. 

J. Y. Joyner (^Superintendent Graded School), . . Goldsboro. 

A. C. Davis (Superintendent Militarj' School), . . Winston. 

E. E- Britton (Principal High School), .... Roxboro. 

Ninth x\nnual Session, Morehead City, June 21 to Juev 2, 1892. 


Miss Bessie Worthington, of Rocky Mount, teacher 
of music in the Seminary for Girls, at Charlottesville, Vir- 
ginia, will have charge of the musical part of the Assem- 
bly programme during the session this Summer. 


The Atlantic Hotel Company will have entire man- 
agement of the hotel this summer, and they promise the 
very best of accommodations for the teachers and their 
friends during the session of the Assembly. Several 
chanofes will be made in the Atlantic Hotel, and all are in 
the interest of the guests. 

The "Western North Carolina Teachers' Asso- 
ciation" promises to send about five hundred teachers 
from beyond the Blue Ridge to the Teachers' Assembly 
this summer. The western delegation will have a most cor- 
dial reception and welcome at Morehead City. 

At the close of the session of the Teachers' Assembly 
on July 2d there will be an excursion to Atlanta to attend 
the meeting of the Southern Educational Association which 
convenes on July 4th. The railroad ticket will be only 
one fare for the round trip, and we hope that several hun- 
dred North Carolina teachers will join the excursion to this 
great meeting of the teachers of the South. The excur- 
sion train will leave from Morehead City, and persons 
desiring to secure this special rate must be at Morehead 
City with the party. 

The Executive Committee of 1890-91, to whom was 
given the power to designate the place for the next annual 
session of the Assembly, have decided in favor of More- 
head City. Cordial invitations were in hand from the 
University at Chapel Hill, the Woman's Christian Tem- 
perance Union at Waynesville, the Atlantic Hotel Company 
at Morehead City, and the Hotel Company at Hot Springs. 
Asheville would not submit in writing the proposition 
made at Morehead City last Summer, although we made 
repeated efforts to get the invitation properly before the 
committee. The votes by the committee were received in 


There is no place, after all, that can afford such gen- 
nine enjoyment and needed recreation to a tired teacher as 
a visit to the Atlantic Ocean. The pleasures of surf-bath- 
ing, the delights of sailing over the waters, the excite- 
ment of trolling, the recuperation of the salty south- 
western sea-breeze, and the many physical benefits received 
at the seaside cannot be equaled by any other place on 
earth, A two-weeks' sojourn at the seaside during the ses- 
sion of the Teachers' Assembly will do more towards restor- 
ing exhausted nature than anything else within our knowl- 
edge. It was for this special reason that the Teachers' 
Assembly established its permanent home at Morehead 
City on the shores of the fascinating Atlantic, Nature's 
great sanitarium for tired humanity. 

The new Executive Committee of the x\ssembly 
met in Raleigh on December 28th. President Morson 
presided and nearly every member of the Committee was 
present. A large amount of work was done on the pro- 
gramme for the session next June, and every effort will be 
put forth to make this the best of all the sessions of the 
Assembly. There are to be some new and interesting 
features in the programme, of which due announcement 
will be made. The annual report of the Secretary and 
Treasurer was submitted with the report of the Auditing 
Committee, and both were approved and filed as usual. 
There seems to be universal approval among the teachers 
of the decision of the committee to continue to meet at 
Morehead City, where we have every convenience for the 
Assembly work. 

The special committee appointed by the Executive 
Committee to audit the books and accounts of the Secretary 
and Treasurer for the fiscal year 1890-91, comprised Capt. 
C. B. Denson and Prof. E. McK. Goodwin, of Raleigh. 
The work was performed on December 17th, and the fol- 
lowing report was submitted by the Committee: 




Eugene G. HarrelI/, Secretary and Treasurer, 

■ In account ivith Noiih Carolina Teachers' Assembly. 

1S91. Dr. 

Jan. I. To balance from 1890 % 23892 

" Amount from H. Morson, Treasurer 49 40 

" " '' Talmage's lecture 435 30 

" " " dues, 1891 1,051 GO 

Jan. I. By amount pai 
July I. 

Aug. 15. 

note and interest (building) 
expenses of Executive Com. 

Dr. T. De Witt Talmage 

sundry freight bills 

special lecturers 

repairs on building _- 

postage on printed matter _- 

postage on letters 

A. Williams & Co. forst'nery 
for medals and engraving- - 
Mott Hester, janitor i month 
Edwards & Broughton for 


E. M. Uzzell for printing — 
E. A. Alderman, Training 

School Committee 

• Chas. D. Mclver, Training 

School Committee 

for telegrams 

printing proceedings, ]A cost 

on teachers' building 

sundry bills — hauling, pack- 
ing, &c 



























30 00 

30 GO 
2 18 

§7 50 

792 GO 
16 76 

5i,774 62 |2,477 52 

Balance due Secretary % 702 90 

The undersigned Committee have examined the books and accounts 
of the Secretary and Treasurer, and find them correct. 

Raleigh, N. C, Dec. 18, 1891. 


Teachers will be glad to learn that Mr. T. F. Donnelly, 
author of that excellent little book, "Barnes' Primary His- 
tory of the United States," has kindly consented to attend 
the Assembly this Summer and give a little talk upon the 
subject "How to Make the Study of History of Most Value 
and Interest to Pupils." Mr. Donnelly speaks as well as 
he writes, and he will delight his fine audience of teachers 
at Morehead City. 


The editor of The North Carolina Teacher has got- 
ten up and personally conducted within the past few years 
six special parties of tourists in our country and abroad, com- 
prising in the aggregate over seven hundred people. Each 
trip has been exceedingly pleasant and entirely satisfactory 
in every way; and in all the tours, embracing over twenty- 
five thousand miles of travel by almost every conceivable 
mode of conveyance, there has never been an accident, a 
loss, or a single case of serious illness. For such rare good 
fortune, surely we have reason to be profoundly thankful. 

Of all the tours that we have conducted, there has never 
been a more charming and congenial party, more satisfac- 
tion and enjoyment, or a more signal success than in our 
fifteen days' visit to Cuba and Florida. Every mile of the 
trip was comfortable and delightful, and each day brought 
a new round of surprise and pleasure. 

On December 29th, our party, consisting of fifty per- 
sons, the limited number, set out upon this memorable tour 
to the Queen of the Antilles. The company was divided 
into two sections at the start to accommodate members in 
different portions of the State. Each section began the 


trip at Goldsboro, one on the Atlantic Coast Line via 
Wilmington, Charleston and Savannah, and the other on 
the Richmond and Danville Railroad via Raleigh, Char- 
lotte, Atlanta and Macon. The two sections were united 
at Jacksonville and remained together during the remain- 
der of the tour. 

Our journey was rested by a stop over of three hours at 
Atlanta and Jacksonville. x'Vt both of these cities we were 
met by a number of friends, who extended to us many 
attentions and courtesies. We are under special obliga- 
tions to Col. W. A. Turk and Mr. Hopkins, of Charlotte; 
Mr. Hawkins, Mr. Lucas and Mr. Rafiftery, of Jacksonville; 
Mr. Woodlief, of Sandford, Florida, and Mr. Taylor, of 
Atlanta, all prominent railroad officials, for many kind- 
nesses and courtesies which added greatly to the comforts 
and enjoyments of our trip. And to all the conductors on 
the railroads along our route are extended cordial thanks 
for their very kind attention and. valuable assistance. 

At Port Tampa, Florida, we embarked on the excellent 
steamer ]\Tascotte^ commanded by the genial Captain Han- 
Ion, and the sail among the Florida Keys was most placid 
and enjoyable. We reached Key West at 5 o'clock p. M., 
on January ist, and while the steamer was receiving and dis- 
charging cargo we had several hours to ride over that inter- 
esting city. At night we had the opportunity of attending 
a Spanish ball in Key West, where for the first time we 
saw the famous danza. 

On Saturday, the 2d of January, just at sunrise, we 
sailed under the guns of the celebrated Morro Castle and 
entered the lovely Bay of Havana. As soon as the steamer 
was safely anchored in the bay a tug-boat came alongside, 
which had been previously chartered for our party, and in 
a few moments we were comfortably located in our rooms 
at the Grand Hotel Mascotte, which had been selected as 
our home while in Havana. Amono; the friends who were 


on the tug to meet us were Mrs. M. Trigo, Misses Blanca 
Trigo and Fidelia Gonzales, and Rev. Alberto Diaz the 
most prominent Protestant minister in Cuba. As we left 
the steamer we gave three rousing cheers for Captain Han- 
Ion and his associate officers on the Mascotte. 

We can truly say that the city of Havana was "turned 
over to our party," for every public building and many of 
the elegant private residences were freely opened to us as 
had never been done before. Wherever we went — in the 
stores, on the streets, in the omnibuses, or railroad cars, 
every attention and consideration was shown to the "North 
Carolina Party." On the morning after our arrival the 
newspapers of Havana announced the event and published 
the names of the party, and thus we were known where- 
ever we went. 

The week was spent most pleasantly in visiting Cabana 
Fortress, Morro Castle, the Goveruor General's Winter 
Palace, all the Cathedrals, the Tomb of Columbus, the 
Parks, the Catholic and Baptist Cemeteries, Cigar Factories, 
Sugar Plantations, Matanzas, Carmela, Jesus Del Monte, 
Guanabacoa, and all the country surrounding Havana. 
The manners and customs of the people were carefully 
studied, and we do not think that any people ever got such 
a clear insight into Cuban life as did our party. 

We are under great obligations to Lieutenant Muller, 
Commander of Cabana Fortress, and to his excellent wife, 
for many enjoyable courtesies which they extended to us 
during our visit to that celebrated prison. They kindly 
accompanied us throughout our visit and opened to us 
many doors which have been inaccessible to all other 
people. Mrs. Muller is a New York lady, and it was 
delightful to hear her speak the American language so 

The Grand Hotel Mascotte is pleasantly situated on the 
Bay of Havana. It is free from dust and noise, while the 


rooms, service and fare were entirely satisfactory to us. 
The charming daughters of Mr. Carbonell, proprietor of 
the hotel, Misses Josephine and Sebastiano, were particu- 
larly attractive to our party, and they received many cor- 
dial invitations to visit our American homes. Miss Josephine 
has learned to speak American, as she says, ";«//y pocito^''^ 
(very little), but it was a talisman to the hearts of our 

The weather in Havana was indeed delightful. While 
North Carolina and other portions of the United States were 
trudging through deep snows and shivering in cold rains 
and icy winds, we were basking in the warm sunshine of 
a summer day, wearing summer clothing, bathing in the 
open air, and enjoying all the fruits and vegetables of the 
summer season ! As we wiped the perspiration from our 
faces and vigorously manipulated the fan it was hard to 
realize that we were living in January instead of July. 
Fortunately for our greater comfort in sight-seeing the 
weather during our stay in Cuba, even at 85°, was much 
cooler than is usual in a tropical winter, in fact the Cubans 
said that it was "cold," and they shrugged their shoulders 
very significantly while telling us that it was the "coldest 
weather that had been known in Cuba within thirteen 
years ! ' ' 

There are so many things to be said about our happy 
mid-winter trip to Cuba that we must defer them until 
another number of The Teacher. 


CoL. EuGiiNE G. Harrei,!. Raleigh, N. C. 

John N. HarreIvIv Raleigh, N. C. 

Rev. Bennett Smedes, D. D Raleigh, N. C. 

Judge John Gray Bynum -_ Morgauton, N. C. 

Capt. T. R. Robertson Charlotte, N. C. 

Mr. T. B. Seigee Charlotte, N. C. 

Mr. Hae B. Smith Charlotte, N. C. 


Capt. E. C. H01.T Burlington, X. C. 

Mr. J. H. Erwin Burlington, N. C. 

Dr. J. A. Williamson Graham, N. C. 

Mr. J. S. Ramsey _,. Statesville, N. C. 

Mr. A. M. Fry Bryson City, N. C. 

Mr. H. A. London, Jr Pittsboro, N. C. 

Mr. I. A. FoNviLLE Goldsboro, N. C. 

Mr. L. D. Giddens Goldsboro, N. C. 

Mr. H. a. Cassin Atlanta, Ga. 

Mr. Burrus Corprew Norfolk, Va. 

Mr. R. H. Ricks Rocky Mount, N. C. 

Miss Mattie Fuller Raleigh, N. C. 

Miss Mattie Higgs Raleigh, N. C. 

Miss Truletta Kreth Raleigh, N. C. 

Miss Janie Ward Raleigh, N. C. 

Miss Laura Carter Raleigh, N. C. 

Miss K. Carter Raleigh, N. C. 

Miss Katie McMackin Raleigh, N. C. 

Miss Jeannie Williams . Fayetteville, N. C. 

Miss Mary L. Taylor Fayetteville, N. C. 

Miss Ettie Brown Fayetteville, N. C. 

Miss Rosa Lilly Cumming Wilmington, N. C. 

Miss Nellie Morrison Athens, Ga. 

Miss Bessie Worthington Rocky Mount, N. C. 

Miss Fannie Burwell Charlotte, N. C. 

Miss Josephine EppES City Point, Va. 

Miss Elfrida Eppes City Point, Va.' 

Miss B. Fowler Tampa, Fla. 

Miss Alice S. Harvey Snow Hill, N. C. 

Miss Martha Williams Wilmington, N. C. 

Mrs. J. B. Neathery Raleigh, N. C. 

Mrs. Julius Lewis Raleigh, N. C. 

Mrs. Lavinia Ball Raleigh, N. C. 

Mrs. Preston Cumming Wilmington, N. C. 

Mrs. T. R. Robertson Charlotte, N. C. 

Mrs. B. W.Crane Baltimore, Md. 

Mrs. J. G. Bynum Morgantou, N. C. 

Mrs. Bessie Leak Burlington, N. C. 

Mrs. E. a. Corprew Norfolk, Va. 

Mrs. Fannie Cox Bell Richmond, Va. 

Mrs. Martha Justice Waycross, Ga. 

Mrs. H. a. Cassin Atlanta, Ga. 

Mrs. M. Holman Tampa, Fla. 


Carolina! Carolina! Heaven's blessings attend her, 
While me live me mill cherish, protect and defend her;" 
Though the scorner may sneer at and uiitlings defame her. 
Our hearts soiell tuith gladness uiheneVer me name her." 


Don't make the programme of your State or county * 
teachers' association too long. Don't try to discuss too 
many subjects at a sitting. Don't allow any written 
papers to be over twenty-five minutes long, and don't per- 
mit extempore speeches to go beyond fifteen minutes. 
Don't try to tell all you know about a subject — that might 
require a day or two — but give the main points concisely, 
and this can be done in twenty minutes. Don't try to give 
an audience more mental food than can be properly diges- 
ted and thus spoil an intellectual feast. The speaker at an 
educational meeting whose written paper is only twenty 
minutes, or whose extempore remarks are not over ten 
minutes, will always have the average audience of teachers 
"thoroughly with him"; but the forty to fifty-minute 
speaker, and the thirty-minute debater — well, we feel sorry 
for them, as also for their audiences. Many fine educa- 
tional meetings are killed at the beginning of their ses- 
sions by long-winded papers. "Short and to the point" 
is the demand of the times, and no person who cannot 
adapt himself to this desire should ever accept an invita- 
tion to speak to an audience of teachers. It is sad, indeed, 
when we have to write as an epitaph upon the grave of 
a defunct teachers' association this significant record, 
"Talked to Death," and yet nine-tenths of the once pros- 


perous and enjoyable associations which have departed this 
life were talked into eternity. If your teachers' associa- 
tion is destined to cease its existence, let it enjoy a natural 
death — don't let it be murdered by long-winded papers 
upon dry-as-dust subjects. No public speaker should be 
vain enough as to suppose that he can hold the attention 
of an audience for an hour or more in discussing a subject 
which he has perhaps studied for a life-time. If it is an 
important topic he will accomplish more good in a ten- 
minute than by a forty-minute paper, however carefully 
prepared. Most educational speakers are enthusiasts in 
their special lines of work — ^^audiences are not so and can- 
not be made so in an hour. Don't try it. It is harder to 
keep the attention of an audience of teachers than of any 
other class of hearers — why it is we do not know, but 
it is true, nevertheless. 

We HAVE all had a pleasant holiday, now let us get 
back to hard work in earnest, for much is to be done this 
year, and there should be no idle moments. 

The Teachers' Assembi^y has been the principal agency 
in supplying over four hundred of our teachers with good 
schools, and this grand work will continue. 

This number of The Teacher is not fully up to our 
standard, in consequence of the absence of the editor until 
late in the month with his Teacher's Party in Cuba. 

Indeed, we thank our readers for so many compliments 
paid to the Christmas number of The Teacher. It affords 
us great pleasure to know that we have been able to give 
pleasure to others. 

Are you going to try to make this the best educational 
year that North Carolina has ever seen? The teachers 
have the power to]do this, and it is only necessary that every 
teacher shall do the very bestjwork that he can. 


We ARE under obligations to a large number of our 
County Superintendents of Public Instruction for many 
favors which we constantly receive at their hands. If at 
any time we can be of service to them, they may command us. 

If you need supplementary reading for your advanced 
classes, use "Black Beauty." It will intensely interest 
your pupils and inspire a lesson of humanity towards 
animal nature which will prove valuable throughout life. 

We welcome to the ranks of educational journalism in 
North Carolina The Mountain School Journal. It is pub- 
lished at Highlands, N. C, and Mr. T. G. Harbison, 
Principal of Highlands Normal School, is editor. It is a 
neat and helpful journal, and is issued monthly for twenty- 
five cents a year. We wish you success, brother Harbison. 

The Teacher has been truly flooded with new sub- 
scriptions and renewals during the past month. One of 
the favorite premiums desired seems to have been " Black 
Beauty," and we are glad of it, for this wonderful book is 
in the interest of animals, and surely kindness to these dumb 
creatures and servants of mankind is one of the most 
divine attributes of human nature. 

Some meetings we want especially to keep in mind for 
the year and begin to make arrangements to attend: The 
ninth session of the North Carolina Teachers' Assembly, 
Morehead City, June 21 to July 2; the third annual session 
of The Southern Educational Association, Atlanta, Ga. , 
July 4-7. These two great meetings are of peculiar value 
and importance to North Carolina teachers, and progressive 
teachers cannot afford to be absent. 

We have been working for several years upon a grand 
"Teachers' Tour to California and the Yellowstone Park." 
The trip is to occupy about six weeks, allowing eight days 
for the World's Fair in Chicago. We propose to make the 
trip across the continent with the party in a special train 



of Pullman palace cars provided with buffet and baggage 
car. The party will be a select one and positively limited 
to one hundred persons. When arrangements are complete 
the itinerary of the tour will be announced. 

The crowning literary glory of the United States and 
of this age is the new ''Webster's International Diction- 
ary." The publishers have recently spent $300,000 upon 
revision of the great book, and the work represents the 
best literary work of o\er a hundred of the most eminent 
scholars of this century. No North Carolina school is s > 
limited in funds that it can afford to be without this abso- 
lutely essential aid in teaching constantly in the school- 
room. The new "Webster" is truly "a thing of beauty 
and a joy forever." 

The teachers of North Carolina who are best and 
most favorably known to the brotherhood are those w^ho 
are every year pleasantly and socially met in the meetings 
of the Teachers' Assembly at Morehead City. The teacher 
who habitually stays away from those great annual re- 
unions is almost entirely forgotten by the profession when 
"the honor- roll is called." A teacher must associate freely 
with the brotherhood and w4th the people if he does not 
want his influence to go out like a snuffed candle. It is 
impossible to "stay to yourself" and at the same time 
"reach the people." 

Many teachers have taken our advice concerning the 
State flag, and now this beautiful emblem of North Caro- 
lina patriotism is proudly displayed in their school-rooms. 
We have received so many applications for the design 
that we had Mr. T. C. Harris, of Raleigh, to engrave the 
design of our Sta'e flag expressly for The Teacher, and 
we now present it to you beautifully printed in its appro- 
priate colors. The flag is easy to make, and it should be 
prominently displayed in every school-room in North Caro- 


Una, and thus teach your boys and girls the important 
lesson of patriotism and State pride. The first duty of a 
North Carolina teacher should be to teach her pupils to 
cordially love and believe in North Carolina. 

The Teacher proposes, in future, when speaking of our 
language, to call it "American." Our country now com- 
prises near sixty-five million people and th^ sun never 
sets on our territory; therefore we think that America is 
important enough in the world to have a language of our 
own, and it is "American." The people of England 
speak "English," a language very much like ours, but it is 
not quite "American." We live under the great American 
flag and speak the American language. Of course our peo- 
ple understand "English," although in many respects the 
American tongue is very different. It is generally conceded 
by scholars that in a few years the American and English 
languages will be universally spoken throughout the civi- 
lized world. 

We think you will enjoy our prize essay on "The Bat- 
tle of Alamance" by T. W. Costen, Jr., which will be pub- 
lished in The Teacher. The paper is clearly and thought- 
fully written, and does great credit to the little boy who 
wrote it. In addition to the papers mentioned in Decem- 
ber number of The Teacher, we have also received 
excellent ones from J. O. Matthews, Owensville ; Delia 
Collins, Currie; and Ethel A. Wicker, Wicker. We thank 
our little friends sincerely for their most creditable work in 
North Carolina history, and we feel quite sure that all 
these young people have been benefited by their literary 
efforts. The children enjoy the study of North Carolina 
history, and it is making of them men and women of whom 
the State will be very proud in a few years. 

The cotton crop is short and the price is very low, and 
the cry of "hard times" is abroad in the land. The "cry" 


is, however, much more with tlie people than is the fact. 
But even though we are experiencing a temporary period 
of "hard times," do not let this keep }-our children from 
school. There is now more reason than ever why they 
should be acquiring an education, and it is of more pleas- 
ure and value to them in hard times than when money is 
plentiful. Our public schools are good, and the private 
schools and colleges of North Carolina are equal to any in 
this country, and you cannot afford to keep your children 
away from school. It is worth an}' sacrifice on your part 
to have them in school. The education which }-ou can 
now give your children will be of far more practical value 
to them than any sum of money which you may hope to 
give to them in the future. Your son or daughter with an 
education has a great advantage in life, whether it is to be 
spent on the farm, in the store or in the professions, and 
the education can be made to provide a living when all 
other things fail. We give you the counsel of experience 
and close observation in urging you to keep your children 
in school. 

Every mail brings new subscriptions or renewals to The 
Teacher. While this is indeed gratifying, yet we derive 
much more pleasure and satisfaction from such expressions, 
gathered from letters, as these: " Consider me a life-mem- 
be of The Teachers' Subscription List. ' ' ' 'The Teacher 
is 'North Carolina to the backbone,' and this delights the 
heart of every North Carolinian!" "Your firm and true 
loyalty to the State is refreshing in this age of ' foreigniz- 
ing.'" "The North Carolina Teacher has done 
more to build up the educational interests of our State and 
purify our methods of public education than any and all 
other influences in the State." "The Teacher, in its 
honest reflections of public sentiment, has banished from 
our public schools much of the nonsense of educational 
cranks and fanatics, and for this special reason 'may it 


live long and prosper.' " "I like The Teacher because 
it is an educational journal with an opinion of its own, 
and its original views are, in the main, correct. It ' toadies ' 
to nothing and to nobody, and I admire its independence." 
"The Teacher has built up a strong sentiment of State 
pride in North Carolina, and for that great service alone it 
should receive the blessing of generations." " I like your 
views on the 'New South;' they are original and patriotic 
and true." These are a few actual clippings from the 
man\' kind and complimentary letters on the editor's desk. 


Mr. \V. M. Boone is teaching in Franklin count_y. 

Mr. J. A. Whitehead is teaching in Perquimans county. 

Mr. Walter Holeand has a good school in Iredell county. 

]Miss Nannie Parks has an excellent school in Randolph county. 

Mr, E. F. E.arly has a flourishing school in Marion county, S. C. 

Miss LilliE Nicholson has taken charge of a school in Pitt county. 

Miss Bettie H. Wells has an interesting school in Nash county. 

Miss MiTTie Crawford has taken a school in Montgomery county. 

Mr. William H. Grady has a school full of pupils in Duplin count}-. 

]Miss Julia Alston has an interesting private school in Granville 

Miss Jennie Willis is teaching an excellent school in Pamlico 

Miss M.aud Chears writes that she has a fine school in Rockingham 

Miss Jvlia E. LockharT is in charge of a good school in Anson 

]\IiSS Bessie Eagle has a good school in Iredell county, not far from 

Miss Mollis D. Anderson is principal of River Hill Academ}', in 
Iredell county. 


Miss Corinne Barnes is teaching in the family of O. W. Sutton, 
in Wayne county. 

Miss Nannie Shearin is in charge of one of the best public schools 
in Warren county. 

Rev. T. O. Fuller, A. B., is principal of the Graded School for 
negroes at Franklinton. 

Mr. p. p. Pearce is principal of Brown Mountain School, with 
thirty-six pupils enrolled. 

Miss Mary E. Brown is in charge of the school at Adams' School- 
House, in Onslow county. 

Mr. Walter Feimster, with Mr. Burke, is conducting a prosperous 
■high school in Iredell county. 

Miss Mamie Wilson is piincipal of Bethel Acalemy, and about 
thirt5--five pupils are enrolled. 

Miss Ethel Wickb;r, of Cumberland county, has a fine school of 
forty scholars in Harnett county. 

Mrs. J, Iv. Butt, nee Miss Maggie Smith, is teaching in Beaufort 
county. Her school is a success. 

Mr. G. I. Smith has been elected principal of the flourishing Pinej 
Grove High School in Sampson county. 

Mrs. Fannie Cox Bell, a member of our Cuban party, has accepted 
again a position as primary teacher in the Winston Graded Schools. 

Misses Agnes Gr.\dy and May Abbott, two of Lenoir county's 
excellent teachers, are each in charge of flourishing public scools. 

The Durham people regret very much to give up Mr. L. B. Edwards, 
who leaves them to take a position as teacher in the Public Schools of 

Mr. Y. D. Moore is principal of Willow School, in Henderson county. 
Mr, T. A. Drake is his assistant. The school is prospering, and it pre- 
pares boys for college. 

Miss BeTTie Holland is in charge of Olive Public School, with a 
very large attendance, and she writes that her patrons seem to be quite 
enthusiastic on the subject of education. 

Miss Kathleen Elmore (Oxford Female vSeminary) is principal of 
Union Academy, Sampson county. The school is a new one, but it is 
flourishing greatly in such skillful hands, 

TnE Executive Committee of the Western North Carolina Teachers' 
Association will meet in Asheville on Saturday, February 27th, to select 
time and place for next session of the Association. 

Professor R. L Hamberlin, Instructor of p;iocution in Richmond 
College, has been secured by the University of North Carolina to give 
a six-weeks' course in elocution there, beginning this month. 


Miss Fannie Daniel, one of the progressive teachers of Pitt county 
in renewing her subscription, writes, " F enjoy reading The Teacher 
ever so much, and cannot do without it." Thank you. Miss Fannie. 

The Graded Schools at Statesville are flourishing great!}' under the 
excellent management of the superintendent, Mr. D. Matt Thompson. 
Eight teachers are emplojed and near four hundred pupils are enrolled. 

Professor F. P. Hobgood has entirely recovered his health and 
again assumes the presidency of the Seminary for Girls at Oxford. He 
is one of the most prominent educators of our State and we are delighted 
to have him again in the work. 

Mr. Robert E. Ware informs us that his school in Cleveland county 
is in fine condition, forty-five pupils enrolled. He adds: "I am well 
pleased with The Teacher and derive much benefit from it. I read 
every number with the greatest interest." Thanks. 

Rev. Dr. Thomas Hume, of the State University, has been invited to 
deliver a lecture before the American Institute of Christian Philosophy, 
in New York, July 12. The invitation is by Dr. Charles F. Deems, Arch- 
deacon MacKay Smith of the Episcopal church, and others. 

MT. Olive, in Wayne count}-, is blessed with four excellent schools 
and all the teachers are name Smith and are not related to one another; 
Mr. J. E. Smith, of the Academy; Mr. E. S. Smith, of the Public 
School; and Misses Clara Smith and Lou Smith have private schools. 

Mr. Ernest P. Mangum left a great many friends in Asheville 
when he accepted the position of Superintendent of the Graded Schools 
at Concord. We congratulate the people at Concord on their good for- 
tune in securing the services of Mr. Mangum as manager of their 

The teachers of Moore have a fine Teachers' Council, Mr. D. R. 
Mclver is President, and Mr. E. A. Cole is Secretary. At the meetings 
of the Council the teachers very properly (as at the Teachers' Assem- 
bly) combine instruction and entertainment, consequently the meetings 
are greatly enjoyed. 

Mr. Washington Duke, of Durham, has already paid to Trinity 
College |;85,ooo, and be proposes to contribute 135,000 more, provided the 
Methodists will raise an additional 150,000 to equip the new main build- 
ing of the college. This is the largest gift to education by a Southern 
man within thirty years. Hurrah, for North Carolina! 

The GROWTH of Fairview Academy, W. T. Whitsett, A. M., superinten- 
dent, Gibsonville, has been so rapid during the past few months that it 
has become necessary to erect a new building to accommodate the 
increasing number of students. The building now in course of erection 
will contain music-rooms, society halls, a chapel 50x60, etc. This will 
place Fairview Academy in the very front rank of North Carolina pre- 
paratory schools. 



'Tis said that " figures never lie," 

That one and one are always two ; 
But Cupid proves, with work so sly, 

Some wondrous things that figures do. 
And when he claims a teacher's hand 

All rules of figures then are done. 
Though TWO before the preacher stand 

This one and one are always one. 

Mr. Robert L. Madison, principal of Cullowhee High School in 
Swain County, married Miss Ella V. Richards, his teacher of Art, on 
November 25th, 1891, Rev. \V. S. Barrows, officiating. 

Miss Annie L. Fleming, teaching at Middleburg, was married to 
Mr. Clyde Harris, of Ivonisburg, on December 2d, 1891. 

Miss Mamie J. Kimbaix, of Middleburg, a teacher and a member of 
the Teachers' Assembly, was married on December i6th to Mr. Robert 
Iv. Bennett, of Littleton. The ceremony was performed by Rev. N. 
B. Cobb, D. D., of Raleigh. 

Miss Claudia E. Prince, a member of the Teachers' Assembly and 
one of the best teachers of Harnett County, was married on Decem- 
ber 23d, at Chalk Level, to Mr. John K. Sessoms, of Georgia. After 
the wedding festivities the bride and groom left for Pearce, Georgia, 
their place of residence. 

Col. T. J. Drewry, junior principal of the famous "Horner School," 
at Oxford, married Miss LuciE N. Morecock on December 23d, at 
Norfolk, Va. Rev. W. E. Evans, D. D., pastor of Granby Street Meth- 
odist Church, performed the marriage ceremony. 

On January 6th, 1892, at New Hope Church in Caswell County, Mr. 
J. M. Long married Miss Winnie J. Taylor, Rev. J. H. Shore offici- 
ating. They were both members of the Teachers' Assembly at More- 
head. They took a Southern tour to Florida. 

Mr. T. C. Buchanan, principal of a flourishing academy in Caldwell 
County, married Miss Annie Greene, of Mitchell County, one of his 
students, on Sunday, January 17th, 1892. The bride and groom had 
known each other but ten days. 

Miss Mary E. Ball, a teacher, of Greensboro, was married to Mr. 
Edwin L. Miller on January 27th, 1892. Their home will in future 
be Seneca, Kansas. 



' Death hath made no breach 
In love and s^'nipathy, in hope and trnst. 
No outward sign or sound our ears can reach, 
But there's an inward, spiritual speech 
That greets us still, though mortal tongues be dust. 
It bids us do the work that they laid down — 
Take up the song where thej' broke off the strain ; 
So, journej'ing till we reach the heavenl3' town, 
Where are laid up our treasure and our crown, 
And our lost, loved ones will be found again." 

Mr. W. C. Pullen of Nash Cotiiity, one of our most faithful teachers, 
died suddenly at Ringwood on Saturday, December 5th. He had just 
taken charge of the school at Ringwood, Halifax Cotmty, and had 
been teaching there btit two months. 

Miss Mamie L. Carver, of Fayetteville, died at Lake City, Florida, 
January 21st, 1892. She had been teaching in Peabody High School in 
Lake City since October last, and died of nervous ^prostration. A cor- 
respondent writes : " She had a sweet disposition, a noble character, and 
had made many friends here." 

Miss Mamie L- Sherwood, daughter of Mike S. and Maria L. Sher- 
wood, died in Greensboro, November 23d, at 4 o'clock a. m., after a 
brief illness. 

- Miss Mamie was much beloved and respected by all who knew her, 
and she will be sadly missed by a large circle of friends and many 
children in the graded school,? where she has so acceptably held the 
position of teacher for many years. The warmest and tenderest sym- 
pathy of the commtiuity goes out to the stricken mother and brothers 
and sisters. The funeral took place at West Market Street Church, 
conducted by Rev. Solomon Pool, D. D. 

A precious one from us has gone, 

A voice we loved is stilled ; 
A place is vacant iu our home 

Which never can be filled. 

God in His wisdom has recalled 

The boon his love had given ; 
And though the body moulders here 

The soul is safe in Heaven. 




The books and slates now put away, 
And let us laugh a little while ; 

For those who work there shoulcJ be play, 
The leisure moments to beeuile. 

"Johnny, said the pretty teacher "what is a kiss?" "I can't exactly 
put it in words," returned the boy, "but if 3'ou really wanter know, I 
cau show yer. " 

Hard on Milton. — Teacher — "Try to remember this: Milton, the 
poet, was blind. Do 3-011 think you can remember it?" "Yes ma'am." 
" Now, what was Milton's great misfortune?" "He was a poet." 

A French literary man writes to an American literary friend that he 
is learning English without a teacher, from a text-book and dictionary, 
and adds, "In small time I can learn so many English as I think I will 
come at the America and to go on the scaffold to lecture." 

His was the greatest accomplishment. — "Yes, my wife is learn- 
ing Delsarte, my daughter is learning elocution, and my boy is learning 
the mandolin. Oh, we shall soon be the most accomplished family in 
town." '^ JFe? What are you learning, praj'?" "To endure." 

Rather a Blunt Answer. — A teacher was impressing upon the 
scholars of the primary school the importance of perspiration. Having, 
as she thought, fully explained the matter, she asked, "Now, Johnnie, 
if the pores of the skin got filled up, what would happen?" Johnnie 
thought a moment, then answered briskly, "We'd bust." 

A SCHOOL INSPECTOR asked the class the question, "What is a states- 
man?" After a little hesitation one of the boy_s stood up and answered, 
"One who makes speeches." "Not bad," said the inspector, smiling 
encouragingly, "but not cjuite right. For instance I make speeches, 
but am not a statesman." Another moment's hesitation and then the 
boy said, "One who makes good speeches." 


Annie Leone Hughes, daughter of Mr. E. L. Hughes, superintendent 
of Reidsville graded school, was born on November 29th, 1891. The 
charming little lady was introduced to our Cuban party while on the 
train the 29th of December. 


For vacancies of all kinds in nearly every section of the United States. Write and 
learn about the 'foiidcr/ul success of our well-tried 


of obtaining vacancies, and filling positions through local agents and members. Cir- 
culars and application-blank y>rf. Agents wanted. 


i47Throop St., CHICAGO, ItZ, . 


International Edticatioi^ Series 

Constitutes for 
Every Teacher 

A Home School for Self-Instruction. 

A full Course of Topical Study fur- 
nished free with each set of books. 
Write for Full Particulars. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 

/, J and § Bond St , New York. 



English LaMuage, 


Three hundred and twenty pages, 30,000 words, with full definitions, and 
special!}' adapted to school purposes. Neatly bound in paper, and the 
price, by mail, post-paid, is only 


It is the biggest and most valuable school book ever published in Amer- 
ica for the price. We will send to 3'ou by mail 


You will find it just as good as a fifty-cent dictionary for your classes. 

Published by 




Vol. IX. Raleigh, February, 1892. No. 6. 

EUGENE G. HARFtELL, = = ^ = Editor. 


They call 'em all perfessers now, these chaps 'at teaches 

'Cause they deal out eddication by a more refiuin' rule. 
But tho' the intellectual parts with sciences they clog, 
Th'aint nary one is ekal to the ol'-time pedagogue. 

Jerusha! If he had a case of tutorin' to do. 
He'd make the other feller do a little tootin, too. 
And ef the mental engine sorter settled in a cog, 
With ile of birch he'd start 'er, would the ol'-time peda- 

His train o' knoUedge hadn't no currickerlums, or sich, 
He engined 'er an' fired 'er an' tended to the switch. 
An' jus' as easy as a beaver toppled from a log 
He'd land yer at yer station, would the ol'-time pedagogue. 

But uow-a-days they say a college course is just the cheese, 
An' what's a college course but atherletics, ef yer please? 
An' that we got — onless my brain is side-tracked in a fog — 
In allerpathic doses from the ol'-time pedagogue. 

— Public School JouDial. 

Display the North Carolina State Flag in your school- 
room and thus teach your pupils patriotism. 

]Vort]\ Qarolii\a I'^aQlx^r^ /\broa^: 





french history and french art. 

The Gallery of Battles at Versailles — An English 
Guide and George Washington's Picture — The 
Porcelain Works at Sevres — Seeing the work — 
Some Valuable Porcelain — Plassidy, the Founder 
OF Ceramic Art — "The Best Day in Paris." 

^^^i^E ARE still wandering as if entranced among- the 
i^l^^-^ thousands of bewildering fascinations of the match- 
less Palace of Versailles. Nothing else on the globe equals 
the grandeur of this famous palace. We do not know that 
we will ever again see these incomparable beauties, there- 
fore we are making the best possible use of our time while 

The great hall of the palace at Versailles is the Galo-ie 
des Batailles^ which has the surprising dimensions of three 
'hundred and ninety feet in length and forty-two feet in 
width. Seventy rooms of the palace were destroyed to 
create this immense gallery of the battles. It contains thirty- 
three superb battle-scenes in the history of France, and 
busts of eighty prominent generals who have fallen in 

As we passed on down the galler}-, our English guide 
-seemed to be specially desirous to explain the paintings 
which were on the left side of the hall while he kept his 
back to the rig-ht. We didn't at first understand this. 


"Here, ladies and gentlemen," he said, "is a verv fine 
painting by Scheffer, representing the battle of Tolbiac; 
and this handsome piece is the work of Schurtz, and shows 
Count Endes defending Paris against the Normans; and 
here is — " 

We had been listening on the left while looking on the 
right, and just here, about the centre of the hall, we sud- 
denly discovered why it was that the Englishman was not so 
much interested in explaining the pictures on the right 
side of the gallery. 

An immense painting by Couder was at this point sus- 
pended on the wall, entitled " The Siege of Yorktown, con- 
ducted by Generals Rochambeau and Washington." 

As the title would indicate, of course the French artist 
had made his General Rochambeau the most prominent 
figure in the scene, and as both Rochambeau and Washing- 
ton were too prominent for our Englishman, he preferred 
to pass the picture by. But this snubbing of our Wash- 
ington did not accord with the intense patriotism of our 
American party, and we wanted to know all about the 

"Hey, there! old friend Gallop," said the Secretary, 
"tell us about this picture over here." The whole 
crowd turned towards Washington and waited for the guide 
to answer. 

The Englishman, however, was equal to the occasion. 

He scratched his head, looked towards the ceiling and 
said, "Oh, that is — is — is a — ; yes, that is a scene in the — 
in America before the British captured the United States!" 
He laughed heartily, in which we heartily joined and waved 
our American flag while he ran off down the hall. 

If the British haven't captured all the United States this 
summer, they certainly have captured by their cleverness 
a large portion of our population which is now sojoiu'uing 
on the British side of the Atlantic. 


As we feast our eyes on these marvelous evidences of 
the departed glories of France, we cannot shake off a slight 
feeling of sadness which comes over us. 

Our reflection wanders far back into the past centuries, 
and, in imagination, we see marching about the gorgeous 
apartments of this vast palace the thousands of gay, giddy 
devotees of fashion and folly, and among that great and 
changing throng of people we behold the reckless and disso- 
lute Louis XIII; the extravagant, vain, immoral and haughty 
lyouis XIV; the modest, virtuous and retiring Queen Marie 
Theresa; thebeautiful and dashing Queen Marie Antoinette, 
descendant of the Csesars, and once the brightest jewel in the 
Court of France; the gentle and lovely DauphinesSx'Idelaide; 
the charming, fascinating, graceful and bewitching Creole 
Empress Josephine, who, while all the courtiers of Europe 
revolved around her, displayed such noble traits of character 
and exhibited such unaffected kindness that she won all 
hearts, the lowh' and the exalted alike; the dignified, 
aimable and cultured Marie Louise; the proud and ambi- 
tious Corsican "Little Corporal" Napoleon, and the noble 
Italian and Chrisdan Queen ^larie Amelie. 

And in the coming and going of these royal spectres of 
the past, we read the eventful and bloody history of France. 

We did not give any special time to examining the foun- 
tains about the park and gardens, as the water was not flow- 
ing at that time. There was to be a grand illumination of 
those wonderful masterpieces on Sunday night in honor of 
the Shah of Persia, and our visit to them was therefore 
deferred to that time so that we might see them in their 
grandeur and complete beauty. 

Our interest in the strangely fascinating pictorial palace 
being so intense we did not note tiie rapid passage of the 
time until we suddenly discovered that it was late in the 
afternoon, and as we intended to visit the celebrated porce- 
lain factory at Sevres, about six miles distant, we saw that 


only by very fast driving could we reach Sevres before five 
o'clock, at which time the manufactory was closed. 

Therefore we hastened to our carriages, the drivers 
cracked their whips and the heavy vehicles soon sped away, 
and we left that enchanted palace and "all the glories of 
France" to the admiration of other tourists who will visit it 
during the coming centuries and marvel at its splendor, just 
as we have done to-day. 

Our drive to Sevres was through a loveh- portion of sub- 
urban France, every mile of which is full of historical 

Pausing but a moment at the little towns of Viroflay and 
Chaville we hasten on and reach Sevres at 5.20 o'clock, 
after the porcelain w^orks had been closed for twenty 

But we w^ere determined to see the factory if possible, 
and Americans are not easily turned aside from their inten- 
tions, so a few gratuities properly applied by our guide 
soon opened the factory and a workman showed us the pro- 
cess by which that most beautiful and expensive porcelain 
is produced. 

The workman placed a lump of clay about the size of a 
cocoanut on the revolving rod, and it seemed that it was 
simply a touch of his fingers here and there which shaped 
it alternately into the most graceful vases, urns, bowls, 
pitchers, &c. Then by a slight touch of a sharp instru- 
ment he formed an exquisitely beautiful cup which he 
handed to one of our ladies. When she took it into her 
hand it crumbled into dust. 

Many of the party brought away pieces of the lump of 
clay which the workman had manipulated for us. The 
process of firing and ornamenting the vessels was explained 
to us in French while our guide interpreted. 

In the exhibition rooms and the Musce Ceraniiquc we 
examined some wonderful specimens of porcelain repre- 


seiiting- the art in the various ages. We thought of buy- 
insf some g-enuine article of Sevres uianufacture as a 
souvenir, but on learning that the cups and vases which 
we wanted were priced from fifteen to forty dollars, we 
changed our minds as to souvenirs and decided that the 
articles could not be carried to America without risk of 
being broken! 

There are some porcelain vessels on exhibition in the 
museum worth |;20,ooo. 

This celebrated porcelain factory is the result of the dis- 
coveries in ceramic art made by Plassidy, wdiose history of 
the struggle in his researches and investigations is sad and 

Plassidy was sure that the art had by no means reached 
perfection, and he believed tliat a certain degree of tem- 
perature and time for firing the porcelain would produce a 
more beautiful effect than anything before attained in the 
manufacture of the ware. In his experiments Ire had 
exhausted his own funds, and he resolved to make one more 
effort to develop the perfection in porcelain which he 

He therefore prepared another furnace and borrowed all 
the money that his friends would lend him to keep up the 
fires. These funds were also soon exhausted and he could 
borrow no more. The ware was not sufficiently fired and 
the furnace was cooling for the need of more fuel! What 
should the poor man do? Not another franc could he beg 
or borrow^, and the fires must be kept up or else he would 
again fail. 

In his extremity he hesitated no longer, but cut up his 
furniture, his bedstead, chairs and tables, and with them 
he kept the furnace heated until he had attained success 
and produced the first of that marvelously beautiful porce- 
lain that is now made at Sevres, and which is the wonder 
and admiration of connoisseurs in ceramic art throus^hout 


the world, and which has never been equaled or even suc- 
cessfully imitated anywhere else on the globe. 

Indeed, it is not strange that in the court at the main 
entrance to this noted manufactory there should stand in 
eternal brass a splendid statue of Plassidy, the author 
and founder of ceramic art. 

Our drive back to Paris in the afternoon was highly 
enjoyable, it being the most pleasant part of the day, and 
just at the time when all Paris was out for a drive. 

Along the smooth pavement of the suburban streets our 
horses dashed at a rapid gait, then through the lovely ave- 
nue Victor Hugo, to the Arc de Triomphe and down the 
grand Champs de Elysees, where thousands of handsome 
vehicles of every description were dashing along with fair 
occupants of every nationality. 

Our beautiful American Stars and Stripes graceful!}' flying 
from the first carriage attracted great attention and excited 
the constant admiration of the people along that crowded 
thoroughfare. A waving of hat and a face full of smiles 
frequently seen in cabs as we met them, indicated that some 
delighted American traveler had seen his national flag, 
and that sight always brings a joyful and patriotic recogni- 
tion in any land where a citizen of the United States may 
be found. 

Reaching our hotel about seven o'clock we found dinner 
awaiting us, and a hungry crowd of North Carolinians 
were soon doing full justice to it without taking time to 
ask about the ingredients of the various French dishes on 
the bill of fare. Frec|uently, however, during the meal, 
the diners found time to sa}', "This has been our biggest 
and best dav in Paris." 

The Educational Exposition at the Teachers' Assem- 
bly this summer will indeed be a big thing. Twenty-three 
prominent schools have already applied forspace for exhibits. 




Kate Field has said a great many wise things, but 
nothing more sensible than the following counsel to girl 
graduates. Our teachers most pleasantly remember Miss 
Field in her visit to the Assembly in 1889. 

"Some people make us feel pleasant in reading the nice, 
prett)' things they write, others encourage us with their 
strong hopeful style, while some really give one the blues. 
Now here comes the ''woman editor," strong, terse and 
strikingly original at all times, and none the less so in this 
talk with the girl graduates, and if she makes no one feel, 
she surely will make her readers, as they follow her 
through the following pointed paragraphs, do a little 
thinking. Miss Field says: 

" Dear graduates, I don't know what it is to be a grad- 
uate myself I never went to school after I was fifteen, 
and I never learned anything at school after I was twelve. 
Not being a graduate, the world having been m}' univer- 
sity, you girls can probably teach me ologies and osophies 
I never heard of, yet I am asked to give you advice! 

I want to ask you a few questions. 

Do ^'0U realh' know anvthing thoroughlv well? Are 
you mistress of your own language? Can you speak it 
purely and musically, or do you torture sensitive ears by 
talking through your noses with slovenly enunciation. 

Do you sign your name so they wdio run may read, or 
does it require an expert to decipher it? I ask feelingly. 
I've been an editor just one year and a half, during which 
time I have gone more or less mad over more atrocious 
chirograph}' than I dreamed possible in a nation of alleged 
universal education. The number of women who can't 


or won't write their names clearl}- is shameful. That so 
few women charm by refinement of speech tells a sad storv 
of illiterate homes and culpable teachers. 

Can you write an intelligent letter, spelled and punctu- 
ated properly throughout, — such a production as you would 
not be ashamed to have picked up in the street or read 
aloud in a court-room ? If not, you may know something 
of ancient history and decline Latin verbs, but you are an 
awful failure in English. 

Can )ou keep accounts? No? Then all your geometry 
won't avail you in facing a hard and practical world. 

Have, you a practical knowledge of physiology and 
hygiene ? Did you ever study your own wonderful 
mechanism and the laws by which it is governed ? Have 
you been taught to stand in awe of your own stomach ? 
Have you learned what foods you can digest and what you 
cannot ? 

Do you realize that a sound mind is only possible in a 
sound body? Do }ou wear such clothing as gives perfect 
freedom to the vital organs ? If not, your teachers have 
neglected to impress upon you the most important of all 
knowledge, the knowledge of yourself. 

Can you earn your own living? If not, dear graduates, 
it seems to me that your lives so far have been thrown 
away, and the sooner you begin again the better. 

There are exceptional men and women wdio are a law 
unto themselves to whom schools and universities are more 
or less a nuisance. These people, having rare talents, ate 
to be given their heads and let alone. Sooner or later the\' 
work out their own salvation in their own way, and the 
world is the gainer. The general average of human beings 
stand upon a commonplace plane, and if they don't do 
commonplace duties well they fail to fulfil their destiu)-. 

Taking it for granted, therefore, that many of you grad- 
uates do not feel called upon to startle the world with the 


corruscations of genius, that you are g'oing home to be a 
comfort to fond parents, let me ask whether you are good 
housekeepers. Can you cook ? If not, in the name of 
common sense, of the man you propose to marry, of the 
friends who may visit you, of an innocent posterity, don't 
rest until you have learned the business of almost every 
woman's life, which is to keep house well and economically. 
The woman who can't turn her servants out of doors and 
do their work better than the best of them, has no right 
to marry unless she has money enough in her own right to 
employ a skilled housekeeper to carry out her orders. 

Dear graduates, cooking is the alphabet of your happi- 
ness. I do not hesitate to affirm that this republic, great 
as her necessities are in many directions, needs cooks more 
than all else. The salvation of the national stomach 
depends upon them. We are a nation of dyspeptics, and 
Americans are dyspeptics because they eat the wrong foods, 
badly cooked, which the}^ drown in ice-water. They are 
dyspeptics because our women don't know the rudiments 
of their business, and resign their kitchen into the hands 
of incompetent servants, of whom they are afraid, and 
whose impudence they frequently endure through sheer 
helplessness. Be cooks first, and anything you please 
afterwards. On you posterity waits." 


I don't mean by this the girl who is alone in the world, 
but I mean the girl who thinks she cannot make friends, 
and who has become morbid and unhappy about it. 

In the first place, friends are not blocked out like cara- 
mels; you may have no end of acquaintances — pleasant 


ones — but friends come with years. Tlie two weeks' 
acquaintance is not the one with whom it is wise to be 
confidential, nor should you count upon her eternal fidelity. 

My dear girl, in this busy world so many people have so 
much to do that they cannot form many close friendships, 
and they choose the people they prefer. If }'ou are abso- 
lutely friendless, in the sense that I mean, the fault must 
lie a little with )'ou. Probably }'ou are a wee bit selfish, 
and selfishness and friendship, like oil and water, do not 
mingle well. You claim that you love everybody. Now 
love is too precious a thing to give to every one. 

Suppose I tell you a little story : There were once two 
beautiful fox-terriers; when a stranger came to the house 
where they lived one of them rushed to meet the visitor, 
lavished caresses upon her, and quickly coiled itself in a 
most comfortable position on her lap. The other dog stood 
quietly by; if it were asked for a paw, it gave it, but 
always retreated and sat down beside its master. 

Somebody said one day, speaking of the first: "How 
different this dog is from the other; it is so much more 
affectionate!" "Oh, no," said their master, "you are 
very much mistaken; the dog who is so affectionate with 
you, gives its affection to every stranger it meets; the other 
one waits until it know^s you well and then from that time 
on it is your friend, and is ready to greet you and show 
signs of its friendship. 

"When I was ill, the dog that you call the affectionate 
one preferred to stay with strangers; the other one rested 
at the foot of my bed and refused to stir. When my sister sat 
there crying because of some trouble that had come to her, 
the dog that loved everybody went into another room, but 
the other dog went up to her, licked the tear-stained hands, 
looked up into her face with his soft brown eyes as if he 
were trying to say, ' I'm your friend, don't worry.' " 


This points a little bit of moral, and it means that while 
you can have plenty of pleasant acquaintances you will find 
that 3. few friends are best worth having.; and that — I must 
repeat it — if you are friendless, there must be a fault in 
you that is the cause. — Exchange. 


■ In view of the fact that there will be a great many North 
Carolina teachers in Chicago visiting the World's Fair, the 
following article from The Interior (Chicago) is somewhat 

"The schoolma'am is in Chicago, thousands upon thou- 
sands of duplicates of her. The cool, level eye, the exact 
propriety of speech, the neat but plain apparel, the quick- 
ness and directness of ocular observation, the self-confidence 
which comes of self-support. 

The schoolmarni! She is conjugations and equations 
preserved in sugar. She is dignity and propriety after the 
similitude of ripe peaches and whipped cream. In these 
da}-s everybody cannot marry a schoolmarm, but the time 
was when everybody who was anybody did, because all the 
nice girls took their turn at it. 

The thousands, more or less, of schoolmarms in Chicago 
now are just a little more professional in their airs than 
the}' were thirty or forty years ago, because teaching is 
more of a profession. The schoolmarm now is usually a 
graduate of the " Normal " and a sort of "Normal " atmos- 
jihere prevades her presence. She talks Normalese. 

But a fellow is coming along to each one of them who 
will break throug-h all that. vShe will wash the ink off 


her fingers, she will lay aside the grammar and the algebra 
and the chalk. She will heave a happy little sigh as she 
glances around at the empty little desks, and as her eye 
follows the receding, homeward-bound throng of children. 

Then she will turn a tender face toward the new path of 
life — with one to lead the way — and her schoolmarm 
days — happy days — will be over forever. 

God bless the schoolmarms now and forever! They are 
just the pink, the perfection, the carved capitals of woman- 
kind. You cannot say anything so nice of them that any 
old fellow who was married from thirty to forty years ago 
will fail to say: ' Amen — that's so, brother!' 

That is because he married one himself" 


"The publishers of school maps," says a teacher in the 
St. Louis Globe-Democrat^ " are responsible for more errors 
than any other class of people on the planet. 

"They use sometimes half a dozen different scales of size 
in a single book, and it is impossible for children to get a 
correct idea of the relative sizes of different countries because 
of the lack of uniformity in the scale. 

"In an atlas for school use all the maps should be on the 
same scale, otherwise most incorrect ideas will be formed. 

"I recently asked a bright schoolboy, who had just fin- 
ished the study of geography and laid it by because he 
knew all about it, how large he supposed Arabia was. He 
reflected a moment, and then, with some confidence, 
replied that i\rabia was about the size of Massachusetts. 
I suggested the possibility of his being mistaken, when he 
got his atlas and showed me that Arabia and Massachusetts 
were nearly the same size, that is, on the map. 


"He opened his eyes when I explained to him the mys- 
teries of the scale, and that instead of being a mere speck 
Arabia was as long as from St. Panl to New Orleans, as 
wide as from St. Louis to New York, and contained more 
than one-third as many square miles as the United States. 
He had been misled by the maps, as his teacher probably 
had also, and thousands of other people besides. 

"A uniforn: scale would prevent many false ideas, and if 
a national series of text-books is ever adopted the atlases 
should have that feature prominent." 

[For the North Caroliua Teacher.] 



With both education and learning, we, as teachers have 
to do. But the two are often confounded, for while educa- 
tion may include learning, the latter often excludes the 
former. To a large extent this has been the case in our 
common countr}' schools, but is not confined to them alone. 
In many of our higher schools, and even in our colleges, 
have true educational principles been lacking. 

Learning has indeed been the leading feature, and to this 
end pupils have been crammed and scholars studied until 
it seems as if their very heads would burst with knowledge. 
Education is the concrete, combining knowledge and prac- 
tice, giving occupation to both body and mind, while learn- 
ing is too often purely abstract. 

Education that is thorough tends toward making the 
"perfect" man. Learning is apt to make a man dispro- 
portionate, very much like the caricatures so often seen in 


our illustrated papers of great men with "large" heads 
and "slim" support. 

Man is so constituted that unconsciously he yields to 
educational forces. These forces being either good or bad, 
how careful he ought to be. 

One need not learn unless he choose, but he cannot escape 
education. Not that learning is to be despised, or treated 
at all lightly, for education, to be thorough, must include 
this, and as we gain far more from books than by expe- 
rience, great care should be taken lest they become too 
great a prop and we too indifferent. 

In the first stage of a child's life many educational forces 
appear. He seldom learns to read until nearly six, but 
oh! if his parents are faithful what a number of discip- 
linary lessons he has had, and by experience how many! 
Thus when he is placed under our charge he has been edu- 
cated up to a certain point, but is not learned from books. 

And how carefully ought we to see that as he enters the 
vast field of learning his education still continues. 

How manv times does the high school or college "-radu- 
ate, thinking his diploma will certainly give success in the 
branch of business which he has so thoroughly studied, find 
to his sorrow that learning is not education. 

His schoolmate left school at fifteen, entered a store as 
clerk and now is a successful merchant. Why ? Because 
he became educated to the business. He has had the 
actual practice. This is not an isolated case. Thousands 
of our young men have learned by bitter experience that 
theory and practice are quite different. 

What shall we sa}-, then? That in order to succeed one 
must not study books, not become learned ? No, not by 
any means. Books are of untold value and must not be 
neglected. They may become great helps toward education. 

The truth is just here, we fail to join the tzvo ; they 
should go hand in baud. The first voune man had the 


actual practice while studying to be a merchant, the abil- 
ities of both being equal, would have far outstripped his 
school-mate. He would have had a higher standing 
socially and a wider field of usefulness. 

And right here the question may be asked, why cannot 
the business principles learned at school be applied when 
we enter life's work ? They must be applied and could, if 
zve only kneiv how. Here lies the difficulty. Is not too 
much dependence put upon books ? Do we not feel too 
secure, and become too indolent to investigate and practice ? 

An easy chair by a cosy fireside has its attractions, and we 
had much rather stay in it than venture out in storm or 

American people are fond of ease— their children none 
the less so. Have not books become to them an easy chair, 
where the\' spend niany moments in the pleasure of taking 
ill new ideas — moments of pure receptiveness — rest ? 

Our educational leaders of to-day are working up to this, 
and as a natural result are following closely Pestalozzi's 
plans and Froebel's methods. We are entering a nczv era, 
and to it all honor and great success. An era when diplo- 
mas held by graduates will mean something more than 
learning merely — they will mean a fcnoiving hoiv. 

How proud, then, we ought to feel, that we are of that 
vast army of workers who try to educate and instruct, so 
that their pupils shall be not ornamental only, but useful 
and practical as well — men and women who have the why 
and how combined, whose education is both extended and 

North Carolina Teachers are moving in the matter 
of a State Educational Exhibit at Morehead City in June, 
and at Chicago in 1893, and. success is assured. 


[For The North Carolina Tacher.] 



One of the most memorable battles that was ever fought 
upon North Carolina's soil was the battle of Alamance, for 
it was there that our forefathers first shouldered their arms 
and marched to the defense of their country. Oppressed 
as they were by England's tyrannical sovereigns and ruled 
by despotic governors, their free, brave and liberty-loving 
spirit was aroused, and they could no longer stand the 
oppressive laws of the tyrants. 

From the year 1729, when North Carolina became sub- 
ject to England, to the \ear 1765 the colonists lived at 
peace with the " ^lother Country." Although the colo- 
nists did not think at any time that England had the right 
to make them pay tax, for "taxation without representa- 
tion " they considered unjust, still no strife, war or conten- 
tion of any importance prevailed among the people. xA.nd 
it was not until the English Parliament passed a law called 
the "Stamp Act" that a rebellious spirit arose in the col- 
onists, and they declared that no such law should prevail 
in the colony. 

Tryon, the Governor of North Carolina, who was a very 
deceitful man, had succeeded by his polite and winning 
ways in gaining many friends in the colony, but he could 
not show them the advantage of a "Stamp Act," for the 
people knew that it was not for their good but rather to 
help fill England's coffers with gold. 

So when the Governor, on the 6th of January, 1776, 
issued a proclamation announcing that stamps had arrived- 
from England and were ready for use, the people became 
so aroused and excited, not only in North Carolina, but in 
all America, that England had to repeal the law. 


About this time many emigrants came from the Old 
Country to America and settled in the central and western 
parts of North Carolina. Farming being the chief occupa- 
tion of the people at this time, these people had to resort to 
it, and as they had settled in the part of the country which 
was adapted to the raising of grain, they turned their 
attention to the raising of wheat, which they considered as 
their moneyed product. 

After harvest they had to carry their wheat to market, 
which was at Cross Creek, now Fayetteville, North Caro- 
lina. Most of these farmers lived a great distance from 
this place, and we can say that they labored under many 
disadvantages, for wheat was exceedingly low, and they 
hardly realized enough from it to buy salt for family use. 

At this time they were oppressed by heavy taxes, each 
man being assessed twelve dollars poll tax and seventy-five 
cents per hundred acres of land. These taxes were 
increased by dishonest sheriffs until the people were unable 
to pay them. The ofhcers were growing rich b}^ draining 
the money out of the poor farmers' pockets. 

Colonel Edmund Fanning, Register of Deeds in Orange 
county, had become rich, and was the "leader in this 
oppression." Herman Husbands, a Quaker preacher, was 
a native of this same county. He saw and realized the hard- 
ships that these people were undergoing, so he besought 
them to bind themselves together in a " Mutual Protection 
Association " against their oppressors, which they did, and 
their order was known as the Regulators. This order was 
only organized for protection, not to create any disturbance; 
but the Governor and his followers thought different, there- 
fore they did what they could to disorganize them. 

Many troubles arose. Among the first was the taking 
of a horse that belonged to one of the Regulators who went 
•to Hillsboro to see the Sheriff, but the horse was taken back 
by force. That night Husbands was arrested but gave bail 


and was released until Superior Court. When he was 
going out of Hillsboro he met several hundred of his men 
coming to his rescue. Governor Tryon thinking there 
would be a rebellion, raised an army of eleven hundred 
men in Mecklenburg and Rowan counties and marched 
back to Hillsboro. 

Court was in session, Husbands was released, but other 
Regulators were heavily fined, while Colonel Fanning was 
fined only one penny in each of five cases where he had 
been accused of extortion in office. 

By the Governor raising an army of men and the Court's 
favoring the English officers more than they did the Regu- 
lators the people were aroused more and more, and things 
continued to grow from bad to worse until Husbands was 
dismissed from the "House of Assembly" and put in prison 
for talking about Judge Maurice Moore. He was released, 
and his being released caused him to stop several hundred 
men who had started to release him, and who would have 
probably done much damage. In 1771 Governor Tryon 
went into the eastern counties and raised an army of eleven 
hundred men and marched them to Orange county to put 
down what he called the "rebellion of the Regulators." 

On the i6th of May, 1771, Governor Tryon, with his 
eleven hundred men met acompau}- of Regulators numbering 
two thousand men at Alamance. Governor Tryon fired 
the first shot and ordered his men to fire. A battle then 
ensued in which good fighting was done until the amuni- 
tion of the Regulators gave out and they had to retire from 
the field, driven back but not conquered. Manv valiant 
heroes lay dead upon this field of carnage; fell fighting for 
their rights, resisting British oppression, and their names 
are cherished in our memories as being the first to take up 
arms in defense of their homes. 

But all that North Carolina gained from the battle was 
that many of these despotic officers left the province. 



Why do the boys drift away from the upper grades of 

One writer says it is because the teachers are mostly 
women, and the boys of the "hobbledehoy" age need mascu- 
line government and masculine leadership. But the drift 
out of the school is as great in the high school where there 
is usually at least one male teacher. 

Another says it is because the boys are anxious to be 
earning something, or their parents are anxious for them, 
but in these days girls can earn money as well as boys, and 
girls cling to school longer than boys on an average. Still 
there is doubless something in this argument, especially 
for what may be called the middle class of families, whose 
boys are not ashamed to hire out to work at anything, 
but whose girls are inclined to play lady and only engage 
in certain selected occupations. In this class the girls 
largely aspire to be teachers, to attain which distinction a 
considerable degree of education is required, which accounts 
for many girls staying in school. 

But in every village or city man}- boys may be seen on 
the streets who are not at work and who are not in school. 
These truants are not only a loss to the school, but they 
are a loss to the community as well. Boys and girls who 
are at work may be losing one form of education, but 
they are gaining another education of moral and intellect- 
ual value. 

Boys, and girls, also, if there are any such, who are not at 
work and not in school, but on the streets, are also gaining 
an education, such as it is. They are being educated in 
idleness, in love of evil comradeship, in vices of various 
kinds, and are on the road that may lead to crime. Most 
professional criminals are recruited from this class. Most 


tramps were first truants on the street. i\Iost of the gangs 
of rowdies in the cities are filled up from time to time by 
the boys who ought to have been at school or at work. 

These statements show that the danger of truancy is not 
measured by mere numbers, and the value of a good school 
in diminishing truancy is not limited to the amount of 
arithmetic and geography which can be drilled into reluc- 
tant brains. 

Boys who are kept busy at school or at some gainful 
occupation are saved from the great temptations of idleness. 

The value of farm life is that there is always work to be 
done, and that the temptations of street life are absent. 
Cities are the nurseries of crime. 

To thoroughly deal with this problem tw^o things are 
needed — truant-officers and ungraded departments. Tru- 
ant-officers are needed to bring in the boys; ungraded depart- 
ments are needed to take care of them after they are brought 
in. The truants, and also other boys who are out of grade 
for good or bad reasons, should be placed where they can 
study something new and valuable to them, and not be 
obliged to drop back below v, here they belong, because 
they are not ready for the next higher grade. 

With these two aids many a truant bo}^ can be saved, 
at little cost to the community, who might otherwise be a 
burden and a terror, as a rowdy, a tramp, a criminal and 
finally as a pauper. 

Save the boys. — Wisconsin Journal of Ediicalion. 

The public graded schools in North Carolina do not 
make sufficient effort in behalf of the boys and girls in the 
suburbs of the cities. These children most need the school 
and yet they are allowed to stay away and grow up in crime. 



To the lovers of epigramatic, straight- forward advice, 
the following exhortations, among a hundred similar ones 
in the same circular, will be appreciated. They are given 
by a county superintendent to his teachers: 

Teach the outline map of North Carolina to the school. 
If they say the preceding teacher taught it, do not let this 
make any difference with your teaching it again. 

If there is a globe in the school-room use it. If you do 
not know how to use it, leami how. 

Read each issue of your educational journal. If you do 
not take a journal you should. 

Do not think you can teach successfully and also run to 
parties two or three nights each week. Just as sure as you 
do this you will be the subject of the talk of the neigh- 
borhood. — Adapted. 


Write a business letter on one of the following, themes: 

1. Order a book. 

2. Order a newspaper. 

3. Apply for a situation. 

4. Decline an offer of a situation. 

5. Ask for a recommendation. 



How many people are there who pronounce any propor- 
tion of their words correctly, not merely by reason of clip- 
ping and mouthing, but by ignorance of good usage. 

We find them everywhere, and they lay the accent on 
the first instead of the second syllable of "acclimate" for 
example; they pronounce the second syllable of "acous- 
tics" coo instead oi coiv; they do not put the accent on the 
last syllable of "adept," as they should do; they leave the 
//sound out of "buoy"; they pronounce "duke" with 
the sound of oo instead of with the simple long //,• empha- 
size the first instead of the second syllable of " ener- 
vate," and sound the /in " often." 

They are astonished to know that "precedence" has 
the accent on the second syllable, and "placard" on the 
last; that "quay" is called key; that "sough " is suf; that 
the z instead of the s sound is to be given in "sacrifice," 
and the reverse in "rise" that "subtile" and "subtle" 
are two different words; that the last syllable of " tortoise " 
is pronounced tis instead of tus; that it should be ' 'used' ' and 
not tisi; and that it is not the "zoo" but the zoological 
gardens where one goes to see the chim^(7?/zee, and not 
the chimpan^'^^. 

It is quite time, we think, when we hear one of these 
talkers, for some of the fancy work and fancy studies of 
the day to be dropped and a little hard work on the dic- 
tionary put in their place. — Exchange. 

Did yon ever try to interest your pupils in a school sav- 
ing bank ? Such an institution can be very easily man- 
aged, and nothing can be better for teaching business ideas 
and principles. 



Some one, somewhere, has said: "In teaching geogra- 
phy or history, write on the blackboard every proper name 
when used for the first time. Let every pupil copy it on 
slate or note-book. Let one or two spell it orally. Reserve 
two or three minutes at each recitation for a review in 
spelling proper names. Let the pupils sometimes spell 
orally; and sometimes write from dictation the names 
selected by the teacher. 

"Frequently give, as an exercise, a list of proper names 
to be brought in class neatly written, and properly spelled. 
If you do not use some such device, even though you may 
have a class finely informed on the subject-matter, you 
will be mortified whenever they are put to a test on the 
spelling of the names of persons or places." 

This same method may be carried out in other branches, 
in teaching the spelling of common names, especially in 
physiology and arithmetic. — Iowa Normal Monthly. 


Mathematical readers will be interested in the following 
quotation from Robert Recorde, who introduced the sign 
of equality into algebra. 

Recorde was the first English author who wrote on the 
subject of algebra. In his treatise called "Whetstone of 
Witte," published about 1557, he says: 

"To avoid the tedious repetition of these words, is 
equelle to, I will sette, as I doe often in worke use, a paire 
of parallel lines of one lengthe, thus: =, because no 2 
thynges can be more equalle." 




She could sing and she could play, 
She could dance from night till day, 
She could while the hours away, 

So 'tis said; 
vShe could skate and she could paint. 
She could play the patron saint, 
But she couldn't and she wouldn't 

Make a bed. 

She could walk eight miles a day 
And pla}- tennis charmingly, 
Flirting in a saucy way. 

Little scamp! 
She could drive and play base-ball, 
She could make a stylish call. 
But she couldn't and she wouldn't 

Clean a lamp. 

She could swim and she could row, 
She could always have a beau. 
And I'm sure that we all know 

She was shy. 
She could laugh and she could prance 
She could play a game of chance, 
But she couldn't and she wouldn't 

Make a pie. 

She could etch and write a book. 
She could vanquish with a look, 
She could win by hook or crook, 
I confess; 


She could scold and she could flout, 
She could cry and she could pout, 
But she couldn't and she wouldn't 
Make a dress. 

She could talk of church affairs, 
But knew naught of household cares; 
But I'm sure that none compares 

With sweet Nan; 
Even if she couldn't bake 
Bread and pies and angel cake, 
She entrapped and she captured 

A rich man ! — Bar Harbor Bazoo. 


Lay aside for a day the spelling-book, and try an exer- 
cise like the following: 

Let the pupils take their slates and WTite their own 
names in full. 

Write the teacher's surname. 

Write the name of the county in which they live, the 
State, their post-office address. 

Tell where Scotchmen came from. 

Tell how old a boy is who was born in 1879. 

Write the names of four winter amusements; of four 
summer amusements. 

Write how many days in this month. 

Write what we plant to get potatoes. 

Write a definition of a druggist. 

Write the names of six pieces of furniture. 

Write the names of six kinds of tools. 

Write the names of the seven days. 

Write the name of the year, month and day of the month. 

Write a verse of poetry and a verse of Scripture from 
memory. — American Journal of Ednation. 



Children who drill 

Seldom are ill, 
For sinking, tiptoeing, and right and left going. 
And shonting and clapping, and measnred out tapping, 

Strengthen their limbs, 

Drive away whims. 
Make faces shine brightly, make spines grow uprightly; 

So, I suppose. 

Illness all goes. 

Children who learn 

Bodies to turn. 
And bodies to bend low, and noddles to send low, 
And elbows to fetch out, and fingers to stretch out. 

Seldom look pale, 

Delicate, frail, 
And seldom are sulky, and seldom too bulky. 
And seldom are spiteful but always delightful. 

So, then, we will 

Beg leave to drill. 

— Exchange. 

Use your gift of speech to give comfort, jo}', cheer, 
and hope to all about you. Use it to encourage the dis- 
heartened, to warn those who are treading in paths of 
danger, to inspire the indolent with holy motives, to kindle 
the fires of heavenly aspiration on cold heart-altars. 

]Vortl\ (^arolir\a I'^a^tx^r^ i\55^n\bly. 


Hugh Morson (Raleigh Male Academy), President, . . Raleigh. 
Eugene G. Harreh (Editor Teacher), Sec. and Treas., . Raleigh. 


1. J. J. Blair (Supt. Graded Schools) Winston. 

2. J. E. Kelly (Model Male School), .... Charlotte. 

3. Miss Catherine Fulghum (Graded School), . . Goldsboro. 

4. W. J. Ferrell (Wakefield Academy), . . . Wakefield. 

5. Miss Lizzie I^indsay (Graded School), . . . Greensboro. 

6. P. M. Pearsall (County Superintendent), . . Trenton. 

7. Miss Lina McDonald (Graded School), . . . Winston. 

8. T. J. Drewry (Horner Military School), . . . Oxford 

9. Mrs. S. Montgomery Funk (Chowan Bap. Fern. Inst.), Murfreesboro. 


Hugh Morson, ex officio. President, .... Raleigh. 

Eugene G. Harrell, ex officio, Secretary, . . . Raleigh. 

Eben Alexander (University of North Carolina), . . Chapel Hill. 

W. L. Poteat (Wake Forest College), .... Wake Forest. 

James Dinwiddle (President Peace Institute), . . . Raleigh. 

Charles D. Mclver (Pres't Normal and Industrial School 

for Women), ........ Greensboro. 

J. Y. Joyner (Superintendent Graded School), . . Goldsboro. 

A. C. Davis (vSuperintendent Military School', . . Winston. 

E. E. Britton (Principal High School), .... Roxboro. 

Ninth Annual Session, Morehead City, June 21 to July 2, 1892. 


You will find the Atlantic Hotel and the Teachers' 
Building wearing a handsome new dress of paint when you 
go to the Assembly this summer. There are also a num- 
ber of other pleasant surprises in contemplation. 


Two things which every teacher in the South owes to the 
profession — attend first the State meeting of your co-work- 
ers, and then the meeting of your Southern Educational 
Association. These two great gatherings will give inspira- 
tion for a year of very pleasant and successful work. 

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union will have 
charge of the programme on Friday, June 24tli. We 
epcpect addresses from Mrs. Lucy Hunt, of Massachusetts, 
Mrs. M. M. Snell, of Mississippi, and a number of other 
prominent members of the Union, upon " The Method and 
Manner of Temperance Teaching in the Public Schools," 
and kindred subjects. Mrs. S. E. Craven, of Concord, is 
arranging this programme, and she will give the Assembly 
a most instructive and interesting day. 

Mr. John O. Plank, of Chicago, has been engaged by 
the Atlantic Hotel Company to manage the hotel this sea- 
son. He is one of the most expert hotelists in this country, 
having had much experience in the management of some 
of the most popular summer hotels in America. He knows 
the wants of guests and he knows how to supply them in 
the most satisfactory manner. The Teachers' Assembly 
and the summer visitors to charming Morehead Cit}' are to 
be congratulated on being the guests of Mr. Plank. 

The Teachers' Assembly Educational Exposition 
this summer is groino; to be a bio- thino;. The leading; 
schools have already asked for space for their exhibit, and 
the displays will fill the Teachers' Building. Among the 
schools which have already secured space for exhibits are 
the University, St. Mary's School, Peace Institute, x^gri- 
cultural and Mechanical College, Institution for the Deaf 
and Dumb and Blind, Granville Institute, Thomasville 
Orphanage, Graded Schools at Raleigh, Wilmington, Char- 
lotte, Goldsboro, Lexington Seminary, Mt. Olive High 
School, and the four colleges for boys. 


Dr. Edward S. Joynes, of the University of South 
Carolina, has kindly consented to attend the Assembly 
this summer and address the teachers. This distinguished 
Southern educator will find a great many of his strong 
friends at Morehead City, who have been long using his 
excellent text-books of modern languages. Dr. Joynes is 
a most able and fascinating speaker, and at the meeting of 
the Southern Educational Association on Lookout Moun- 
tain last summer hundreds of southern teachers were 
charmed by his able and eloquent address. We extend to 
him in advance a most cordial welcome to Morehead City. 

Are you preparing your educational exhibit for the 
meeting at Morehead City ? We know of eight or ten new 
scholars that a certain school secured on account of the fine 
exhibit made b}^ that school in the Assembly's Educational 
Exposition at Morehead City in 1890 and 1891. We 
know of a graded school superintendent who was elected to 
abetter and more remunerative position specially by reason 
of the exhibit of work at ^Morehead City which had been 
done by his pupils. No graded school or private boarding- 
school, no college nor the University can afford to be with- 
out representation in the Assembly's Educational Exposi- 
tion this summer. 

Colonp:l Julian vS. Carr, one of the most successful 
business men of the South, has accepted an invitation to 
address the Teachers' Assembly this summer upon the 
timely and important topic, "What Business Men Expect 
of the Public Schools. " Every superintendent and teacher 
of public schools ought to be present and hear this sugges- 
tive question discussed. It is proposed to inquire into and 
to show whether or not the schools supported by public 
taxation are doing the work which has been assigned to 
them by our Consti:ution and the School Law. Several 
public school officers will take part in the discussion of 
this interesting question. 


The "Inter-Collegiate Oratorical contest" for the 
Teachers' Assembly gold medal will be one of the new 
and most interesting features of the Assembly programme 
this summer. There will be but one speaker admitted to 
the contest from each society of our four principal colleges 
for males; the oration is to be orioinal and the leng-th of 
the speech is limited to fifteen minutes. All the colleges 
will be represented by their best speakers in this contest 
and there will be hundreds of friends of each institution 
present on the occasion. College societies who propose to 
enter the contest are requested to notify the secretary as 
early as possible, so that the programme may be properly 

It is proposed to make the work of the Teachers' 
Bureau of the Assembly much more effective this year than 
ever before. Every teacher who desires a better position 
for next year, should address the chairman of the Bureau, 
Mr. David L. Ellis, Fair View, N. C. , for "Information 
blank." Many applications have been filed already. 
Schools in need of teachers could not do better than to 
secure their teachers through the Assembly Bureau, because 
the chairman has had seven years experience in this special 
work, and, thus he knows thfc qualifications of a large num- 
ber of our best teachers better than anyone else No charge 
is, made for any work done by the Assembly Bureau for our 
teachers, the only requirement being that they be bona fide 
members of the Assembly, and hold its certificate of mem- 
bership for 1892, whether they can attend the Assembly or 
not. The Bureau filled forty positions last year, and over 
1,000 communications passed through the hands of the 
manager. This is but one of the many practical benefits 
which members of the teachers' x\ssembly derive from the 
great organization. 

The Assembly programme this year will be more of a 
"popular" character than ever before. It is intended to 


make all the work of special interest to "the people," and 
we would be glad to see present several thousand persons 
who are not teachers. The Teachers' Assembly intends 
to keep away, as far as possible, from the "normal school 
idea," and it strives to be what it set out to be — "a peo- 
ple's educational meeting under the direction of the teach- 
ers." Our great summer educational gatherings at More- 
head City will, of course, be under the entire management 
of teachers, but the objects of the meetings, as set forth in 
our constitution, will be closely followed in arraging the 
programme — "health, rest, recreation, and mutual im- 
provement. The Teachers' Assembly is for the people, 
and we want the people to attend it and enjoy it, and then 
all the educational interests of North Carolina will be pro- 
moted to a most satisfactory degree. The teachers and 
" the people " are to control the the destiny of North Caro- 
lina, and the object of the Teachers' Assembly is to bring 
together annually all the people of North Carolina in a 
good social and enthusiastic meeting to consult together 
for the best interests of our State. If there should ever 
exist a demand for a strictly professional and exclusive 
meeting of teachers, perhaps somebody will undertake to 
organize it. 

We ha\'E about completed arrangements to have an 
evening's entertainment by the "University Glee Club," 
of Chapel Hill. This is one of the very best college 
musical organizations in this country, and their songs have 
received enthusiastic praise from their audiences. Their 
presence at the Teachers' Assembly will add very much 
to the enjoyments of the session. The Glee Club will 
be assisted in their entertainment by several members 
of the Assembly, comprising the finest musical talent in the 



The railroads have, at the special request of the Exec- 
utive Committee, made a new arrangement for Assembly 
tickets this year. The rate will be the same as heretofore, 
about one-and-a-quarter cents a mile each way, and the 
membership coupon for tv,o dollars will be attached to each 
ticket to be paid with the fare. When you get to More- 
head City, present the ticket to the Secretary and Treas- 
urer, and he will take off the coupon and give you a " cer- 
tificate of membership" which alone will secure for you 
the rate of one dollar per day at the Atlantic Hotel. All 
female members of the Assembly will have one dollar 
refunded to them by the Secretary and Treasurer on pre- 
sentation of their ticket and coupon as the fee for women 
is only one dollar per year. This is an excellent arrange- 
ment, and saves you all the trouble of sending fees to the 
Secretary for your certificate. You simply buy the railroad 
Assembly ticket and come along. Persons who live on 
the lines of railroad which do not have on sale the coupon 
tickets can pay the membership fee when they arrive at 
Morehead City and secure the certificate of membership. 



Cuba comprises about forty-four thousand square miles 
of area, about four-fifths as large as North Carolina, but we 
do not believe that so much to interest and delight a trav- 
eler can be found anywhere else on the globe within the 
same area. 

All other foreign countries, in their liberal contact with 
other nations, have necessarily kept up somewhat with the 


manners and customs of the age, but the visitor to Cuba 
feels that he has been transported by some sudden and 
mysterious power into a land of the eleventh century. 
The antiquity around him, even of the things that are new, 
gives him unceasing cause for amazement and delight. 

He finds that many Cuban ways are very different from 
the ways of all other people of the world, and he is surprised 
to notice that some of their habits are just the opposite of 
ours. Specially noticeable of these differences are the cus- 
toms in Cuba t(j eat breakfast at noon and dinner at sunset; 
bring a person to }'ou by motioning with your hand for 
him to go away; to have preaching in the church at 8.30 
A. M., and Sunday-school at 11 o'clock; to put keyholes 
upside down on the doors; to applaud in the theatre by a 
prolonged hiss; to hold a person as guilty in the courts 
until he can prove himself innocent; to impose a fine of 
$12.50 on a housekeeper for cleaning up and repairing a 
premises and nothing forletting the house be dirty; to pay the 
priests promptly, but never attend the church services; to 
sell postage-stamps everywhere except at the post-office; to 
be unable to obtain revenue stamps from government officers 
(they must be bought of brokers on the streets); for servants 
to expect no fees and tips from a traveler; to live on the 
lower floor of a house and do the cooking upstairs; to have 
men for washerwomen, chambermaids and nurses instead of 
women; to look for plows, rakes and other hardware in a 
" chocolate shop " ; and to see only men attend a burial at 
the cemetery while all women remain at home. But it is 
astonishing how quickly we become accustomed to these 
things and " fall in with the ways of the people." 

On Sunday, while in Havana, we attended, at 9 o'clock 
A. M., high mass in the handsome Merced Cathedral. This 
building ranks as one of the most elegant religious edifices on 
the ear.h. All its appointments are truly magnificent, and 


at the close of the service we had the privilege and pleasure 
of examining all the interesting features of the building 
under the conduct of a most charming Spanish lady whom 
we met at the services. The lady was educated in Mobile, 
Alabama, and spoke American very well. 

From the Merced church we went to the Cathedral of 
Havana, which was also celebrating high mass for the New 
Year Sunday. The service there was conducted in person 
by the Bishop of Havana in gorgeous robes of royal purple, 
assisted by twenty priests clad in richest of vestments. At 
the conclusion of the service the Bishop and all the 
officiating priests marched down the north aisle to the door, 
and large numbers of devout Catholics knelt before the 
Bishop and reverently kissed his hand. 

Cuba people are not noted for their church-going pro- 
clivities. At this special high-mass service in the great 
Cathedral there were present just sixty-two persons besides 
the twenty officiating priests. Even of that small attend- 
ance thirty persons were from our part}'. It is often the 
case that a priest conducts a service when he is the only 
human being in the church except the sexton. 

This cathedral enjoys the proud distinction of being the 
true resting-place of the great discoverer, Christopher 
Columbus. We listened to the history of the interment, 
walked close to his tomb and placed our hands tenderly 
upon his marble bust and believed that we were standing 
near the actual remains of the discoverer of our country. 
Other claims and statements have been made, but we are 
yet unshaken in our faith that the remains of Columbus 
truly rest in the Havana Cathedral. 

In the evening most of our party attended services at the 
famous Baptist Cuba Mission, conducted by Rev. Alberto 
Diaz. This is the most remarkable and successful foreign 
mission work done by any denomination of Christians in 


any part of the world. The building, purchased by the 
Southern Baptist Convention of the United States for the 
church, was the famous "Theatre Jane" (pronounced 
Har-ny), situated in the centre of Havana. The mission 
was established about nine years ago, and there are now 
fifteen regular Cuban ministers, and over 18,000 members of 
the church, and accessions made at almost every meeting. 

Dr. Diaz seated our entire party with him on the plat- 
form, and at the conclusion of the service he stated that 
all his members desired to clasp hands with the American 
party, therefore we stood in a line in front of the pulpit 
while the congregation passed by us, a cordial handshake and 
a pleasant word being received from each person. During 
the service. Miss Bessie Worthington, of Rocky Mount, 
one of our party, sang a qharming solo, and at the conclu- 
sion of the service our party gathered around the organ 
and sang a number of inspiring "Gospel Hymns." 

There were stopping at our hotel, the Mascotte, several 
leading members of the grand Spanish Opera Company, 
then playing in Havana. A very strong mutual attach- 
ment soon existed between our party and those ladies and 
gentlemen with wonderfully trained voices, and they made 
the parlor ring with sweet melody in the early evenings for 
our enjoyment. 

There was no conversation between the parties except 
through an interpreter, because neither knew a word of the 
language of the other, but every lady seemed to be very 
happy with one another just the same. One of the ladies of 
the Opera Company, Miss Amalia Paoli, made a desperate 
effort to learn at least a few American words, and she was 
rewarded by sufficient success to say, when putting her arm 
lovingly around some charming girl of our party, "Me 
loves you," and the act amused us very much. 

On our last morning in Havana, just before going on 
board our steamer all the party gathered in the parlor, 


being joined by all our kind Spanish friends, and for an hour 
we sang with intensest enthusiasm all our favorite Southern 
airs, "Old Folks at Home," "Dixie," " Old North State," 
"Ho, for Carolina," " Bonnie Blue Flag," "TheMocking 
Bird," and others. Our audience was highly entertained by 
our melody of patriotism, and many of them went on board 
our tug-boat, and accompanied us to the steamer, where, 
under the flutter of the Stars and Stripes, the adios were 

It is a matter of great gratification to the American to 
realize that the beautiful emblem of his beloved country is 
honored in every land wherever displayed. 

The steamer was soon loosed from her moorings and we 
regretfully turned our eyes toward the beautiful Cuban 
capital, while the vessel slowly steamed out of the placid 
bay and ominously began to yield to the motion of the 
"white caps " of the Gulf of jNIexico, and the unmistakable 
warnings of sea-sickness prevailed upon us to postpone 
writing the conclusion of this tour until a more convenient 


Teachers are requested to send to the Secretary at once 
any suggestions they may have to make as to subjects 
which they desire to have placed on the programme for 
discussion, and all suggestions will be submitted to the 
Committee. By this means it is intended to present the 
best and most practical work that has ever been done by 
the Assemblv. 

ORGANIZATION 1891-1892. 

SOI.OMON PALMER, President, East Lake, Florida. 

EUGENE G. HARRELL, Secretary and Treasurer, Raleigh, N. C. 

W. T. WATSON, Assistant Secretary, Memphis, Tennessee. 



1. E. B. Prettyman, Maryland. 8. J. G. Harris, Alabama. 

2. John E. Massey, Virginia. 9. J. R. Preston, Mississippi. 

3. B. S. Morgan, West Virginia. 10. W. H. Jack, Louisiana. 

4. S. M. Finger, North Carolina. 11. J. M. CareiseE, Texas. 

5. W. D. Mayfieed, S. Carolina. 12. J. H. Shinn, Arkansas. 

6. S. D. Bradweel, Georgia. 13. W. R. Garrett, Tennessee. 

7. A. J. Russell, Florida. 14. Ed. Porter Thompson, Ky. 

15. W. E. Coleman, Missouri. 


Solomon Palmer, ex officio Chairman, East Lake, Alabama. 
E. G. Harrell, ex officio Secretary, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

1. J. H. Phillips, Superintendent City Schools, Birmingham, Ala. 

2. Dabney Lipscomb, Middleton, Mississippi. 

3. Thomas D. Boyd, President vState Normal, Natchitoches, La. 

4. O. H. Cooper, Superintendent City Schools, Galveston, Texas. 

5. J. W. Conger, President Ouachita College, Arkadelphia, Arkansas. 

6. J. M. Stewart, Agricultural and Mechanical College, Lake Q.\ty, Fla. 

7. J. M. Greenwood, Superintendent Schools, Kansas City, Missouri. 

8. R. N. Roark, State Normal College, Lexington, Kentucky. 

9. Frank M. Smith, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee. 

10. Euler B. Smith, President State Association, LaGrange, Georgia. 

11. Edward S. Joynes, LTniversity of South Carolina, Columbia, S. C. 

12. Hugh Morson, President Teachers' Assembly, Raleigh, N. C. 

13. C. E. Vawter, Superintendent Miller Industrial School, Crozet, Va. 

14. W. R. White, Superintendent of Schools, Morganton, VV. Va. 

15. Daniel Oilman, Johns Hopkins Universit}', Baltimore, Maryland. 


The Executive officers of the Southern Educational 
Association are preparing a full circular of information con- 
cerning the approaching session in /^.tlanta. This circular 
will be mailed to several thousand prominent teachers 
throughout the South and to all educational journals. 
Persons receiving copies are requested to give the informa- 
tion the widest possible circulation in their sections. 

The daily sesssions will be held in Georgia's matchless 
Capitol building, where there is ample accommodation for 
the general meetings, and for the sessions of the various 
dejoartments. There are six separate departments in con- 
nection with the Association work including "Superin- 
tendence, ' ' ' 'Higher Education, ' ' ' 'Secondary Education, ' ' 
"Southern Literature," "Pedagogy" and "Kindergarten 
and Primary Education." The railroads throughout, the 
South have been asked to make a rate of one fare for the 
round trip with membership coupon of two dollars attached 
to each ticket. No doubt the request will be granted, and 
the liberal rate will bring together thousands of the South's 
best teachers in consultation at Atlanta. 

The programme for the meeting of the Southern Educa- 
tional Association at Atlanta in July will comprise interest- 
ing and important papers from the most eminent of the 
South's teachers. Among the important subjects to be 
discussed, are: "Thorough Training of Girls;" "What 
the people expect of the Public Schools;" "Industrial 
Training of Young Women;" "How can the People be 
Interested more in Popular Education;" " Pure English for 
x\mericans;" "Physical Culture in the Public Schools;" 
"The Teacher's Code of Ethics;" "The First Year's 
Work of the Teacher;" " Legal Relation of Teacher, Pupil 
and Patron;" "A Southern Literature for the South," 
and a number of other topics, equally as important and 
interesting, will make one of the best programmes ever seen 
at an educational meeting in this country. 


The Executive Committee of the Southern Educa- 
tional Association met in the parlor of the Kimball House 
in Atlanta on the 5th of February. President Solomon 
Palmer was in the chair, Secretaries E. G. Harrell and 
W. T. Watson reported the proceedings, and there was 
present a full representation of the fifteen Southern States. 
We do not think that a more enthusiastic and workings 
meeting has ever been held by an Executive Committee of 
any organization. Governor Northen, School Commis- 
sioner Bradwell and City Superintendent Slaton met with 
the Committee; and there were also present with the Com- 
mittee several prominent members of the Association, 
including Hon. J. H. Shinu, ex-President, and Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction for Arkansas; Hon. J. R. Pres- 
ton, Vice-President, Superintendent of Public Instruction 
for Mississippi; Hon. W. R. Garrett, ex-President National 
Educational Association, Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion for Tennessee; Prof Wharton S. Jones, of Memphis; 
Prof C. J. Ramsey, Clinton, ha. ; Prof. F. M. Roof, Birming- 
ham, Ala. ; Prof Frank Goodman, Nashville, Tenn. ; Prof 
Euler B. Smith, President Georgia State Teachers' Asso- 
ciation. The claims of Birmingham, IMontgomery and 
Atlanta were considered as a place for holding the next 
session of the Association, and the vote was unanimously 
given to Atlanta. The time selected for the meeting is 
July 6-8, 1892. Governor Northen pledged the heartiest 
support of all Georgia to the Association, and State Com- 
missioner Bradwell promised an attendance of one thousand 
Georgia teachers. In addition to the regular programme, 
several pleasant excursions have been planned to interest- 
ing points in Georgia, including a visit to Indian Springs, 
and to Cumberland Island on the Atlantic Coast. 


" Then let all who love us, love the land that we live in, 
(As happy a region as on this side of Heaven); 
Where plenty and freedom, love and peace smile before us, 
Raise aloud, raise together, the heart-thrilling chorus. 

Hurrah! hurrah! The Old North State forever! 

Hurrah! hurrah! the good Old North State! 


North Carolina must have a grand educational exhibit 
at the World's Fair in 1893. No State in the South has 
made more progress in educational matters within the past 
few years than North Carolina, and no State can make a 
better exhibit than ours. 

To have a creditable display, much work is to be done 
both by teachers and pupils, but we hope that our teachers 
and pupils are so inspired with patriotism and State pride 
that the work will be joyfully undertaken and promptly 
performed. Every leading private and public school in 
the State should be able to make a good exhibit, and if 
there are any that can exhibit nothing, then such schools 
should be reorganized, for their v/ork does not reach the 
standard of public duty and expectation. The State Board 
of Agriculture offers to pay all transportation both ways on 
articles sent for educational exhibition at Chicago, and 
will provide ample space for each exhibitor. We would 
suggest that you send for exhibit paintings, drawings, 
mechanical models, essays, specimens of penmanship, map 
drawings, and mouldings, botanical and mineral specimens 
collected and arranged by pupils. Also, if possible, send 
a drawing or painting, nicely framed, of your school build- 


ing and surroundings, and inscribed underneath the pic- 
ture a brief synopsis of the work done by your institution, 
its scope and names of the Faculty. Hon. S. M. Finger, 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction, has been 
selected by the North Carolina World's Fair Committee to 
superintend the educational exhibit from this State, and he 
will be glad to furnish teachers at any time whatever 
information may be desired in this matter. It will be 
nearly eighteen months before the articles are wanted for 
the World's Fair, and we begin this w^ork so long in 
advance so that none of our prominent schools will fail to 
make an exhibit for the lack of due notice. 

We DESIRE to receive copies of the annual reports of all 
School Superintendents in this country, also copies of the 
proceedings of each State Teachers' Association in the 
South. For these things we will gladly make any return 
of courtesy that may be in our power. 

North Carolina boys and girls are studying North 
Carolina history. There has never before been seen in the 
State such an active interest taken in our history. In 
almost every school there is a class in either Spencer's or 
Moore's history of North Carolina, and in many schools 
both books are used. 

Fifty copies of "Black Beauty " were sent to new sub- 
scribers as premiums during the past thirty days. Every 
teacher, every child and every citizen of North Carolina 
ought to read this fascinating book upon the humane treat- 
ment of animals. " Black Beauty" is the autobiography 
of a beautiful black horse, and the noble animal tells his 
own story charmingly. We send a copy of this famous 
book to every new subscriber or renewal of subscription to 
The Teacher. 


We HAVE just secured a new edition of Dickens' com- 
plete works, fifteen large volumes, with large clear type, 
paper-bound, which we will send by mail, post-paid, with 
The Teacher for a year for only $2.50. This is the big- 
gest and cheapest offer in standard books within our knowl- 
edge. We will also mail a set of the books to any person 
who will send us four new subscribers to The TEx\cher. 

To every music teacher in North Carolina, sending us 
one dollar for a year's subscription to The Teacher, we 
will give twelve pieces of vocal and instrumental music of 
our own selection. The music is regular size and style, 
and the published retail prices of the pieces are from 
twenty-five cents to one dollar each. In ordering, state 
whether you want the pieces instrumental, vocal, or 

The demand for copies of The Teacher containing 
the design of the North Carolina State flag has been unpre- 
cedented, and it quickly exhausted the extra edition of 
The Teacher. We have, however, a few copies of the 
State flag design, and will gladly supply any teacher desir- 
ing them so long as the supply holds out. We believe 
that during this school year over a thousand teachers in 
North Carolina will proudly display our State flag in their 
school-rooms. "So mote it be," and may the number be 
ten thousand instead of one thousand. 

North Carolina schools are enjoying a very prosper- 
ous spring term. While there is not quite so much build- 
ing and improving of school property as usual, yet all the 
schools are full of pupils and the teachers are doing excel- 
lent work. The public schools have opened well since the 
holidays, and most of our counties will have nearly a four 
month's term, some of them longer. If our government 
should ever succeed in having a fair, honest and accurate 
census taken. North Carolina will, in many things, stand 
at the head of the list of Southern States. 


We will gladly furnish any public or private school in 
North Carolina with a first-class teacher, in any depart- 
ment, upon short notice, and without any charges or fees 
whatever. This is one of the special missions of The 
Teacher, and we have already supplied several hundred 
school vacancies with teachers. Sometimes we have on 
file more applications for positions than we have schools, 
and at others we have more schools than teachers, but we 
generally succeed in satisfying all applications in due time. 

The most thoroughly abused educational method in this 
age is the so-called ' ' kindergarten. ' ' It is nominally ' ' pic- 
ture teaching," "object teaching" or " play teaching," 
but generally it is dealing with children as if they were 
idiots — entirely devoid of all thinking faculties. The 
mother who really desires not to have the mind of her chil- 
dren dwarfed into imbecility should be careful to keep them 
away from most of the present "kindergarten schools." 
The "object teaching" craze which places tiny dolls, 
tooth-picks, splints, beans and other nonsense before a child 
for the purpose of teaching numbers and for "developing 
the mind " will effectually destroy the thinking powers of 
your child, and the " sand table " for "teaching geography" 
will make an intellectual nothing of your boy or girl. 
The whole country is denouncing the "kindergarten 
fraud" and the " tooth-pick-splint-and-bean " nonsense 
in emphatic and unmistakable terms. Doubtless the kin- 
dergarten was originally a good thing, and there is yet 
some good in the method, but since the idea has fallen into 
the hands of fanatics it has lost most of its usefulness. In 
a Northern Sunday-school, where the kindergarten method 
is employed in teaching the scriptures, a teacher recently 
had the children singing "ding, dong, dell," to represent 
death in the crucifixion, while she made a number of 
marks on the black-board with red chalk to illustrate 
the shedding- of blood! Poor children. 



Mr. Iv. a. Garner is teaching in Carteret County. 

Mr. W. H. Grady has a good school in Duplin Count3^ 

Miss Mary Arrington has a good school at Whitaker. 

Mr. a. L. Johnson has a good school in Yadkin County. 

Miss lyENA AivLEN (Peace Institute) has a fine music school at Durham. 

Miss Julia Lane has charge of a good public school in Craven County. 

Mr. J. B. Miels has a public school of forty pupils in Carteret County. 

Mr. J. B. Parsons is principal of Catherine Lake Academy in Onslow 

Messrs. H. O. Piner and M. L. Scott have charge of the public 
school at Morehead City. 

Professor F. A. Fetter has an enrollment of one hundred pupils in 
Kernersville High School. 

Mr. p. C. Duncan has, in Mitchell County, one of the most prosperous 
public schools in North Carolina. 

Miss Marietta Sutton has an interesting private school at the resi- 
dence of Mr. Uzzle, near Kinston. 

Mr. J. W. Phillips has thepublic school at Marshallburg in Carteret 
County, with forty-five pupils enrolled. 

Davidson College has in attendance one hundred and fifty-four 
students, the largest enrollment in its history. 

Professor Baumann's music class at Peace Institute, Raleigh, enter- 
tained their friends in a charming soiree on February 13th. 

Rev. J. A. Campbell has one of the most successful schools in Har- 
nett County. One hundred and ten pupils are now enrolled. 

Rev. J. B. Game is Principal of Ashboro Academy for Boys and Girls. 
Students are prepared for the University or any of our colleges. 

Rev. B. W. Spilman (Wake Forest College) has charge of the public 
school at Smyrna. He has organized a military company among his 

Several new Teachers' Councils have been organized in the State 
since the new year, and they are doing good work. Is your county 
organized ? 

Miss Willie Brown Graves, one of the most honored graduates in 
music of Peace Institute, has been engaged as assistant teacher of music 
for the spring term. 


The teachers of Buncombe County will hold their next quarterh- 
meeting at Asheville, February 27, 1892. An attractive programme has 
been made out for the occasion. 

Mr. D. Matt Thompson is succeeding admirably as superintendent 
of Statesville Graded Schools. Over five hundred pupils are enrolled 
and steps are being taken towards erecting a |;io,ooo building. 

Greensboro College for girls has renewed the publication of its 
charming journal The College Message, and the January number con- 
tains a good portrait of the President, Dr. B. F. Dixon, with a sketch of 
his life. 

Trinity College has an enrollment of two hundred students for the 
spring term, which will be the last term at the old location. The new 
buildings at Durham will be completed this fall, and Dr. Crowell expects 
to open the term with three hundred boys. 

Miss LilliE Lea has returned from Rome, Georgia, and takes charge 
of Leasburg Academy. The school opened on the 15th inst. with twenty- 
five pupils, with prospects of ten more to enter in a few days. We 
welcome Miss Lea home to the Old North State. 

Our University has two hundred and forty-one students, the largest 
enrollment since 1861. Dr. Winston, the energetic and enthusiastic 
President, is succeeding in most effectuall}' "reaching the people" and 
awakening an increased interest in collegiate education. 

Professor Thomas M. Hufham is President of Mars Hill College, 
Madison Count3^ One hundred and ninety-three students are enrolled, 
the largest enrollment of any educational institution in Western North 
Carolina. The College has one large brick building, and another nearly 
completed, also a good library of four hundred volumes. 

jNIiss Sudie Gay, a ver}' talented and successful student of the Wilson 
Collegiate Institute, went to Stanhope, Monday, at the urgent request 
of the Principals of the Stanhope Male and Female Academy, to take 
charge of the departments of Music and French in that school for a week 
or two, the teacher s of those departments being absent on account of 

The schools of Raleigh are greatly increasing in popularity and pros- 
perity. People throughout the State and the whole South realize the 
many valuable advantages which a boy or girl has who is educated at the 
Capital, and thtis it is that every room at Peace Institute is full of girls, 
St. Mary's School is overrun with pupils, andMorson andDenson's Acad- 
emy has an enrollment which beats all past record. Each of these schools 
has a larger patronage than ever before in its history. Besides, the 
schools of Raleigh have been remarkably free from cases of serious ill- 
ness among the pupils during the general epidemic of "grippe " and 
pneumonia which has prevailed in other communities. 


There seems to be a martial spirit in the air. Mr. W. R. Skinner of 
New Berne, proposes, at an early day, to open a military school at Clin- 
ton, in Duplin Count}'. This will make eight schools in North Carolina 
where the boys wear uniform. 

The three Literary Societies of Fair View College, aggregating 
about sixty members, hold joint public exercises March 4th, 1892. 
These Societies have shown much interest in their work. The ladies' 
Societ}', "The Philozelian," arranges the musical programme for all the 
public exercises of the College and for the young men's Societies, the 
" Agatheridon " and the " Erosophia." 

The Executive Committee of the Western North Carolina Teachers' 
Association will hold a meeting in the city of Asheville, February 26th, 
for the purpose of deciding upon time and place for the next annual 
session of the Association. The place will doubtless be Waynesville, 
N. C, and the time about June 14-18, so as to give delegates to that 
meeting ample time to reach Morehead City in time for the North Caro- 
lina Teachers' Assembly, June 21st. 

Mr. Andrew J. Conner, the efficient County Superintendent of 
Northampton County, as another evidence of his enterprise, has begun 
the publication of a county educational journal. It is well edited in the 
special interests of the schools and the Northampton Teachers' Council. 
Both the journal and its progressive and energetic manager, friend 
Conner, have our very best wishes. Nearly every teacher in North- 
ampton Count}' will attend the Teachers' Assembly at Morehead City 
this summer. 

The Normal Department of Fair View College has now fifteen teach- 
ers pursuing the special course arranged for the Buncombe County public 
school teachers. This course embraces the required studies of the State, and a two month's study of current and general pedagogical litera- 
ture, with experimental class-work in the classes of the school. At the 
close of the work, those who pass the required examination will receive 
the diploma of this department, entitling candidates to the degree of 
Licentiate of Instruction. 

Friends Ellis and Hurst have gotten up an extra good number of 
their journal for January. It contains full proceedings of the session of 
the Western North Carolina Teachers' Association with several portraits 
of prominent members. We are glad to see that they have adopted the 
advice of The Teacher, and that they do not try to form another State 
in North Carolina west of the Blue Ridge named "Western North Caro- 
lina," hence the name of their journal will in future be the North Caro- 
litia Journal of Education. 



'Tis said that " figures never lie," 

That one and one are always two ; 
But Cupid proves, with work so sly, 

Some wondrous things that figures do. 
And when he claims a teacher's hand 

All rules of figures then are done. 
Though TWO before the preacher stand 

This one and one are always one. 

Rev. J. B. Game, Principal of Cedar Grove Academy, married 
Miss Irene Hughes of Roxboro on Monday February 15th. 

Miss Anna Wieeiamson, a teacher in the Winston Graded School, 
was married on December the 29th to IvIEUTEnant Waeter Leak of 

Mr. E. p. Mendenhaee. Principal of the High School at Swepson- 
ville, married Miss Mattie Davis of Yadkin College, his music teacher, 
on Sunday, February 7, 1892. 

Miss Mary F. McDonald, a teacher in Fair View College, Buncombe 
County, was married in the chapel of Fair View College on Thursday, 
February 4th, to Mr. J. W. JONES. 

Miss Eela S. Parker, daughter of the late Captain W. C. Parker of 
Raleigh, who has been, for several years, in charge of a school near 
Wilton, N. C, was married on January 20th, to Dr. T. B. Lawrence of 
Granville County. 


Richard Henry Lewis, son of Mr. Elisha B. Lewis, of Asheville 
Graded School, was born at Kinston on Wednesday, February 10, 1S92. 



■ Death hath made no breach 
In love and sympathy, in hope and trust. 
No outward sign or sound our ears can reach, 
But there's an inward, spiritual speech 
That greets us still, though mortal tongues be dust. 
It bids us do the work that they laid down — 
Take up the song where they broke off the strain ; 
So, journeying till we reach the heavenly town, 
Where are laid up our treasure and our crown, 
And our lost loved ones will be found again." 

Mr. David E. Tayloe, the faithful aud efficient County Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction of Bertie County, died at his home in 
Windsor on Sunday, January 24, 1892. 

Miss Fannie S. Myrick, formerly a teacher of music in Wesleyan 
Female College at Murfreesboro, and also at Littleton Female College, 
died at Murfreesboro February 6, 1892. 

Miss Minnie Beard, of Keruersville, died in South Carolina on Feb- 
ruary I5tli. She was a graduate of Salem Female Academy and had 
been teaching mttsic in South Carolina. vShe was greatly beloved by a 
large circle of friends. 


The books and slates now put away, 
And let us laugh a little while ; 

For those who work there should be play, 
The leisure moments to beguile. 

" Capital punishment," so the boy said when the schoolmistress 
seated him with the girls. 

Teacher— "What is an 'April fool,' Robby ? " Robby— " The man 
who takes oflFhis winter clothing on the first warm day." 



A Mere Chance. — Professor — "To \vhat circumstance is Columbus 
indebted for his fame ? " Johnnie — " To the circumstance that America 
had not yet been discovered." 

TE-^cher in Elementary German — " Now, Miss Mildred, you may 
decline a kiss." Miss Mildred (slowly) — " Excuse me, but I don't think 
a kiss can be declined. I never could decline one." 

An Observant Phieosopher. — " Why should we not cry over spilled 
milk?" asked the teacher. "Because," replied the favorite scholar, 
we can recover about half of it by going to the nearest hydrant." 

" I had to be away from school yesterday," said Tommy. " You must 
bring an excuse," said the teacher. "Who from?" " Your father. " 
"He ain't no good at making excuses; ma catches him every time." 

A Limited Education. — " Little Waldo Beaconhill was in a predica- 
ment to-day. A lady gave liirn a 'Robinson Crusoe,' in words of one 
syllable, and he couldn't read it. Poor child! He cried for twenty 
minutes." " That's queer, Waldo can read." " Yes, but only in words 
of eight syllables." 

A Poor School. — ^Jenks — "You are sendingyour boy to Prof Teachim's 
classical school, are you not?" Winks — "Not now. I took him out. 
He was growing up a perfect ignoramus." "He was?" "Yes. Whj-, 
after three years at that school he didn't know any more about the 
L'nited States than an editor of a London paper." 

" Now, Boys," said the Boston public school teacher, just beginning 
a talk on "patriotism." "what is the meaning of the letters G. A. R. 
which we see so many men wearing on the lapel of the coat ? " " Great 
American Robbers," said the smart boy on the back seat, and patriot- 
ism vanished from the school-room for that time. 

How TO Keep Boys on the Farm. — "He told his son to milk the 
coiLis, feed the horses, slop the pigs, hunt the eggs, feed the calves, catch 
the colt and put him in the stable, cut plenty ofzvood, split kindling, stir 
the milk, put fresh zuater in the creamery after supper, and be sure to 
study his lessons before he ivent to bed. Then he hurried off to the club 
to take a leading part in the question, '' Hoiv to keep boys on the farm.''' 

Visitor (addressing a public school in New York) —" In the year 
1825, my dear young friends, several boys walked from Salem to Boston 
and back, a distance of thirty miles, to hear Daniel Webster speak. If 
there were no railroads nor means of transportation to-day, would the 
hoys of the present generation undertake such a journey, do you think?" 
Small boy (after a long silence) — " No, sir." Visitor — " Ah! and why?" 
Small bov— " Because Mr. Webster is dead.'.' 


Vol. IX. Raleigh, March, 1892. No. 7. 

EUGEilME G. HA-RRELL, = = = = Eaitor. 


Each morning', as we slowly pass 

The city's streets along, 
We hear the voices of the class 

Ring out the Nation's song. 
The lassies' treble piping clear, 

The laddies' deep bass growl, 
And from the boy who has no ear 

A weird, discordant howl. 

With swelling hearts we hear them sing' 

" My country, 'tis of thee! " 
From childish throats the anthems ring 

" Sweet land of liberty! " 
Their little hearts aglow with pride, 

Each with exultant tongue 
Proclaims: "From every mountain side 

Let Freedom's song be sung! " 

Let him who'd criticise the time, 

Or scout the harmon)-, 
Betake him to some other clime, 

No patriot is he. 
From scenes like these our grandeur springs, 

And we shall e'er be strong. 
While o'er the land the school-house rings 

Each day with Freedom's song. 

— Boston Courier. 

]Vortt\ Qarolir\a T^a^tx^r^ i\broad 


Gngland, Sgcpland, Ii^eland and Ff^ange. 



The I<'aithfui. Historian — French Sunday is simpi^v a day in 
THE Almanac — When in Paris do as the Parisians do — Mass 


AT THE Pantheon — Military Parades — The Hippodrome — See- 
ing THE Fountains Play at Versailles. 

^"^^^EVERAL highly esteemed members of our party 
^ endeavored by persuasion, threats and bribery to 
prevent the Secretary from writing this chapter, set- 
ting forth the manner in which a distinguished party of 
teachers from good old conservative North Carolina spent 
a "Sunday" in the gay French Capital. But, as we have 
before announced in this volume, as historian of this mem- 
orable tour it is our bounden duty to chronicle events as 
they actually occurred, and so here goes for the facts in 
this case. 

Sunday, so-called, is a very different day in Paris from 
what it is in North Carolina, in Scotland, or in London. 
We have tried faithfully to observe Sunday, when there is 
any Sunday, in whatever country we chanced to be. 

There is no vSunday in Paris in the usual sense of the 
word. It does not even appear in the French Almanac. 
They have a day in their calendar, Dimanche^ which about 
corresponds to the same time in the week or month as the 
American Sunday, but it is totally unknown in Paris as a 


day of religious observance. It is simply placed at regular 
intervals in each month as a holiday, ox fete day; or, as the 
American would express it, "a day for painting the town 
red." If the French calendar was built in strict accordance 
with French custom, the week would comprise Monday, 
Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Big 
Day, which last day is simply a day for leaving off regular 
work, changing your clothes and having a big time. 

It is well known to our readers that during the reign of 
the "Goddess of Reason " in Paris, the people, in order to 
abolish forever even the suspicion that Sunday was a day 
for religious observance, decreed that the day should be 
stricken from the calendar and that the "day of rest" 
should occur every tenth day instead of the seventh. The 
plan succeeded, and although the government has since 
then restored " Sunday " to the seventh place in the calen- 
dar of the week, the ancient religious idea in the day has 
never been permitted to return to it. 

All real travelers have faithfully heeded the very sensi- 
ble injunction, "When you are in Rome you must do as 
Rome does," and our party also acknowledged this wise 
philosophy, and "accepted the situation." 

We decided that we would try to begin the day in 
accordance with our American custom, however different 
might be the continuation and ending thereof, so we 
promptly attended " High Mass " at 9 o'clock in the Church 
de Madelaine. As we entered the building we found a 
great many people standing, while there were a large num- 
ber of unoccupied chairs in the auditorium. We did not 
understand what this meant as we marched into the room 
and seated ourselves, but we were soon enlightened on the 
subject by the prompt appearance of an officer of the church 
in a brilliant red uniform trimmed with gold, who proceeded 
to collect from each one of us twenty cents for the use of 
the chairs. We paid the money more for the " big of the 


thing" than for any other reason, and then watched the 
priests, choir-boys, attendants and supernnnieraries perform 
the mysterions and wholly unintelligible ceremony of High 
Mass. This service is conducted in Latin, mainly for the 
reason that the French people cannot understand it; and, 
with the exception that a few devout persons seemed to 
offer prayer at certain intervals, the entire audience appears 
to be wholly indifferent to the proceedings. There is a 
continual buzz of conversation and the rustle of feet, to 
which the priests pay no attention, interrupted only by the 
uniformed officers in their search for the francs and other 
revenue of The Church. The Sunday service in a French 
church is only a prescribed ceremon}', without the slightest 
suspicion of real worship of a Divine Being embodied in 
the formula. 

It may be said, however, to the credit of our party, that 
many of our girls hunted up the celebrated McAll Mission 
in Paris, to which they gave their encouragement and 
presence on this memorable Sunday in Paris. This Mis- 
sion is under the auspices of the Presbyterians, and it is 
doing a most wonderful and satisfactory work in Paris. 

Leaving the Church of the Madelaine it was asked, 
"Where shall we go now?" 

" To the Exposition," replied the Secretary, "as that 
seems to be the least objectionable place, according to Amer- 
ican ideas, for spending a Sunday afternoon." 

Therefore we repaired to the Exposition. The build- 
ings are all open on Sunday, the machinery is at work, 
and all the amusements and entertainments of the "Big 
Show" are open for the enjoyment and recreation of visit- 
ors. We enjoyed the music, and watched the vast crowd 
of people until four o'clock, witnessing interesting sights 
and scenes and incidents peculiarly French, but which we 
do not propose to record in this book, knowing that North 
Carolina is expected to maintain that same conscientious 
dignity and good name abroad as it possesses at home. 


After a refreshing lunch at Spier & Pond's famous res- 
taurant in the main building of the Exposition we wended 
our way to ihe Pantheon, where was to occur a most mem- 
orable service. It was the funeral ceremony on the occa- 
sion of removing the bodies of Lazare Carnot, the organ- 
izer of victory; of Marceau, the military hero of the first 
Republic; of La Tour d' Auvergne, the immortal Grenadier; 
and of Baudin, slain on the barricades in defence of his 
country's laws, from Rouen to the Pantheon amid a display 
of civic and militar\- splendor almost unprecedented. 

President Carnot and wife, as chief mourners, were pres- 
ent on the occasion with all the officers of the French 
Government, and the ceremony was the most imposing 
witnessed in Paris since the memorable obsequies of Victor 
Hugo. Thirty organized deputations were also present, 
and such an arra}' of brilliant uniforms is rarely seen any- 
where. Several speeches were made by distinguished men 
of France, after which the militarx* garrison of Paris 
marched past the President in salute. This beautiful dis- 
play continued for over an hour, receiving enthusiastic 
applause from a hundred thousand spectators. The remains 
of the famous dead were then placed with great ceremony 
in the crypts of the Pantheon, the four caskets resting in 
the same tomb. The bodies of these famous Frenchmen 
had been resting in various cities of France for fifty years 
or more. 

The real gayety of Sunday in Paris begins after the 
noon lunch. The entire population is out-doors, and every 
human creature seems possessed of but one single idea — 
enjoyment. This enjoyment they are determined to have 
in some way, even if it is to be found only in looking at the 
various parades which specially occur on Sunday afternoon. 

The great attraction is the military display. The meas- 
ured tread of the soldiers, the bright-red uniforms, the 
glittering brass buttons, the waving of silk banners and 


the sprightly music of the brass bands have a peculiar 
charm for the French people — especially for the women, 
and thousands and thousands of them always turn out to 
see the soldiers parade. 

The French army is not, however, a very imposing 
object. The soldiers are all small men, seemingly about 
half-grown boys — nine out of ten faces in ranks being 
entirely beardless. Some of their military organizations 
bordered closely on the ludicrous, and the average company 
of French soldiers consists of about thirty boyish men, an 
immense banner and a brass band of some forty pieces, the 
idea seeming to be that it is more important to have a large 
band than a large company. 

Every company has a name and a motto, and some of 
the inscriptions on their banners are "immense." We saw 
a company comprising twenty-four boys in their "teens" 
and a brass band of sixteen pieces, carrying a banner on 
which glittered in gold the thrilling words, "The Hope 
of France." From other ranks equally small, bright ban- 
ners sported in the breeze heralding to the world that there 
were now passing "The Paris Guard," "The Invincibles, " 
"The Nation's Glory," "The Spirit of Napoleon," "The 
Defenders of Libert}-," and "The Protectors of Our 

After faithfully "taking in" all the parades we decided 
that we would also "take in" the great Hippodrome, or 
circus, as it is better known to us at home. 

Sunday in Paris is the biggest day of all with the thea- 
tres and all other places of amusement. The people then 
have nothing to do and they want to be amused — they will 
be amused. Managers fully realize this fact, and they pre- 
sent their very best performances and charge more for 
admission on Sunday than on any other day of the week. 

The Hippodrome is situated near the Exposition grounds, 
and soon after dinner a number of our party were seate 


within tiiat spacious enclosure, seeming wholly oblivious 
as to the day and all other surroundings. It really seems 
that a traveler is wholly relieved of all restraints of law or 

Upon taking our seats a little girl handed us a pro- 
gramme of the performance, and placed a low stool under 
our feet. We found this stool exceedingly comfortable, 
and while enjoying it the girl was continually saying to us 
something that sounded very much like "poor boy," 
whereupon " the General " declared that the girl could not 
possibly be a poor boy, and therefore he would pay no 
attention to her demands as a "poorbo}'." However, one 
of our party unfortunately translated the words into ^^ poitr 
hoire^'''' and this information cost each of us about a franc 
for the notorious "poor boy " which is found throughout 
all European countries. We enjoyed the Hippodrome very 
much, there being many interesting features which we had 
never seen in an American circus. 

The Sunday newspaper told us that "the fountains and 
park of Versailles will be illuminated to-night in honor 
of the Shah of Persia." The grand fete was also to cele- 
brate the centenary of the French Revolution with special 
commemoration of the historical sitting of August 4, 1789. 

To illuminate these famous fountains costs about $13,000, 
and this is done but once each year, except on very rare 
occasions. The illumination of the fountains at Versailles 
is such a noted occurrence that this magnificent celebration 
draws thousands of people from all parts of Europe. A 
large number of our party had an early supper and repaired 
to Versailles to witness this rare and brilliant spectacle. 

If it is possible to produce ' ' Fairy-land ' ' on earth, French 
ingenuity has surely accomplished this at Versailles when 
the fountains are illuminated. It is a sight of such mag- 
nificence and splendor that it can be seen nowhere else on 
earth, and which when once witnessed can never be for- 


gotten. It is estimated that half a million of people saw the 
display on that Sunday evening, August 4, 1889. Every- 
where in the park and for considerable distance away there 
was a vast jam of that immense crowd of people. 

At 8 o'clock p. M. the magnificent Neptune Basin was 
illuminated, while the vicinity was lighted up by sixty- 
four glass porches and fifty thousand colored lamps arranged 
gracefully in rows. At 9 o'clock there was a gorgeous 
pyrotechnical display in connection with the fountains. 
All the jets were colored, and some curious and startling 
effects were produced by "water-fires" in the basin. 

Half an hour afterwards, while we gazed in wonder at 
the beautiful scene, the shrubbery throughout the im- 
mense park suddenh- became one bewildering blaze of 
light, continuing to the great triumphal arch at the end of 
the glittering amphitheatre, which formed the chief scene 
of a fete which was declared to be altogether unique in 
France. It is impossible even to attempt to describe the 
glories of that scene, and as we looked upon it, charmed 
and fascinated, it was difficult to realize that such brilliancy 
and beauty could be produced on earth. 

We were informed by an official who was assisting in 
managing the grand display that the illuminations and 
playing of the fountains during those two hours cost over 
$16,000. But the people patronized the great show with 
the same liberality as it was conducted, and they paid over 
$100,000 for seeing the gorgeous display. There is noth- 
ing "small" about France, except the size of her people. 

When the guards of the palace turned out the first light 
within the fountains, there was a grand and simultaneous 
every-man-for-himself kind of a stampede to catch the 
trains for Paris. With our usual good luck, we succeeded 
in getting (or rather being borne along in the jam) aboard 
the first train. This train carried at least five thousand 
people to Paris on that trip, although it was made up to 
hold only about one thousand. 


We were packed so tight in that little French train that 
we almost forgot it was Sunday, and could breathe only 
every once in a while ; but we reached our hotel, however, 
in comparative safet}' a short time before breakfast, and the 
Secretary spent the remainder of the night in dreaming 
that he was being used as a fender between two great ocean 
steamers that were lying alongside each other, while the 
waves of the sea gave the vessels just enough motion to 
flatten him out like a pancake with each swell of the water. 



1. Will his manner attract or repel teachers, pupils and 
parents ? 

2. Is his voice pleasing, or harsh and grating? 

3. Is he pedantic and pretentious, or manly and dignified ? 

4. Is he fidgety and nervous, or quiet and equable? 

5. Is his eye restless and fox)', or calm and penetrating? 

6. Is his face deceitful, or pleasant and honest? 

7. Is his walk hesitating and unsteady, or direct and firm ? 

8. Is his judgment wavering and fitful, or judicial and 
impartial ? 

9. Is his judgment narrow and selfish, or broad and 
liberal ? 

10. Is his scholarship weak and restricted, or compre- 
hensive and accurate ? 

11. Is his health tottering, or is it vigorous and strong? 

12. Is his moral nature weak and vacillating, or is it 
noble and elevated ? 

13. Has he stagnated, or is he still elastic and buoyant? 



Anyone who has met the Southern woman in the North 
knows she is an example to Northern women in her conr 
duct of business matters, writes Helen Watterson, in the 
Pittsburg Dispatch. There are in New York probably as 
cosmopolitan a set of working- women to-day as can be 
found in any quarter of the globe drawing breath and sal- 
aries. You will find a Western woman often working for 
less than she is worth. Sometimes it is because she really 
doesn't know what she's worth, and sometimes because she 
doesn't care what she's worth. 

Not so with the Eastern girl. To settle a business mat- 
ter with her is quite another thing. She seems to regard 
the money part of it as an incident, an after-thought. She 
insists on treating" it with a fine contempt, and speaks of it 
as "compensation," until a man feels that he has been 
guilty of an indelicacy in mentioning it. And it isn't 
affectation so much as a kind of inbred nonsense that busi- 
ness life hasn't taken out of her yet. 

But the Southern woman, bless you! there isn't a bit of 
nonsense about her. She's the furthest seeing, the shrewd- 
est, the best match of man in business matters of any 
woman you can find. With the offer of her services comes 
the statement of the sum of money she expects for it. 
While the employer haws and hedges — as he is sure to do — 
she hums "Dixie" and looks out of the window. She 
knows he will take her terms, and she means to give him full 
return for what she gets. Then when all this is arranged 
she insists on having a good stout contract made. Then 
she goes to work with a calm heart. 

It is by no means to be inferred from this that the 
Southern woman is a grasping creature. Not in the least. 
She's generous to a fault in the use of her money. The 
strangest part of it all is that this unusual business instinct 



should be found imbedded in such sentiment as you find in 
the Southern woman. The Western woman isn't senti- 
mental at all; the Eastern woman is only contemplative 
and reflective; the Southern woman, with all her experi- 
ence and shrewdness in money matters, hasn't lost a bit of 
the deliciously romantic charm that characterized her 
"before the war." She works royally, but never for an 
instant relinquishes her belief that no woman ought to work. 
She still looks up to a man as a god-like and superior 
creature, and never accepts the fact that a woman should 
ride in anything but her own carriage, go out after dark 
without an escort, or open the door for herself. 

And it's a good belief. It isn't comfortable for her 
always, because she finds things so at variance with it, but 
it's good for men to feel that somebody still insists upon 
and expects from them all things that are gentle and 


Here is a list of prices taken from the bill of the Oriental 
Restaurant, at Richmond, under date of January 17, 1864: 

Soup, per plate $1 50 

Turkey, per plate 3 50 

Chicken, per plate 3 50 

Rockfish, per plate 5 00 

Roast beef, per plate 3 00 

Beef-steak, per dish 3 50 

Ham and eggs 3 50 

Boiled eggs (2) 2 00 

Fried oysters 5 00 

Raw oysters (6) 2 00 

Ca'jbage i 00 

Potatoes I 00 

Pure coffee, per cup 2 00 

Pure tea, per cup 200 

Fresh milk 200 

Bread and butter i 50 

WINES, pb;r bottle. 

Champagne foo 00 

Maderia 50 00 

Port 2500 

Claret 20 00 

Sherry 3500 


French brand}' $ 3 00 

Rye whisky 2 00 

Applebrandy 2 00 

Porter $12 00 

Ale ^-. .-- 1200 

Ale, half-bottle 6 00 

Fine Havana | 2 00 



That's what it will cost to get into the World's Fair 

People who may have been expecting to work off any 
counterfeit coins when they go to the World's Fair in 1893 
are doomed to disappointment. It will cost everyone a 
genuine half dollar to get inside the gates. 

The men who will take in the cash and hand the tickets 
out through the apertures of their little booths will be 
selected with especial regard to their ability to pounce upon 
a counterfeit, not only by its weight or its feeling, but by 
the looks of it a yard off. And it will cost everybod\- a 
half a dollar. There isn't going to be any half-price for 

Once inside the gates, however, there will be no occasion 
for the visitor to be diving into his pockets every few min- 
utes for additional coins with which to secure admittance 
to some particular exhibit or show that w^asn't included in 
the original price of admission. No circus-tent-side-show 
business will be tolerated. If the fat woman, the man 
with the monster performing snakes, or the howling der- 
vishes manage to get their tents within the enclosure they 
will have to perform for nothing. 

The management does not propose to have the visitors 
"held up." Only one exception will be made to this rule. 
The natives from India, Egypt, Russia and Corea may pos- 
sibly be permitted to give entertainments peculiar to their 
own countries in some one room of their own houses, but 
at the same time all the remaining portions of the structure 
will have to be kept open in order that the ordinary visitor 
who may not care about taking in the show can wander 
about at will and study the people and their customs with- 
out extra charee. 



Rev. H. AI. Siinnions, of Minnesota, recently preached 
a sermon in repl}' to Benjamin Recce's argnment in the 
Popular Science Monthly against the valne of schools to 
prevent crime, and Herbert Spencer's similar conclusions 
in Social Statics fort\' years ago. He said : 

" There was plenty of truth in those conclusions. Geog- 
raphy will not keep a man from murder, or grammar from 
stealing, or logarithms make him love his fellow-men, and 
even the ability to read will not necessarily help his morals, 
especialh' if it be concentrated upon the Police Gazette. 
The mental training, too, obtained from schools may all be 
used for bad purposes, and, seeing how many college gradu- 
ates get into prison and how many more deserve to, we con- 
clude that it often is so used. And millions of men who 
could not read have still had more virtues than even a theo- 
logical seminary can give. 

"But the general influence of learning is not the less 
against crime. Reading at least prevents the idleness which 
sends so many into saloons and sins innumerable, and, bad 
as much of it is, far more has a humanizing and broaden- 
ing influence. Mental discipline also is a moral discipline, 
and studying Greek or even memorizing the capes and 
creeks of Asia is at the same time giving the man a power 
of self-control which will help him to withstand tempta- 
tion. Nor can anyone see how many of our criminals are 
unable to read, without concluding that illiteracy is not 
merely an attendant but a cause of crime, and that mere 
learning does help to prevent it. And when we add to 
mental training the manual and moral, "which are advancing 
in schools everywhere, this true education must certainly 
check crime. 

"Nor are the statistics so much against this conclusion, 
as the unreliability of census reports leaves us room to doubt 


whether crime has increased so fast in this country as is 
commonly declared. Whatever increase there is may be 
accounted for by many causes, such as the growing concen- 
tration in cities, the great social changes, the discontent of 
the poor and eagerness of all to get rich, the intemperance 
and immigration. And if the old methods of education 
cannot counteract these dangers, the true methods can and 
do. Few schools have tried true education until recently. 
Most have sought to educate only the head, and that in the 
poor way of stufiing with geographical data and historical 
dates and theological dogmas. But the education which 
seeks to train head and hand and heart together, for better 
life and social relations, has shown itself able not merely 
to prevent crime, but even to cure criminals. 

"The typical criminal, with abnormal body and brain, 
with vicious instincts and ungovernable temper, without 
will power or conscience, and characterized by 'utter 
untruthfulness,' is about as hopeless a case as can be 
imagined. Yet the Elmira Reformatory takes such, and by 
the curriculum of strict diet, baths, massage, dumb-bells, 
steady work, learning a trade, close study, training of 
habits, incentives and gains, makes new men of them and 
reforms 80 per cent. 

" The somewhat similar system adopted throughout Eng- 
land and Ireland has had a most telling effect in diminish- 
ing crime there. When so many criminals can be cured, 
there is no doubt but a true education can do the easier 
work of keeping men from becoming criminals. 

"We need a better prison system in this country in place 
of the present no system. Now prisoners of all sorts are 
sometimes herded together in idleness, sometimes treated 
with cruelty and sometimes with laxity, and the last census 
report tells of a murderer who, under the Southern system 
of leasing out prisoners to private parties to be taken care 
of, was leased out to his own wife, and was spending his 
term of punishment ^t home in full happiness. 


"We need to go behind the prisons and work for the 
diminution of poverty, and avarice, and intemperance, and 
the causes of crime. And we need more of that true edu- 
cation which strengthens men to meet temptation and avoid 
crime ; not merely a mental, but a moral education ; not 
the religious education which teaches men to be saved by 
the deeds of somebody else, but to save themselves by their 
own deeds, and save each other by honesty and kindness. 
But such an education will be religious in the highest sense. 

"The Talmud tells how in a time of drouth and prayers 
for rain no prayer availed except that of one girl who was 
a 'teacher of children ;' and the teaching of children, if 
rightly done, is a prayer which will be answered with 
results richer than rain." 


It is refreshing to find so little said lately with regard to 
short-cuts, improved methods, etc. There could be no 
objection to any of these were there not so many of them 
delusive. We want always the best methods, but these are 
not always short methods or "improved methods." 

Teachers will do well always to seek and use the best, 
but the success of any method usually lies more in the 
teacher and his application of the method than in the 
method itself. 

There are few who, if they strive diligently and prop- 
erly, may not make good teachers, and these few are the 
only ones who should be weeded out as speedily as possible. 

Let a young man strive earnestly for success in the work 
of teaching, and in most cases he will find it within his 
grasp, whatever the method he pursues to reach it. — Edu- 
cational News. 



Editor North Carotina Teacher. 

Dear Sir — Will you please inform nie when the State Normal and 
Industrial vSchool for Young Women will open for the admission of stu- 
dents, and what is to be the character of the instruction therein offered 
to girls? My daughter is anxious to earn a living for herself, but does 
not know how to do a single practical thing sufficiently well to apply 
for a position. I hope to have your early reply. 

Yours truly, Mrs. A. M. T. 

Wilson, X. C, February 2^, i8g2. 

As we have lately received several inquiries about the 
school, we will try to give a general reply to this open 

The "Normal and Industrial School for Young Women" 
is a State institution, organized in response to the persist- 
ent appeals of the Teachers' Assembly. It is the outcome 
of the very first effort in the history of North Carolina look- 
ing to the assistance of girls in acquiring a practical educa- 
tion. The State has been helping the boys for a hundred 
years in securing an education, but never has a single cent 
been appropriated for the girls until this Normal and Indus- 
trial School was asked for by the Teachers' Assembly. 

The building has been located at Greensboro, and it is 
rapidly nearing completion, and it is expected that the 
school will be regularly opened for students about Septem- 
ber, 1892. 

The course of instruction will be, as the name indicates, 
normal and industrial, and such as is contemplated in the 
act of Assembly which establishes the institution. The 
girl will be educated in such a way as will prepare her to 
teach school, or will best enable her to make a living or fit 
hei for the duties of practical life. It will be entirely dif- 
ferent from any school for girls now existing in the State, 
in the fact that industrial training will form a principal 


feature of the instruction. In addition to the ordinary cur- 
ricuhim of a normal school, which is preparation for teach- 
ing, the girls will be instructed in short-hand, telegraphy, 
typewriting, dressmaking, housekeeping, sewing, cooking, 
marketing, bookkeeping, mechanical drawing and other 
thoroughly practical subjects which belong to industrial 
education. The school will be for girls just what the Agri- 
cultural and Mechanical College at Raleigh is for boys. 

There are in this age many new occupations of useful- 
ness opening up for girls, and there is a growing necessity 
for them to earn their own living- and independence, and 
North Carolina never did a wiser thing than when it estab- 
lished this school which shall prepare our girls to fill these 
various positions of usefulness. 

At the Normal and Industrial School there will be no 
charge for any tuition, and only a nominal expense, "not 
over $8 a month," for board. All books and material for 
study and work will also be without cost to pupils. We 
think that the Board of Trustees of the institution intend to 
make it of the greatest possible practical benefit to North 
Carolina girls. 

[For the Xorth Carolina Teacher.] 



If a stranger from another State were to look over a 
map of North Carolina he would find some perplexing- 
cases, where the names of certain towns seem to be a mis- 
fit as regards the names of their respective counties. This 
may sometimes account for mail-matter going wrong or 


failing to reach the person addressed within a reasonable 

For example, he would expect to find both Asheville and 
Ashboro in Ashe County, but instead of that arrangement 
he finds the former in Buncombe and the latter in Ran- 
dolph County. He would naturally look for Greensboro 
and Greenville in Greene County, instead of Guilford and 
Pitt, while he would see Pittsboro not in Pitt County at all, 
but in Chatham. Beaufort ought to be in Beaufort County, 
instead of Carteret, while Washington, in Beaufort County, 
should be in Washington County. Mooresville, in Iredell 
County, should be in Moore County, and Jonesboro, in 
]\Ioore County, would seem best suited to Jones County. 
HaN-wood, in Chatham, ought to be in Haywood Count}-, 
while the capital of that county would just suit Wayne. 

Why was not Jackson put in the county of that name 
instead of Northampton, and Franklin, as well as Franklin- 
ton, in Franklin County? Then there isAIacon, in Warren 
County instead of Macon, and Hertford in Perquimans in- 
stead of Hertford County. Yanceyville, in Caswell County, 
he could see as well in Yancey County, and Rockingham 
he would put in Rockingham County, instead of Richmond. 

Columbus is in Polk Count}% and Polkton is in Anson 
County, while Columbus County has not even Columbia. 
Davidson College is not in Davidson County, nor is Yad- 
kin College in Yadkin Count}-. Neither Alexanders nor 
Alexandriana is in Alexander County. Graham would 
seem best in Graham County, and Lenoir just suits Lenoir 
County. \'anceboro might have been put in Vance Count}-, 
instead of Craven, Gaston in Gaston Count}-, and Madison 
in Madison County, instead of Rockingham. 

There may be other cases of apparent misfit, but these 
are enough. So when you direct a letter be sure to "put 
the countv on." 




Some of our friends have disagreed with The Teacher 
as to whether or not we speak the American or English 
languages. 'Tis true that there are numbers of slang 
expressions in the x^merican tongue and many bad and 
incorrect words, but they are distinctively American just 
the same, and the fact that they exist does not form any part 
of the question as to the right of America to have a lan- 
guage of its own. There are even more slang speeches and 
objectionable words in the English language and with them 
we have nothing to do or say ; but as to whether or not you 
speak "American" or "English" examine the following 
list of a verv few differences between the two lamjuaees : 



Ticket office. 

Buj'ing a ticket. 


Railroad track. 




Street car. 

Freight train. 







All aboard. 



Switching cars. 

Trains meeting. 

Freight cars. 





Booking office. 
Permanent way. 
Tram car. 
Goods train. 
Seats, please. 

Drilling cars. 
Trains crossing. 
Goods van. 



There are hundreds of other things which are expressed 
by entirely dififerent words. In money we have the sover- 
eign, which is also a "quid," and in Yorkshire sometimes 
called a "thick 'un." A shilling is a "bob" ; a sixpence, 
a "tanner" ; a ten-shilling gold piece is "half a quid and 
a "thin 'un"; while a crown or five-shilling piece is a 
"plunk" or "big 'un." The half-crown is known as 
"two-and-six," sometimes "two and a tanner." 

It is likewise the habit of the most intelligent English 
people to drop the "h" in words where it should be used 
and to put it where it does not belong. The Englishism 
" The 'orn hof the 'unter his 'eard hon the 'ills," is familiar 
to every schoolboy, and it is a fair representation of the 
difference between the English and the American languages. 

There are several hundred words in general use which 
the Englisman will spell differently froiu the American and 
we give a few common words with the English orthography: 
publick, almanack, ardour, armour, bevelled, boddice, can- 
celled, cheque, scimetar, counsellor, defence, despatch, 
drought, gaiety, gypsey, jeweller, labour, marvelling, 
modeller, parlour, pcedo-baptism, plough, rumour, sceptre, 
sideways, sceptic, stye, tumour, vapour, villany, waggon, 
wilful, woeful, worshipper, yolk. 

The two languages are, as we admit, ver\- much alike, 
and perhaps the many differences would not be much 
noticed unless attention was called to them, but they exist 
just the same, and as no American uses the Englishisms in 
literature or in speech it cannot be claimed that we speak 
tbe English language, therefore it must be admitted that 
America has a language of its own and that it is American. 

We concede that some of the words and expressions we 
have 'mentioned are used only by English cockneys, but it 
is well known that most of these expressions and words are 
universally employed by all the most educated people of 
England, and this evidence is sufficient to make them a 
part of the "English" language and not of the "American." 




A boy will stand and hold a kite 
From early morn till late at ni^^ht, 

And never tire at all. 
But, oh ! it gives him bitter pain 
To stand and hold his mother's skein 

The while she winds the ball. 

A man will walk a score of miles 
Upon the hardest kind of tiles 

About a billiard table. 
But, oh ! it nearly takes his life 
To do an errand for his wife 
^ Between the house and stable. 

A girl will gladly sit and play 
With half a dozen dolls all day, 

And call it jolly fun. 
But, oh ! it makes her sick and sour 
To 'tend the baby half an hour, 

Although it's only one. 

A woman will — but never mind ! 
M}' wife is standing close behind. 

And reading o'er my shoulder. 
Some other time, perhaps, I may 
Take up the theme of woman's way, 

When I am feeling bolder. 

— Detroit Free Press. 



There is an effort among some public school men in this 
country to compel our children to pronounce "beneath," 
beneethe^ and "nephew," neznie. Do not permit your child 
to be taught such an absurdity, for there is not the slightest 
standard authority for such pronunciation unless we con- 
sider English cockneys as authority, and such "authority" 
should not be for even one moment tolerated among edu- 
cated people in America. 

Such pronunciations as "beneethe" and "nevue" are 
simply some of the ridiculous results of affectation and too 
much ' ' New Education. ' ' Even the better class of people 
in England, where such orthoepic monstrosities are said to 
have been born, always pronounce these words as "beneeth" 
and "nefue," just as all the most distinguished scholars in 
America pronounce them. 

We are glad to know that this imported caricature in 
pronunciation has never obtained a footing in North Caro- 
lina schools — our teachers are wisely content to speak the 
pure American language without any cockney embellish- 
ments or variations. America may have its Bowery and 
street hoodlum slang which sometimes finds its way even 
into polite society, but such words and expressions are no 
part of the American language, any more than the dialect 
in use among the bog-trotters of Ireland is a part of the 
English lansruaee. 

The "North Carolina Practical Spelling Book" is now 
in press and will be ready foV the school-room in about 
sixty days. We believe that the teachers of the State will 
be pleased with the book. 



[The following composition was written by little Lena D. 
Cherry, of Miss Gertrude Bagby's school at Vandemere, A 
year ago the little girl could not read or write, and this is 
her first effort at writing a composition. — Editor.] 


I like a cold day when I have a good fire to sit by. I 
like to put on m\- warm cloak and gloves and go out doors 
and run on the frozen ground and play in the snow. 

I don't like to go to school on cold days. I had rather 
stay at home by the fire and play with my dolls. 

I like ice in the winter time but better in the summer 
when the weather is warm. 

It is now a rainy and cold da\' and I like to sit by the 
fire and eat nuts, apples, candy and oranges. 


An incident occurred recently which illustrates the 
absurdity of the very common habit of using the personal 
pronoun where the article should be used. 

At a Teachers' Institute a young pedagogue was at the 
blackboard demonstrating a mathematical problem, and at 
a certain stage of the process a reduction from feet to inches 
was necessary. Turning to his audience with a flourish of 
the crayon, he says : "I will now reduce my feet !" All 
eyes were immediateh- fixed upon those members, and the 
laughter that convulsed the audience somewhat disturbed 
the proposed reduction ! 



Who does not love the merry little creatures, with their 
bright eyes, sweet voices, innocent ways, and vociferons 
squalls, particularly while cutting teeth? We involuntarilv 
shrink from the man who does not love children, until we 
have some of our own, and try to undress the baby some 
night when the mother is absent. 

Dear little children I How much they add to the beautv 
and loveliness of the earth, and how much walking it takes 
to quiet one, when there is no soothing SNrup liand\'. What 
dear little sleep-destro)"ers they are ! Fresh from the hand 
of the Creator — with spirits unclouded by sorrow, unstained 
by sin — how it can occup}' simultaneously both sides of the 
largest sized bed. 

Like the birds and flowers, the}' help to make up the 
poetry of existence, and it can also make an old bachelor 
in the adjoining room use language which if uttered on the 
street would get him into the penitentiary for two years. 

The\- are so fragile that there mingles with our love 
tender anxiety that shadows and subdues our warmer emo- 
tions, and }et that same baby if taken to a theater can stay 
awake and bawl until the last act. — ExcJin}i2C. 


From a bushel of corn, a distiller gets four gallons of 
whiskey, which retails at $16. The government gets $3.60, 
the farmer who raised the corn gets fort}' cents, the railroad 
gets $1^ the manufacturer gets $4, the retailer gets $7, the 
consumer gets six months, and the special policeman gets 
a fee if he runs him in. 



Don't be silly about the men. 

Don't fail to take a man at liis word when he says he is 

Don't be rude to a man in order to show }onr independ- 

Don't let a man impose upon you, simply because he is 
a man. 

Don't think because a man likes )'ou that he wants to 
marry you. 

Don't believe everything- a man tells \'on, either about 
himself or yourself. 

Don't be familiar with men, and don't permit familiari- 
ties from them. 

Don't conclude that a man is a gentleman simply 
because he has the appearance of one. 

Don't think that a man is not in love witli }-ou because 
he has not proposed to \'ou. 

Don't think because a man is a graceful and interesting 
talker that he is ever\'thino- else desirable. — ExcJianorc. 


According to an eminent German statistician the world 
has had 2,550 Kings or Emperors who have reigned over 
seventy-four peoples. Of these 300 were overthrown, sixty- 
four were forced to abdicate, twenty-eight committed sui- 
cide, twenty-three became mad or imbecile, 100 were killed 
in battle, 223 were captured by the enemy, twenty-five were 
tortured to death, 134 were assassinated and 108 were exe- 



[As the people of our country are now interested in the 
great World's Fair, commemorating the discovery of this 
continent, it is well to be informed as to the derivation of 
the name given to America. — Editor.] 

In a paper read before the Society of " Americanistas," 
in Paris, on October 15, 1890, entitled " i\. Philological 
Study of the Origin of the Name America," Bishop Car- 
rillo, of Yucatan, a well known author on American lin- 
guistic matters, maintained that when Cortez landed on the 
coast of Yucatan, and on what is now known as the Mos- 
quito Coast, the whole country was possessed by the Aztecs, 
and was known by them as Am-eli-ka, which in the Aztec 
tongue meant "The Windy Country, or the Country of 
High Winds." 

This name of "Am-eli-ka" was easily corrupted in pro- 
nunciation into "America" by the old Spaniards. The 
Italian geographer, Alberic Vespucci, prefixed it in place 
of the name by which he had been christened, and became 
known as Americus (x\merigo) Vespucius, in the same 
manner as the distinguished English geographer Gordon 
had prefixed "Chinese" to his name, and became known 
to the world as Chinese Gordon. 


"Canter" is an abbreviated form of Canterbury gallop, 
so called because pilgrims to Canterbury rode at the pace of 
a moderate gallop. A "grocer," so says the dictionary, 
was originally one who sold by the gross. A "grenade" 
derives its name from its shape, which resembles a pome- 
granate. A "biscuit" means "twice baked," because, 


according to military practice, the bread or biscuits of the 
Romans were twice prepared in the ovens. 

Did yon ever notice the leaves of the "dandelion?" 
They are said to resemble, in form and size, the tooth of 
the lion, and so the French call it the dent dc lion and we 
"the dandelion.'" 

The Pope was formerly called "thepape," which means 
the same as "papa," or father. "\^inegar" came from two 
Latin words, "zv;/" and "(7r^v-," meaning "vine" and 

These are only a few of the many curious and interesting 
things we found in an afternoon's search in the old diction- 

When you are at a loss for something to do follow our 
example, and you wall be surprised at the many bits of 
information you can pick up in a little time. 


You would think it a pleasant magic if you could flush 
your flowers into a brighter bloom by a kind look upon 
them ; nay, more, if you had the power, not only to cheer, 
but to guard them — if vou could bid the black blight to 
turn away, and the knotted caterpillar spare — if you could 
bid the dew fall upon them in the drought, and say to the 
south wind in frost, "Come, thou South, and breathe upon 
my garden, that the spices of it may flow out !" 

This you would think a great thing; and all of this (and 
how much more than this!) you can do, for fairer flowers 
than these — flowers that would bless you for having blessed 
them, and will love you for having loved them — flowers 
that have eyes like yours, and thoughts like yours, and 
lives like yours ; which, once saved, you save forever. Is 
this only a little power? — Ruskin. 


[By Request.] 



Measure diagonal h', /;/ inches^ from the centre of the 
bung to the chime : cube and divide by 370 and the answer 
will be in gallons. 

Should the bung not be in the centre, measure both 
ways to chime, add the measurements, take half their sum, 
then cube and divide by 370 to get gallons. If a remainder, 
multipl\' by four and divide b\' 370, etc. This rule has 
been found correct b\' actual measurement. 

In yards, what is the length of a rope tied to the neck of 
a horse, which would allow him to feed over an acre of 
land ? Solution : — The area to graze is an acre, 4,840 square 
yards ; as the area of a circle is obtained by squaring its 
diameter and multiplying by \\, so dividing the area by \\ 
and taking the square root of the quotient will give the 
diameter. The rope is fastened, sa}-, to a stick in the cen- 
ter of the circle, and, therefore, being half the distance 
only, we divide b\' two. 

Three men bought a grindstone 32 inches in diameter, 
A paying 70 cents, B 50 cents, C 40 cents. They agree 
that A shall grind off his share first, then B and then C. 
How much will each grind off? 

Solution : — The semi-diameter of the grindstone is 16 
inches, which squared^256. A paid iV of the money, then 
,> of 256^112, which taken from 256, will leave B and C's 
portion, or the semi-diameter for them. 256 — 112=144, 
and ^144=12, the semi-diameter for B and C. 16 — 12 = 4 
inches, A's portion. B paid /'g of the mone}-, then {^^ of 
256=80, which taken from 144 — B and C's portion, will 
leave C's 144 — 80=64 s"<^ 164=8 inches C's portion, and 
12 — 8=4=B's portion. 

£olitl\^n\ fT^iliQatioixal i\550(;iatioi\. 

ORGANIZATION 1891-1892. 

SOLOMON PALMER, President, East Lake, Florida. 

EUGENE G. HARRELL, Secretary and Treasurer, Raleigh, N. C. 

W. T. WATSON, Assistant Secretary, Memphis, Tennessee. 



1. E. B. PreTTYMAN, Maryland. S. J. G. Harris, Alabama. 

2. John E. Massey, Virginia. 9. J. R. Preston, Mississippi. 

3. B. S. Morgan, West Virginia. 10. W. H. Jack, Lonisiana. 

4. S. M. Finger, North Carolina. 11. J. M. CareiseE, Texas. 

5. W. D. MayfiEED, S. Carolina. 12. J. H. Shinn, Arkansas. 

6. S. D.'Bradwele, Georgia. 13. W. R. Garrett, Tennessee. 

7. A. J. Ru.ssEEE, Florida. 14. Ed. Porter Thompson, Ky. 

15. W. E. Coleman, Missouri. 

p:xecutive committee : 

Solomon Palmer, e.i- officio Chairman, East Lake, Alabama. 
E. G. Harrell, c.v o^cio Secretary, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

1. J. H. Phillips, Superintendent City vSchools, Birmingham, Ala. 

2. Dabney Lipscomb, Agr. and Mech. College, Middleton, Miss. 

3. Thomas D. Boyd, President vState Normal, Natchitoches, La. 

4. O. H. Cooper, Superintendent City Schools, Galveston, Texas. 

5. J. W. Conger, President Ouachita College,' Arkadelphia, Arkansas. 

6. J. M. Stewart, Agricultural and Mechanical College, Lake City, Fla. 

7. J. M. Greenwood, Si:perintendent Schools, Kansas City, Missouri. 

8. R. N. Roark, State Normal College, Lexington, Kentucky. 

9. Frank M. Smith, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee. 

10. Euler B. Smith, President State Association, LaGrange, Georgia. 

11. Edward S. Joynes, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S. C. 

12. Hugh Morson, President Teachers' Assembly, Raleigh, N. C. 

13. C. E. Vawter, Superintendent Miller Industrial School, Crozet, Va. 

14. W. R. White, Superintendent of Schools, Morganton, VV. Va. 

15. Daniel Oilman, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. 


The Southern Passenger Association has granted 
the rate of one fare for rouiid trip to the meeting of the 
Southern Educational Association in Atlanta, July 6-9, 
and a coupon for $2.00 membership fee will be attached to 
each ticket. 

The Southern Educational Association has a great 
many friends in the North. The Secretary has just visited 
the Northern cities, and he was much pleased to find there 
a large number of well-wishers for the continued prosperity 
of the Association. Everybody realizes the important 
influence which it is to exert upon the educational work 
and interest of the South. 

The Proceedings of the Session of 1891 on Lookout 
^Mountain have been printed in neat and attractive style, 
and the volume is now being mailed as rapidly as possible. 
A careful reading of the journal will convince you that no 
abler educational papers have ever been submitted to any 
educational organization on this continent. The South 
may justly feel proud of this volume, which speaks in 
thunder- tones the profound scholarship of our Southern 

"Circular of Information No. i," which has just 
been issued and circulated by the executive officers of The 
Southern Educational Association, has created a grand wave 
of enthusiasm among the teachers of the South in the inter- 
ests of their Association The Secretary is almost flooded 
with letters from every portion of the South giving warm- 
est assurances of the very heartiest cooperation in all the 
work and plans of the Association. The South is aroused 
as never before on the great educational question. The 
educational press in the South is also united in its efforts 
for the success of the Association — all of the journals pub- 
lish liberal extracts from the official circular. 

]Vortt\ ^arolii\a T"^a(;t\^i'5' A55^n\t>ly- 


Hugh MORSON (Raleigh Male Academy), President, . . Raleigh. 

Eugene G. Harreix (Editor Teacher), Sec. and Trea.s., . Raleigh. 


1. J. J. Blair (Supt. Graded Schools), .... 

2. J. E. Kelly (Model Male School) 

3. Miss Catherine Fulghum (Graded School), 

4. W. J. Ferrell (Wakefield Academy), 

5. Miss Lizzie Lindsay (Graded School), 

6. P. M. Pearsall (County vSuperintendent), 

7. Miss Lina McDonald (Graded School), 

8. T. J. Drevvry (Horner Military School), . 

9. Mrs. S. Montgomery Funk (Chowan Bap. P'eni. Inst.), 











Hugh Morson, ex officio, President, .... Raleigh. 

Eugene G. Harrell, ex officio, vSecretary, . . . Raleigh. 

F^ben Alexander (University of North Carolina), . . Chapel Hill. 

W. L. Poteat (Wake Forest College), .... Wake Forest. 

James Dinwiddie (President Peace Institute), . . . Raleigh. 
Charles D. Mclver (Pres't Normal and Industrial vSchool 

for Women), Greensboro. 

J. Y. Joyner (Superintendent Graded vSchool), . . Goldsboro. 

A. C. Davis (Superintendent Military School ', . . Winston. 

E. E. Britton (Principal High School), .... Roxboro. 

Ninth Annual Session, Morehead City, June 21 to July 4, US92. 


Rev. Thomas Dixon, Jr., North Carolina's famous 
pulpit orator, will deliver a lecture to the Assembly on 
July 2, and will preach in the Assembl}- Hall on Sunday- 
morning, July 3. 


The Secretary is now sending out the first official cir- 
cular for 1892, giving information in regard to the coming 
session of the Assembly. County Superintendents will 
supply any person with the circular who may desire it; 
and when you have read it please send it to some friend. 

Remember that under the new arrangements as to 
Assembly tickets, you pay the membership fee when you 
buy the ticket and are saved the trouble of sending it to 
the Secretary as was done heretofore. The Secretary has 
already returned some fees which had been recently sent 
to him. There will be, however, a few branch roads in 
the State that will not have the " membership coupon " 
attached to the ticket, and from those points it will be 
necessar}' to send the annual dues to the Secretary as here- 
tofore, for which the certificate will be returned. 

The "Music Contest" for the Assembly Medal this 
summer will be confined exclusively to instrumental music. 
The same rules will be observed as last }-ear, except that 
each member of the committee will be instructed to judge 
upon some particular point without regard to any other 
feature of the playing. Any girl who has been a pupil 
in any North Carolina school within the past two years 
may enter the contest. The Secretary already has in hand 
the names of several young ladies who intend to enter the 
contest, and all others who desire to take part are requested 
to give notice as early as possible. These music contests 
will be of great value to those who take part in them, and 
the Assembly has no difficulty in securing a good position 
as music teacher for every young lady who enters the con- 
test, as the entry is in itself evidence of special musical 
talent, skill and cultivation. 




As our steamer sailed down the charming Ba}- of Havana, 
under the frowning guns of Cabana Fortress and Morro 
Castle, and out into the broad Gulf of Mexico with her 
prow pointed homeward, we began to fully realize what a 
delightful visit we had enjoyed to Cuba, the lovely Oueen 
of the Antilles. 

Our party was a most select and congenial company, and 
during the ten days that we had spent constantly and so 
pleasantly together it had become truly a large and sym- 
pathetic family. This fact added very greatly to the 
pleasures of our jaunt and gave to us such enjoyment as 
is never seen in promiscuous parties of tourists. We 
enjoyed our joys with one another, we groaned in our sea- 
sickness with one another, we laughed at our entertain- 
ments with one another and we talked about our pleasant 
experiences with one another, each one feeling a special 
friendly interest in the other. This is the peculiar charm 
and privilege of all the North Carolina Teachers' parties 
of tourists, and with no other travellers within our knowl- 
edge are these most necessary conditions of enjovment and 
comfort to be found. 

The sail to Key West was "a little rough," as our excel- 
lent stewardess expressed it, but our party had become such 
good sailors that there was very little sea-sickness, and all 
were present at each meal and fully ready to go ashore at 
Key West and again "take in the town." 

What a bright, beautiful, calm and peaceful Sunda\' 
dawned upon us next morning I The Gulf was as smooth 
as a mirror, the air was as balmy as spring, the sky was as 
clear as crystal, and even the gulls that flitted lazily around 


The Mascottc seemed to be trying to tell. us that it was the 
holy day. Not a sick person in all the part}'. ICverybody 
was on deck enjoying each others company and the inspi- 
ration of the warm Southern sunshine. 

At II o'clock we all assembled in the Social Hall to 
engage in a very pleasant devotional service, conducted 
by our beloved chaplain, Rev. Bennett Smedes, D. D., of 
Raleigh. In all the prayers, responses and hymns there 
seemed to prevail a spirit of peculiar inspiration, thankful- 
ness and earnestness, prompted by the realization that our 
tour liad been wholly without accident, sickness, trouble, 
or loss of any kind. 

After the services an informal meeting was called by the 
editor of The Teacher, to which all the party assembled, 
when he told them that dnring the short week which we 
had so pleasantly spent in Havana the wife of our esteemed 
Captain Hanlon had met a terrible death in a railway acci- 
dent at Tampa, and that the faithful engineer had been 
killed in a most painful manner while serving the electric 
dynamo on our steamer. The tenderest sympathies of our 
company were feelingly expressed for these afflicted fami- 
lies, and Judge John Gray Bynum added ver\' touching 
and appropriate remarks. A committee was aDpointed, 
comprising Judge J. G. Bynum, Rev. B. Smedes, D. D., 
Captain T. R. Robertson, Mr. L. D, Giddens and IMr. 
A. M. Fry, to prepare suitable resolutions of respect and 
sympathy, and the\' were prompt]}- forwarded to Captain 

"Uncle Sam" was ver}' kind to his returning children 
upon their, arrival at Port Tampa, and the ordeal of the 
Custom House was relieved of all its expected horrors b}' 
the exceedingly prompt, efficient and courteous manage- 
ment of the government officials at that point. Our bag- 
gage was quickly examined "with neatness and dispatch," 
and we were soon "on our way rejoicing." 



While the baggage was being examined the editor made 
satisfactory arrangements for the party to spend the night 
at the magnificent Tampa Bay Hotel, which is situated at 
Tampa, about nine miles from oiir landing port. This 
hotel is truly one of the most magnificent in the world, 
and it is so lovely and grand in all its appointments that 
it is impossible to even attempt to describe its beauties. It 
was our good fortune to arrive upon the "opening night" 
for the season ; in fact, it was our honor and privilege to 
open this famous hotel for the season of 1892, and trulv 
we did ample justice to that elegant "opening dinner." 

According to the itinerary of our tour we were due at 
home on the next day after leaving Tampa Bay Hotel, but 
as each member of the party yet had a small amount of 
unexpended funds, it was decided that we would enjov the 
rare sights of F'lorida for a few days, the famous land of 
alligators, orange groves and fine hotels. 

We set out from Tampa for a trip down Indian River, 
but unfortunately we were a day ahead of the little tri- 
weekly boat. But we did not suffer much by the mishap, 
for we spent the day at Enterprise, one of the most charm- 
ing winter resorts in Florida. The little village is on Lake 
Monroe, just opposite Sanford. It has a large, new and 
comfortable hotel, fine fishing and gunning, but best of all 
for us the hotel has a magnificent large grove of heavih- 
laden orange trees, all the privileges of which are entireh- 
free to its guests. 

"Orange-grove privileges" were never more appreciated 
or fully enjoyed than they were by our party, and we feel 
entirely safe in saying that our fifty people within twenty- 
four hours pulled from the trees and ate at least five thou- 
sand of those delicious oranges. It was impossible to find 
a girl who was not either sucking an orange or just pulling 
another from the tree, and many brought away branches 
of the trees bearino- the luscious fruit. 


While at Kiiterprise the party divided into two sections — 
one making a trip on the lovely Indian River, while the 
other section went to St. Augustine, where we were soon 
comfortabh' quartered in the elegant Alcazar Hotel, which 
is an annex of the celebrated Ponce de Leon Hotel. "The 
Ponce" was not to open for guests until several days after 
our departure from St. Augustine, hence the manager 
was deprived of the pleasure of our company as guests. 
We compromised the disappointment, however, by going 
through the gorgeous structure on a tour of inspection. 
Some idea of the matchless grandeur of the building and 
furniture may be formed from the knowledge of the fact 
that the hall clock cost thirty thousand dollars, and several 
centre-tables in the parlor cost over twelve thousand dollars 
each ! 

The winter guests are trying to pay for these expensive 
equipments by crowding the hotel to overflowing at a rate 
of board from ten to fifty dollars per day. But the season 
is very short, and even with .this large patronage and high 
prices the Ponce de Leon expends over one hundred thou- 
sand dollars every }'ear in excess of its receipts. 

St. Augustine is a charming tropical cii}', and the air 
was almost as warm and balmy as in Cuba. Several of our 
party, including Misses Fannie Burwell, Nellie Morrison, 
Mattie Fuller, Capt. T. R. Robertson and the editor of 
The Teacher, enjoyed a most delightful bath for an hour 
in the swimming-pool of the Alcazar Hotel in the open air 
on the morning of January 14th, and the water and air 
were as warm as we have it at Morehead City in July ! 

There are a great many interesting historical places and 
things among the Spanish remains at St. xlugustine. We 
took a carriage drive over the city and visited every place 
of importance, including a trip through tha dungeons of 
the "Old Fort" where prisoners were put to death some 
three hundred years ago, and where Geronimo and his cut- 


throat band of Indians slionld likewise have perished while 
they were temporarih' confined in the Fort a few years ago. 
Just after the part}' had boarded the train at St. Angus- 
tine en ro7iie for home, the company was called to "atten- 
tion" by Captain Robertson. Then, in a neat little speech, 
spoken with his usual eloquence and grace, he presented to 
the editor of The Teacher, in behalf of the memorable 
North Carolina Cuban party of 1S92, a fine silk umbrella, 
with handle of ivor}' and silver, appropriatel}' engraved, 
costing $25, as a reminder of the pleasure which each mem- 
ber of the part}- had derived- from the tour, and of their 
gratification at the perfection of all the arrangements of 
the trip. The editor returned thanks as best he could for 
this most pleasant surprise, — and he would not part with 
this proud sonvenir of the trip for five hundred dollars. 

On our homeward journe}- we again enjoyed many acts 
of kindness extended to us b}' the railroad officials, for 
which those gentlemen have our sincerest thanks. At 
Jacksonville, even during our short stop of one hour, we 
received special favors from Mr. W. H. Lucas, agent of the 
Richmond and Danville Railroad; Colonel Davidson, of the 
South Florida Railroad, and other officials, which added 
very greatly to our comfort and to the accommodation of 
delayed members of the party. Upon arriving in x\tlanta, 
by the favor of ]\Ir. James L. Taylor, General Passenger 
Agent of the Richmond and Danville Road, our tickets 
were made available for transportation on the "vestibule 
train," thus enabling us to reach our homes several hours 
earlier than by the regular trains. Such timely courtesies 
as these enter largely into the pleasant memories of a tour, 
and they were fully appreciated by our party. 

We reached our homes on January 15th, without acci- 
dent, loss or sickness, or trouble of any kind, perfectly 
delighted with our holiday trip to the West Indies, and 
already making a good beginning in forming a large party 
for the same trip next winter. 


Among the many pleasant recollections of the trip, we 
had the satisfaction of knowing that the "necessary ex- 
penses" of the tour had come within the appropriation of 
$75, and this is a very important matter with travellers. 
This amount was divided as follows: Ticket to Port Tampa 
and return, $26.40; to Havana and return, $28; board in 
Havana, $16; landing fees, $2; passports, 30 cents; visit to 
Morro Castle, $1; meals <?;/ roiite^ $\.^o\ total, $75. Sleep- 
ing-car berths are alwa}-s considered as extras in all parties 
of tourists, they being not a necessary part of the trans- 
portation but luxuries which are entirely optional with 
each traveller. The three days which we spent in Florida 
was also an extra expense, as this part of the trip was 
planned after we had left Havana on the homeward journey. 


The North Carolina Teachers' Assembly is considered 
by the educators of other States also to be the most suc- 
cessful and enterprising State organization of teachers in 
this country. The Secretary receives many letters from 
other States asking for copies of our constitution, with 
information as to our plan of work, and why it is that our 
meetings are the largest in the United States and have such 
gratifying effect upon the school legislation of North Caro- 
lina. One of the secrets of the unparalleled success of our 
Assembly is the fact that the teachei's and '•^ the people^'' 
come together in the meetings, thus bringing them into 
unity of effort in behalf of the schools of the vState. The 
plan upon which the Teachers' Assembly is organized is 
original and is entirely different from that of any other 
educational organization in the Union, and it has proven to 
be the best plan for best results. 


" Then let all who love us, love the land that we live in, 
I As happy a region as on this side of Heaven); 
Where plenty and freedom, love and peace smile before us, 
Raise aloud, raise together, the heart-thrilling chorus. 

Hurrah! hurrah! The Old North State forever! 

Hurrah! hurrah! The good Old North State! '' 


The poorest paid public servant in this great and rich 
country of ours is the teacher in the city free schools. The 
Superintendents, without a single exception within our 
knowledge, all receive large salaries for the ycar^ while the 
teacher is employed by the term of five to nine months, is 
paid by the month just sufficient to keep fed and clothed 
with moderate comfort, and yet for every legal or special 
holiday of one or more days a pro rata reduction is taken 
from the teacher's meagre salary ! This is absolutely wrong! 
No deductions from the Superintendent's salary is made for 
holidays or for several months of summer vacation, nor 
should there be any deduction ; no merchant deducts from 
his clerk's wages for every day of holiday or recreation; no 
reputable farmer deducts from the wages of his laborer for 
every rainy day (and the farm hand who receives $io or 
$12 a month and board for the year is better paid than the 
average teacher in the free schools) ; no church deducts 
from the pastor's salary when he has a vacation ; neither 
should there be a deduction from the teacher's salary for 
occasional holidays. The average teacher earns every dol- 
lar received from the public school fund, and also fulh' 
earns the few lesfal holidavs which occur during the school 


term, without being forced to pa\- for them from a salary so 
meagre tliat it will hardh- support life during the year. 
The teachers are not responsible for the occurrence of legal 
holidays, nor should the)' be compelled by school boards to 
suffer by reason of them. Teachers prefer to do their regu- 
lar work rather than be forced to take a rest and pay for it. 
The teachers are not employed by the day or paid by the 
day, nor should deductions b}' the day be made against their 
insignificant salary. The taxpa}-ers of North Carolina are 
not so unappreciative of the faithful work of the teachers 
in our free schools that they are not willing to^/:'<;' instead 
of sell them the legal holidays, and school committees need 
not think that they have the approval of the people of our 
State in making these picayunish deductions from the 
salaries of teachers whenever a day of rest is appointed by 
the State or nation. 

A FEW YE\RS AGO the craze in the Boston public schools 
was " teaching Geography " ; now it is "Ling's Gymnas- 
tics.'' Every craze has its day in Boston. 

At the opening exercises of your school in the morn- 
ings have all the children to rise at their places and salute 
the North Carolina State Flag draped over the platform, 
and sing one stanza of "The Old North State," "Ho, for 
Carolina," or "My Country, 'tis of Thee." 

One of the strongest evidences that North Carolina is 
making rapid educational progress is the fact that our teach- 
ers are keeping abreast with the spirit of the times by read- 
ing a great many professional books, while nearly all the 
regular teachers in the State are subscribers for The North 
Carolina Teacher. The teacher who is a liberal reader 
of professional books and journals cannot fail to attain 
success in the school-room. 


XoRTH Carolina has never had a more energetic and 
efficient Superintendent of Public Instruction than Hon. 
S. AI. Finger, the present incumbent. There has been 
more real educational progress under his administration 
than at an\' other period in the history of public schools. 
His well directed efforts now being made in behalf of a 
good educational exhibit at Chicago by North Carolina 
schools are certain to be rewarded b}- success. 

The annual report of the State Auditor gives the 
following interesting information as to taxes for public 
education: The total State taxes for schools is $712,489; 
number of white polls paying taxes, 153,486; Negro polls, 
60,832; school taxes paid by whites on property, $283,953; 
school taxes paid by Negroes on property, $8,735; total 
assessed valuation of property in the State, $216,872,374. 
According to this report it will be seen that the Negroes 
pay less than four per cent, of the property tax for schools, 
and less than one-third of the poll-taxes. The Constitu- 
tion provides that the whites and Negroes shall have equal 
school privileges and facilities. 

The February number of The Teacher was held for 
ten days in the Raleigh post-office, waiting for a ruling 
from the Department at Washington concerning a supple- 
ment. This country is in great need of a Postmaster 
General who will attend to the business of the office, and 
who will employ as assistants only persons who know or 
will learn something of the postal laws. The present 
Post-office Department at Washington has the rare faculty 
of renderincj such absurd and outraoeous rulimjs, wholh" 
unsustained by the law, that it may be verily considered 
the joke of the nineteenth centur\-. It is gratifying to see 
that the press of the country is exposing the iniquities, 
frauds and absurdities of Wanamaker, Hazen & Co., who 
have charge of the Post-office Department of the United 


The Teacher has about succeeded in getting our people 
rid of that foreign stigma "The New South" so far as 
North Carolina is concerned. The term is sometimes used 
here by some foreign capitalists who may have invested a 
few dollars in a mine or in "booming" town lots, but the 
native North Carolinian has repudiated the insult just as he 
has that other insult "The Rebellion," as applied by the 
same foreigners to the War for Southern Independence. 
May this rejection of a new and false name, "The New 
South," be hearty, unanimous and emphatic throughout 
all the South, that our children may continue to live in the 
glorious land in which their ancestors were born — The 
South. The term "New South" will soon be in such 
bad odor in North Carolina that a public speaker who uses 
it as a name for our country will be hissed by his audience. 
In fact, we have been informed that a certain teacher in 
North Carolina was recently hissed by his class when he 
attempted to name our country "The New South" ; the 
inherent love of our boys and girls for their country could 
not be thus insulted without prompt resistance. ]May such 
true patriotism ever control the people of The South ! 

The interesting annual report of Dr. George T. 
Winston, President of the University, shows that of one 
hundred and twenty-six new students received this term 
the private high schools and academies of the State sent 
ninety-six, while the high school departments of the public 
graded schools sent only nineteen. There are in North 
Carolina eleven city graded schools which have a high 
school department, and if only nineteen boys were prepared 
for the University by all of these public high schools, the 
question might properly be asked, "Does it pay to try to 
prepare boys for college at public expense in the graded 
schools?" The facts in the case seem to justly warrant 
a most emphatic answer. No. A careful examination of 
results of the hio-h school work in the free schools shows 


that only about six per cent, of the number of children in 
the schools remain long enough to even reach the high 
grade, and of those who complete the course only about 
two per cent, ever go to college. Besides, the public high 
school cripples the fund which should pay reasonable sala- 
ries to teachers for thoroughly educating boys and girls in 
the English branches so that they may become good citi- 
zens and earn a living, and they destroy the private schools 
which hax^e been, are now, and always will be, the princi- 
pal feeders to the University and the colleges. We have 
no desire to disagree with any public or private educator in 
North Carolina, but we all must acknowledge that facts 
speak louder than theory or argument in this matter of high 
school education at public expense. Theories are pretty 
and sentimental, but facts are exceedingly stubborn things. 
Theories are as we would have things, while facts show 
what they are, and facts are not easily controverted by 
theories. Don't try to do it. The pages of The Teacher 
are open to full and free discussion of this interesting and 
important subject. 


Miss Mary P. Parker is teaching in Bertie County. 
Miss Lizzie Sherrod is teaching at Conoho, Martin County. 
Miss Hattie Dail has a fine school at Stella, in Carteret County. 
Miss Bettie Currie has a prosperous school in Rockingham County. 
Miss Gertrude Bagby, of Kinston, is teaching in Pamlico County. 
Mr. E. L. Fox is principal of Friendship Academy, Alamance County. 
Mr. F. a. Fetter has a good school of eighty-five pupils in Forsyth 

Mr. P. E. Johnson has a prosperous school at Rome, in Johnston 


Miss Cora S. Borden has a flourishing public school in Pender 
County, with thirty-seven pupils. 

Miss Meddie SteavarT has forty-four pupils enrolled in the ]\Iaxton 
School, of which she is principal. 

Mr. D. T. OaTES is principal of South River Baptist Institute, in 
vSampson County, and the school is prospering. 

Miss Sallie Garrett is in charge of the Department of Music aud 
x\rt in Friendship Academy in Alamance County. 

Mr. J. W. Kennedy is principal and Miss Olive Lyda is assistant in 
the management of Pigeon River Academy, Haywood County. 

]\Iiss Minnie L,. Smith, a member of the Teachers' Assembly, has a 
fine school of fifty-one pupils at Green Springs, vSouth Carolina. 

Miss LULA Jones has an enrollment of sixty-four pupils in Cary 
Academy, of which she is principal. Miss Ada Owen is assistant. 

Miss Ai,iCE Fai,i,s is one of the enterprising teachers of Gaston 
County. »She has a public school of thirty-eight scholars at Pisgah 

Mr. Hugh A. Priest is preparing to take a school in Richmond 
Count}-. As the first important step thereto he subscribes for The 

Mr. T. J. Shaw has a fine school in Swain County with uinety-four 
pupils enrolled. He writes that he finds " a great deal of help in The 

Mr. W. L. Brewer has a progressive and interesting school of sixty- 
four pupils in Alleghany County; and he writes that "The Teacher is 
a splendid magazine for teachers, and I cannot do without it." Thanks, 
friend Brewer. 

The young ladies and teachers of Kinsey Seminary, LaGrauge, 
visited the New Bern Fair in a bod}', on Februrary 22, and charmed the 
people of eastern Carolina. The institution had a very fine exhibit in 
the Art Department of the Fair. 

Mrs. W. H. Speight is in charge of PVemont Academy, which is con- 
ducted under the auspices of the New Bern District of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. Her daughters, Misses Alma and Daisj^, are assist- 
ants in the school. One hundred and fifty pupils are enrolled, 

Mr. J. A. Stewart is now teaching in Wake County, and he writes. 
"We are getting on nicely, with ninety-nine pupils enrolled. Next 
week our enrollment will go over one hundred. We have a very inter- 
esting class in North Carolina History. Glad to see The Teacher 


The Davidson College Young Men's Christian Association held 
a brilliant reception in their new hall February i to introduce the public 
to their parlor and reading-room, which have just been handsomel}' 
carpeted and furnished with elegant sets of furniture in cherry and 
antique oak. The carpet, stove and furniture of the reading-room, 
costing nearly one hundred dollars, were presented b_v Messrs. H. Baruch, 
Andrews, and Bros. Kaufman and Davis, of Charlotte, and the parlor 
completely furnished at an expense of figo by Dr. and Mrs. J. B. 
Shearer, of Davidson College. 

Buncombe County is not to be outdone in her educational work. 
The Quarterly County Teschers' /Association held its third session of the 
current year at Asheville the last Saturday in February, with about 
seventy-live teachers present. Interesting addresses were made by 
Superintendent Claxton, of the city schools; Professor Arnold, of Ashe- 
ville Female College; President D. Iv. Ellis, of Fair View College; Miss 
Florence Stephenson, of Home Industrial School; Professor Walter 
Hurst, of Barnardsville, and others. County Superintendent Way is a 
live worker, and as President of the Association he serves very accept- 

The Executive Committee of the Western North Carolina Teachers' 
Association met at Asheville, February 26th, to decide upon tune and 
place of meeting for the Association. Several places were represented, 
but the decision of the committee was for Waynesville, N. C, and time 
selected was June 14th to i8th. .\ Programme Committee of four — Chair- 
man Starnes, ex officio; Secretar}- Hurst, ex officio; Treasurer Ellis, 
ex officio ; Dr. R. H. Lewis — and Miss Florence Stephenson, were named 
to arrange work for the Association. Great enthusiasm prevails among 
the teachers, and there is every prospect of a fine attendance in June. 
One attraction of the Association will be the presence of Rev. Thomas 
Dixon, who will make a special lecture before the Association. 


The books and slates now put away, 

And let us laugh a little while ; 
For those who work there should be play, 

The leisure moments to beguile. 

Pupil (in class in punctuation, reading) — I saw Lily a charming girl. 
Teacher — Well, what would you do? Pupil — Make a dash after Lil}'. 
Teacher — Right. 

''Robert, you may give the name of some wild flower," said the 
teacher in botany. Robert thought awhile and then said: "Well, I 
reckon Injun meal comes about as near being wild flour as anything I 
know of." 


Guest — So vou are hard at work stud3ing French ? What is the object 
of that ? Waiter — I ' ve been offered a steady job at big pay over in Paris 
if I learn. Guest — Humph! There are plenty of French waiters in 
Paris. Waiter — Y-e-s, but j^ou see they can't understand French as 
Americans speak it. 

Visitor — When I passed your daughter's door, coming down, she 
stood before the glass making horrible grimaces. I'm afraid she isn't 
well. Matron — Did she have a book in her hand? Visitor — Yes, I 
think she had. Matron — She is all right; that was the Delsartean 
method of looking pleasant. 

A YOUNG iiiNisTER, unexpectedly called upon to address a Sunday- 
school, asked, to gain time, "Children, what shall I speak about?" A 
little girl on the front seat from the public school, who had herself com- 
mitted to memory several declamations, held up her hand and in a shrill 
voice'inquired, " What do you know? " 

The TE.\cher had been giving a class of youngsters some ideas of 
adages and how to make them, and to test her training she put a few 
questions. "What is an idle brain?" was one. "The devil's work- 
shop," was'the prompt response. Then there were several more till this 
one came: "Birds of a feather do what? " "Lay eggs," piped a small 
bov before'anybody else had a chance to speak." 


'■ Death hath made no breach 
In love and sympathy, in hope and trnst. 
Xo outward sign or sound our ears can reach, 
But there's an inward, spiritual speech 
That greets us still, though mortal tongues be dust. 
It bids us do the work that they laid down- 
Take up the song where the\- broke off the strain ; 
So, journej'ing till we reach the heavenh' town, 
Where are laid up our treasure and our crown, 
And our lost loved ones will be found again." 

Miss NETTIE Marshall, a teacher in the Institution for the Deaf 
and Dumb at Raleigh, died, after a brief illness, on March 11, 1892, in 
the fortieth year of her age. She was a member of the Teachers' 
Assembly since its organization, and was acknowledged one of the best 
teachers in the South. She was a sister of Rev. M. M. Marshall, D. D., 
of Raleigh. 


Vol. IX. 




No. 8. 







You must get a "broad, gray Hue," 

And be sure of the "free arm movement." 
"Do, me, sol," of course "on time," 

x-lnd the "sewing" needs improvement. 

The " Ling System " is introduced. 
And "SloydWork" is cited, 
" Compositions " oft produced, 
' ' Language Work ' ' not slighted. 

Of "Supplementary Reading, " many lays,^ 
"Thought Problems" you must hoard. 
"i\round the World in Eighty Days," 
And go on the "molding board." 

"History" with "Old Colonial Times," 

And "Boys of '76." 
"Word Lessons," just so many times. 
"Monthly Reports" to fix. 

"Test Papers" face you by the score. 
"General Lessons" every day. 
More, and more, and more, and more. 
What^ think yoii^ should be the pay ? 

— American Teacher, 

]Vortl\ (;;arolii\a T^a(;l\^r5 Abroad 



Cngland, Scotland, Ii^eland and Finance. 


Our Last Day in Paris— Extra Tours Arranged— A Rough Night 
ON THE Channel — Resting in London— The Grand Military 
Review— The Flying American Train— Ancestral Home of 
Washington— The Land of Shakespeare— A Railroad Won- 
der — Again in Glasgow. 

ELL, young ladies," 
said the Secretary next 
morning as we assembled 
in thedining-room, "our 
charming tour is now 
practically ended, and 
we are about to turn 
our faces again towards 
home. Whatever else there is in Paris that you desire to 
see must be seen to-day, as we leave at 5 o'clock on our 
return to London. I advise you, however, to take as much 
rest to-day as possible, for the weather indicates that we are 
likely to have a rough night on the Channel." 

"All right, Major," laughingly replied one of the girls, 
"we don't mind the Channel, and we haven't time to rest, 
so we will finish 'doing' this wonderful city to-da}', and 
be ready to leave at 5 o'clock." 


And all spent the day as the)' were most inclined, some 
shopping, others revisiting the art galleries, bnt most of 
them simply strolling about the boulevards and public 
parks watching the ever-changing and interesting mass of 

As several members of the party desired to remain longer 
in Europe, visiting Italy and the far south, Germany and 
Switzerland, much of the day was occupied in making up 
these sections and arranging tickets for the tours. There 
was very little trouble, however, in securing satisfactory 
rates and accommodations, for the valuable assistance of 
our tourist friends, Messrs, Gaze & Sons, soon planned just 
the very trips that were desired. 

In the afternoon, when these small parties began to leave 
upon their tours, we felt the first pangs of separation and the 
sadness of the "good-byes" which were soon to be spoken 
to all these dear friends whom a month's pleasant journev- 
ing together had united almost as a great family of natural 
brothers and sisters. 

The remainder of our party, sixty-four persons, left 
Paris at 5 o'clock p. m., August 5th, for Dieppe, with our 
faces turned towards home. 

It matters not how pleasant may be a tour in a foreign 
land, nor how long or short may be the absence, when the 
trip is ended and the time for returning home is at hand 
there is as much joy in turning towards our home land as 
there was in setting out upon the journey. After many 
days of sojourn in a strange land and contact with those 
only who are strangers to us, how the heart vearns to be 
again with those whom we know and love. 

It was a rough night on the Channel. The wind had 
been blowing a brisk gale all day, and it had worked up a 
very characteristic "choppy sea," which was sufficient to 
satisfy the most exacting of those who desired to see a 
"rouo-h Channel." 


There was a great crowd of visitors leaving Paris, and the 
little steamer was filled to its utmost capacity. Every part 
of the vessel was thronged with people merrily chatting and 
laughing over the memories of their experiences and pleas- 
ures of the gay French capital. 

We were hungr}', and there was a rush for supper, but 
the meal was scarcely finished before there was almost a 
simultaneous rush for the rail in order to get rid of it. The 
wind was shrieking maliciously, and the pleasant chatting 
had become vainly suppressed groaning. 

There were man}' nationalities represented on board, and 
it was amusing to listen to the various comments upon the 
condition of things. The Englishman, between his par- 
oxysms, called it "a nasty sea;" the Frenchman gritted 
his teeth and mumbled ' '•Parbleii ! ' ' the German endeavored 
to ease his agony by frequently expressing his opinion, 
"Mein Gott, I will die!" while the American party almost 
unanimously agreed that when they again reached the land 
nothing should induce them to leave it, even to cross the 
ocean in order to get home. The Secretary feared that the 
whole party would remain in England, and in his moments 
of saneness, between the throes of sea-sick anguish, he had 
fully decided to remain with them. 

We all succeeded, however, by some unaccountable means 
in living through that awful night, and entered the port of 
New Haven just about sunrise. So sudden was the change 
from the violent pitching of the sea to the placid water of 
the harbor that we did not have time to finish our sea-sick- 
ness before landing, although the malady had nearly fin- 
ished us. 

In our forlorn condition of body and mind, even the cus- 
tom house had no terrors for us, and our struggle with the 
English tariff ceremonies became wholly a mechanical trans- 
action in which we could scarcely appreciate the dignity of 
our position as parts of the machine. Our whole object in 


life at that time seemed to be simply to get into the rail- 
way cars and go to sleep, and that cherished object was 
attained at the earliest possible moment. 

The railway guards thoughtfully woke us up when we 
entered Victoria Station in London. We were yet sea-sick, 
and were longing to reach our hotel. The Secretary had 
telegraphed our departure from Paris in order that the pro- 
prietor of the Manchester Hotel should have rooms ready 
for the party. Upon our arrival we found everything pre- 
pared for us, and within an hour every person was in bed 
and asleep, having previoush' given orders that we were not 
to be called until dinner, at 6 o'clock p. m. 

The order was carefully obeyed, and for nine hours we 
slept the sleep of the weary. Some of the party did not 
put in an appearance until the breakfast hour next morn- 

All of London was greatly excited in consequence of a 
magnificent review of the English troops by the Emperor 
of Germany at Aldershott the following day, the 7th of 
August. The ceremonies were to conclude bv a thrillingf 
sham battle, in which the infantry, cavalry and artillery 
should be engag^ed. Of course the oreneral excitement 
likewise affected the North Carolina party, and therefore 
as soon after breakfast as possible we joined the vast throng 
of people and set out for Aldershott. 

Our government continues in such a chronic state of 
peace that a large standing army is not at all necessary, 
and it is a rare thing to see an imposing military review in 
our country, but to witness such a magnificent and dash- 
ing array and movement of soldiers as it was our privilege 
to see at Aldershott on that day, is an event which 
occurs but once in a lifetime. The occasion was the grand 
review of the English army by William II, Emperor of 


The weather was exceedingly pleasant (for England), and 
at an early honr thousands of people were moving towards 
the vast parade ground at Aldershott, about six miles dis- 
tant from London. The main feature of the day was the 
brilliant sham battle by two armies of fifteen thousand sol- 
diers each. 

The Northern Army, commanded by General Sir D. C. 
Drury Lowe, w^as supposed to be defending the city of 
London from an invasion by a southern army under Major 
General Williams, which had landed on the south coast. 
The two armies included, besides the infantry, four thou- 
sand six hundred horses and ninety-three guns. The 
movements began about 8 o'clock, and as the various 
brigades took their positions among the hills and the plains 
the marching was a sight so beautiful that it will never be 

In the rear of the infantry were the cavalr}- and artillery, 
and a battery was posted far to the rear to defend in a flank 

While the opposing armies were manoeuvering the dis- 
tinguished reviewing officers took their position on a hill 
to the eastward of the battlefield. Many of our party were 
close enough to recognize the Emperor and various mem- 
bers of his escort. 

The Emperor of Germany was specially accompanied by 
the Duke of Cambridge, wdio is at the head of the English 
Military Affairs, and standing near were Lord Wolseley, 
Sir Evelyn Wood, Sir Redvers Buller and General Hannon. 
On the left of the Emperor were Prince Albert Victor of 
Wales and Prince Henry of Prussia, and the royal occasion 
was also graced by the Princess of Wales and her two lovely 
daughters, Victoria and Maud. 

The fight was commenced by the southern x'Vrmy, and 
the opposing scouts were at once thrown out. 


It was soon seen that General Williams had the advan- 
tage of position, and he made several flank movements 
which were simply superb. The battle was a hot one, the 
gallant charges of cavalry, the fierce blazing of the field 
batteries, and the brilliant stands of the infantry formed a 
martial panorama which thrilled every heart in that vast 
concourse of near two hundred thousand spectators. 

Victory rested on the banners of the invading army, and 
after three hours of battle the defenders began a retreat, it 
having been outflanked and its centre broken. One of the 
most interesting features of the engagement was the con- 
struction within half an hour of a bridge by General 
Lowe's Engineer Corps to pro\'ide for his retreat across a 
small stream of water. 

x\bout 2 o'clock the smoke of battle had cleared away, 
and the two armies were soon in position for the grand 
review. This beautiful spectacle continued about two 
hours, and the splendid marching did not indicate any 
fatigue from the battle of the morning. Each body of 
troops, infantry, cavalry and artillery, marched past the 
reviewing ground with the precision of machinery, and the 
Emperor seemed to enjoy the sight as much as any mem- 
ber of our party who had never before seen anything so 
grand and imposing. 

.We reached our hotel just in time for the 6 o'clock 
dinner, thoroughly prepared to enjoy it, even though we 
were then full of martial enthusiasm and inspiration. It 
is a well known fact that tourists are alwa}s tired and 
always hungry, and of course our party came within the 
universal rule. 

This being our last evening of sight-seeing in London, 
we wanted to make the best possible use of it. Therefore, 
as soon as the dinner was finished all the members of the 
party again set out for the various places of amusement 
and entertainment which abound in that ofreat citv. The 


immense stores, the gaily thronged parks and highways, the 
art exhibitions and the theatres were the principal objective 
points of visit, while the Secretary called upon the railroad 
officials to arrange coaches for onr departure next day. 

It had been our desire and intention to visit Strat' 
ford-upon-Avon, the historic home of the world's greatest 
dramatist, and our regret may be imagined when we learned 
that all visitors to Stratford were obliged to remain there 
over night, and that it was impossible to visit the place 
upon any other conditions. As we were then in London 
on xVugust 7th, and our steamer sailed for New York from 
Glasgow at at 10 o'clock on the 9th, we were compelled 
to admit that our long desired visit to the home of Shake- 
speare seemed to be now exceedingly uncertain. 

The Secretary, however, determined that the trip should 
not be so easily given up, and after half an hour's consul- 
tation with the President of the London and North Western 
Railroad he had secured for our North Carolina party, by 
the courtesy of that most considerate and accommodating 
railway company, a special train of first-class cars and one 
of the best engines on the road. 

Our train was to leave London at 5 o'clock a. m., 
reach Stratford at 12:30 p. m., remaining there two hours, 
then run through to Glasgow by 8 o'clock p. m., a total 
distance of five hundred and thirty miles! Thus we w^re 
enabled to go from London to Glasgow, visiting Shake- 
speare's Home en route within a day, and- this had never 
been done by an}' other company of tourists. 

The party having been notified of the arrangement, we 
were all ready promptly at 5 o'clock next morning when 
the railway omnibuses called at the Manchester Hotel for 
us and our baggage. We were quickly seated in our rail- 
way coaches, and the train dashed out of the Station with 
the speed of the hurricane, while the guards looked after 
us in amazement at the enterprise of "that American 


Sixty, seventy and eighty miles an honr our train glided 
"over the metals," not making a single stop until we 
reached Blisvvorth, where we left the main line to take a 
branch road to Stratford, about fifty miles distant, while 
our special train ran up to Rugby Junction to await our 
return by a different route. 

In a few moments after leaving Blisvvorth we reached Mor- 
ton Pinkney, an insignificant station apparently, but pos- 
sessing a wonderful interest for us, it being near the ances- 
tral home of Washington, the grandfather of our GEORGE 
Washington, the first President of the United States. 

About three miles to the left of the Station, sitting upon 
a slight hill is the little village of Sulgrave, and just out- 
side the village, stands the ancient manor erected b}- 
Laurence Washington in 1650, still bearing over the main 
entrance the family coat-of-arms, the Shield and Stars and 
Stripes with his crest, a raven, above it. 

When the civil war began in England, the sons of Lau- 
rence Washington took the side of the King, and the second 
son, John, had the honor of knighthood conferred upon 
him in 1622 at Newmarket. When the tide of war turned 
and the Commonwealth governed England, this John Wash- 
ington and his brother Laurence deemed it more prudent 
to emigrate, and, therefore, in 1657 they landed on the 
free shores of America and settled at Bridges' creek, in Vir- 
ginia. A century later, in the war of the Revolution, 
George, the grandson of that Sir John, was a colonel serv- 
ing under General Braddock, and he soon became General 
Washington in command of the American army, and after- 
wards was inaugurated the first President of the United 

The coat-of-arms which his ancestors brought to Virginia 
with them from the old homestead at Sulgrave, became, 
with slight alterations, the famous "Stars and Stripes" of 
the first American Republic, and their crest, the raven, was 


changed into that renowned bird of liberty, the "Spread- 
eagle of the American Union." Of course we waved our 
American flag most vigorously and patriotically over this 
historic place of such peculiar interest to us. 

We had but a very few moments for our thoughts to 
dwell upon the historic ancestry of the great Washington, 
for our train quickly pulled up at the station of Stratford, 
and then followed a rush for the little village. 

What emotions crowd the breast as one beholds for the 
first time the house in which Shakespeare was born. One 
feels the presence of the divine power which from this 
humble spot gave humanity its greatest genius. 

The house stands now as it was then. The exterior is 
strikingly familiar to all lovers of the poet. The solid 
framework of beams, girders and posts is painted black and 
shows through the plaster stucco which forms the outer 
covering in place of weatherboarding. It is a very old 
style, but still to be seen in many of the old English towns. 

You can distinguish the house a good distance off The 
black and gray striped appearance of the front and the 
peculiar gable-shaped windows mark it at once. Instinct- 
ively you stop and gaze upon it with rare and strange emo- 
tions, felt perhaps nowhere else upon earth. Reverence, 
pride, wonder, human S3anpathy are blended with a sense 
of weakness and of power that are called forth by contem- 
plating the works of God in nature. When we stand for 
the first time in Henley street, opposite to the birth-place 
of Shakespeare, one feels somewhat as he does when he 
beholds for the first time the mountains, or the ocean, or 

The place belongs to the town of Stratford, and it is 
guarded with loving pride and reverence. An elderly lady 
(now dead) was in charge as we entered. She had been there 
over a quarter of a century, and her face was now a part of 
the place. She had seen there, and escorted around, nearly all 


the great inen of the world of this generation. She kindly 
ushered us in, and our part}' spread over the house, looking 
at the various mementoes. Here was a case containing 
many specimens of Shakespeare's handwriting and his seal. 
The chirography was simply illegible. As Mark Twain 
has said of the handwriting of Christopher Columbus, "x\ 
six-year-old boy in the schools could do better." 

A library in the building contains all books ever written 
about Shakespeare, and various editions of his works. 
There are many Shakespearean portraits and a ver}- full set 
of engravings. 

The most interesting spot in the house is the room where 
he was born, containing the furniture that belongs to the 
family. The room is large, but ver\' plain. The plaster 
is very old and stained and cracked. It would fall down, 
but it is supported by iron strips. In this room cried and 
squalled and smiled and shook its tiny fist the infant Shake- 
speare. Ivittle did his humble mother dream that she had 
given the world its greatest poet, philosopher and moralist. 
Everyone stood silent and speechless in this sacred place. 
The purest and deepest emotions were evoked in our hearts, 
and we felt almost as if we had received personal knowl- 
edge of Shakespeare. Several of the young ladies had 
cause to use their handkerchiefs, and the Professor was 
profoundly affected. We all registered our names along 
with those of Scott, Dickens, Irving, Queen Victoria, Bis- 
mark, the Czar of Russia and thousands of others who had 
stood in this spot and felt the same strange and elevating 

About a mile from Stratford is Anne Hathaway's Cottage, 
a perfect specimen of the plainer farm cottage of Shake- 
speare's da}'. The roof is straw-thatched; the fireplace is 
very broad and there are seats inside the fireplace on either 
side of the logs of wood, where sat the person who attended 
to the roastinof of the mutton or beef There doubtless 


sat Shakespeare with the hot blood of youth firing his 
imagination and painting Miss Anne as a fairy. The buxom 
woman wound the boy about her fingers, and the greatest 
genius on earth was led captive by his passion and the ph)s- 
ical charms of a plain country woman. 

"The thoughts that you cannot tie with hoops of steel, a 
girl's hair lightly binds." Crowds of people go constantly 
to this cottage and pluck a flower or a blade of grass from 
the yard, or drink of the spring and sit upon the oak bench 
in the fireplace. How intensely does humanity long for 
the human. How unable are we to free ourselves from the 
power of personality. God himself recognized this weak- 
ness in mankind and sent down His revealed truth in the 
person of a human creature like ourselves. 

What a story would be written could we know Shake- 
speare's full career! What a story of passion, of heart- 
ache, of developing power, of humanity. It would be in 
one sense the life of man — a weak, puling baby; a wild, 
wayward bo}-; a hot-blooded youth, wedded to a woman 
several \ears older; a father, a runaway from home, a for- 
tune-seeker in London, a menial, an actor, a playwright, 
a man of society, a friend of princes and lords, a mirror 
and glass of nature and humanity, a Shakespeare. He 
returned to Stratford, built a magnificent residence called 
"New Place," and was the social magnate of his native 
place. The city has erected memorial buildings in his 
honor — a theatre, librar}- and picture gallery. They are 
rich with priceless relics. 

The Cathedral contains his tomb, and here lie all that 
is left of this immortal genius. He is buried under the 
floor back of the chancel railing. Over the tomb is the 
following inscription, said to have been written by Shake- 
speare himself : 

" Good Friend for Jesus sake forbeare 

To Digg the Dust encloased heare 

Blest be Ye man Yt spares thes stoues 

And Curst be He Yt moves my bones." 


Attempts have been made to open the grave and move 
his bones, but his curse is still potent, and the reverence 
of the English people guards sacredly this spot. He needs 
no Westminster x-lbbey. Let the winding Avon enfold 
him in its embrace till all are called at the judgment day. 

The vSecretary, by much persuasion and bribery of the 
janitor of the church, was permitted to cover this famous 
inscription with printing ink and take an impression on 
paper as a rare and valuable souvenir of the visit of this 
famous party of North Carolinians to the grave of Shake- 
speare. The exact impression of this celebrated epitaph, 
printed direct from the grave-stone, is now framed and 
hung; in the North Carolina Teachers' Assemblv Building^ 
at Morehead City, the most valuable of all the decorations 
in that building. 

Ours was truly "a flying trip" to Stratford, but we are 
sure that few persons have ever seen more of that interest- 
ing locality, however long may have been their visit. 

x^t Rugby Junction we again boarded our own special 
train at 3 o'clock p. M. We were then three hundred 
miles from Glasgow, and were due there at 8 o'clock. 
The Secretary asked the engineer, a noble specimen of 
humanity, if he could make the trip within schedule time. 
"Oh, yes," he replied, smiling, "we have but one stop 
for coal and water, and \ye will make the run at fifty to 
eighty miles an hour, according to the grade of the road," 

No " Flying Dutchman" or " Flying Scotchman" ever 
approached the velocity of that train. We overtook num- 
bers of fast trains which were side-tracked for us to pass. 
We were compelled to close the windows, for the speed 
almost took away our breath. The road-bed was so level 
that there was but little rocking to the train, scarcely as 
much as there is with a train in x\merica running at forty 
miles an hour. 

We were moving so fast that we could hardly see the 
people who looked at our train in wonder from the doors 


and windows of their houses as we dashed past them. A 
shrill whistle of the engine told us when we were rushing 
through a town or city, and that was all we knew of them. 
Bridges, trestles, roads, forests, towns, rivers, mountains 
and lakes were approached and passed in the twinkling of 
an eye. 

At 8 o'clock precisely our train stopped at the Cen- 
tral Station in Glasgow, and as we stepped from the cars a 
railway official informed us that "no such a run has ever 
before been made by a train in Great Britain." 

We were soon comfortably roomed in the two large 
hotels, St. James and St. George, situated around St. 
George's Square in Glasgow. It was our last night to be 
spent in the " Old World," and the visions of our slum- 
bers brought to us that night many pleasant scenes and 
incidents of the memorable tour, and there w^as regret that 
the journey was ending. But happy dreams of "Home, 
Sweet Home," also came to us as we slept, with sweet con- 
solations of hope and affection, and our hearts longed " to 
ereet vou all once more." 

[For The North Carolina Teacher.] 



The country is, in some respects, a better place for a 
school than the city. 

If we will only look for a few moments into the crowded 
city with its stifling atmosphere, thronged streets and 
unhealthy localities, and then out into the country at its 
quietude, its shady groves and forests, and its ever-pure and 
invigorating air, we will be fully convinced, without further 


argument, which place would be the better to send the 
youth of our land to be educated. 

One of the first reasons for saying the country is better is 
health. Someone may say we are not speaking of health, 
it is education; but wdiat would an education be worth to 
us if we had no health? 

Go for a few moments into one of the hospitals of New 
York and there view suffering humanity for a short time, 
and I am confident that we would never again fail to be 
thoughtful of our health. We might have the wealth of 
Vanderbilt or the wisdom of Solomon, and without health 
it could be of but little pleasure or benefit to us. 

The law of nature requires that v.^e should have two 
thousand feet of fresh and pure air every hour, but we 
know that it would be almost impossible to obtain that 
quantity in a large city with its crowded houses, filthy 
streets and gutters. 

So we must resort to the country with its broad acres of 
land which are standing uninhabited, with nothing to make 
the atmosphere foul and impure. 

Second, the temptations are more numerous and much 
greater in the city than they are in the country. 

When we are passing through the streets of some city, 
what is it we see oftener than large bar-rooms with pool 
and billiard tables inviting the young men as they pass that 
way to come in and spend their money for strong drinks, 
and their afternoons in gambling, which is to-day a curse 
to thousands of young men of our country, w^ho otherwise 
would be noble young men. 

The ball-rooms, theatres and opera-houses are not much 
less numerous than the bar-rooms, inviting both sexes to 
come in and waste their time and means, thowing them 
away, doing themselves and others no service whatever. 
Who would wish to send boys and girls to such places as 
that to meet all those temptations, which so few would be 
able to resist? I dare say, none. 


The older and wiser people would much prefer sending 
their children to the country, where they can spend their 
leisure hours in rambling through forests, admiring the 
beauties of nature and plucking the beautiful flowers with 
which God has clothed this great universe, that they may 
cheer and brighten the paths of His creatures as they 
wander to and fro over this earth. And I am sure no one 
would appreciate them more than a school-girl. 

Here in the country we find no such temptations to tempt 
the young as we do in the cities. 

Third, there are less attractions in the country. In the 
city there is always something to attract the attention of 
the student from his books. 

Out in the country we find none such; but there they can 
have outdoor games for amusement and recreation when 

Fourth, it is less expensive. I don't think I would be 
speaking falsely, if I were to say that we could attend 
school twenty months in the country for the same amount 
it would require for ten months in the city, and learn just 
as much at one place as the other. Is this, too, not a great 
advantage, especially to the poorer classes, as it enables 
them to obtain an education when they could never do so 

Numbers of boys and girls are now in school preparing 
themselves for usefulness in life, and if they were not in 
the country they could never do it. 

We know by experience that the country is decidedly a 
better place for a school than a city. If it had not been, 
why would our forefathers have selected farms and places in 
the country to found the institutions of Trinity, Davidson, 
Wake Forest, the University and other colleges? 

We cannot doubt but that it was for the best; if it had 
not been, they would never have been half so successful as 
they have. They were wise men. They knew what was 
best for the young people of our country. 


Some may argue that children learn so much more by 
observation when they are in the city; but I think it* just 
as necessary to learn something about that which God has 
created and placed here in this world as it is to learn so 
very much about human inventions, style and fashion, for 
there are plenty of children living in towns and cities who 
have never seen so small a thing as a duck or guinea. 

Would they not be surprised if they were permitted to 
see the animals roaming through the open country? 

Plant schools in the country; send the boys and girls 
where they will be free from so many temptations; send 
them where they wall find health, peace and pleasure. 


Don't find fault with the work of your predecessor. He 
may not have done so well as you, or as you expect to do, 
but you will add no strength to the character of your work 
by finding fault with his. 

If your work is better, your pupils and the public will 
soon appreciate the fact and give you all due credit and 
possibly more than due praise; and how much more grati- 
fying it will be to have it come because it is deserved! 

It is, of course, possible to criticise your predecessor's 
work and show the blunders he made, but is it generous? 
Do you strengthen your own character by seeking for flaws 
in the character of others? If so, yours must be one that 
greatly needs strengthening. It is only the smallest that 
need to stand on the prostrate bodies of others, that they 
may make themselves visible to the world at large. — Edu- 
cational News. 



Don't think that a cigarette smoker is likely to be em- 
ployed as clerk or book-keeper by a careful business man. 

Don't think that every girl who smiles at you is in love 
with you. 

Don't take liberties with sisters of other young men that 
you would not be willing to see those men take with your 

Don't make the meetings of the Young Men's Christian 
Association an excuse for going away from home every 

Don't ask every girl you meet for her photograph or a 
lock of her hair. To comply with similar requests from 
other young men would be, the one very expensive and 
the other very inconvenient to her. 

Don't try to make people believe that you " know it all," 
simply because you have been to college, for sensible per- 
sons are not to be caught that way, and they well know 
that colleges cannot supply a deficient brain. 

Don't be ashamed to be seen engaged in any honest 

Don't spend even a single dollar in amusement or for 
entertainment if you are in debt to any person, because the 
dollar does not belong to you. 

Don't think you will have the respect of persons who 
hear }'ou speak flippantly of your father, your mother, or 
of any other lady. 

Don't think that you can live with less work in any other 
State than in North Carolina. All the poor men who have 
tried to live without work starved to death just as they 
thought they had learned the art. 

Don't loaf, don't chew tobacco, don't smoke, don't drink 
intoxicating liquors as a beverage, and don't be a religious 



A teacher should be at the school-house early every day 
for the following, among many reasons adduced: 

1. To set ail example. — As the teacher, so will the pupil 
learn to be. 

2. To pyei>ent damage. — Children arriving at the school- 
room early get to playing in and about the room, and very 
frequently do unintentional damage. 

3. To see that all is right. — There are many little things 
to be " put to rights ' ' or arranged before school opens. Fires 
and ventilation must be looked after early in the day. 

4. To secia^e ventilatioii. — The house, shut up from the 
time the school closed the day before, is unhealthy, and 
should be opened and fully aired in season to be warmed 
and closed at school time. 

5. To greet pupils. — :Children kindly and cordially 
greeted on arriving at the school-house are far less inclined 
to torment the teacher through the day. 

6. To administer discipline. — A kind greeting and a kind 
word of discipline spoken to one who has been careless or 
misbehaved the day before, when he can thus be approached 
alone, is far more effectual than detention at night or pun- 
ishment in the presence of the school. 

7. To help those needing assistance. — During the school 
but little personal assistance can be given. If an indus- 
trious pupil thinks that he can be helped in some difficult 
point if at the school-house before school time, he will 
appreciate and avail himself of the opportunity. 

8. To zvin the love of the pupils. — Kind greeting, kind 
words and kind assistance will win the love of the pupils, 
whether they are themselves the recipients or see it given 
to others. — School Bulletin. 



[We think our readers will be interested in this letter 
from a little Cuban girl. She is only thirteen years old, 
is a native of the island and has learned the American lan- 
guage by hard study. The letter is well written and punc- 
tuated, and w^e think that it is also well expressed. We 
hope that Pura may enter some excellent North Carolina 
school as a pupil. — Editor.] 

Havana, Cuba, March 15th, 1892. 
yiR. Eugene G. Harreul, Raleigh^ N. C. 

Dear Sir: — I have not forgotten my promise to write a 
letter for your Teacher, but I have been so busy with my 
school w^ork and our church attentions all this month, and 
besides I am so much afraid of writing in a foreign lan- 
ouaoe which I am learning now and know but little. And 
also my father has been out in February last on trip to New 
York and back to Cuba, and I wished him to see my letter 
and correct it. He arrived here in the last week of past 
month and he brought to me many nice things from that 
great city. 

Our mission work is growing every day in number of 
members and in spirit. I am sorry that you and the teach- 
ers' party did not visit us. My father is the pastor and we 
hold meetings every Sunday at 12 o'clock and at 7:30 p. m. 
Our church is called "Pilar Baptist Church," and is situ- 
ated in the Pilar, a district of this city at three miles dis- 
tant from Mr. Diaz's church. We are 207 members and 
the Sunday-school has near 200 children and five children. 
We have also a day mission school where boys and girls 
are taught reading, writing, Bible, grammar, arithmetic, 
geography, drawing, singing and others; it is a very inter- 
esting school, as every visitor says. My father is the 
director and my mother is a teacher, as well as Miss Gutier- 


rez and myself for the little ones learning to read. Mr. 
Ecay is another teacher for boys. This day school num- 
bers 160 boys and girls. Why did you not visit it? It is 
a free school and my father has established it to form Chris- 
tian people for the future, as he says. 

I have received your nice paper, The North Carolina 
Teacher. Many thanks for it. I have read the article 
on Cuba and I think they have exaggerated to you our cus- 
toms: the time for meals is according with the house you 
are at; we at home here breakfast at 9 in the morning and 
dinner at 4 p. m., and in this way many of the things men- 
tioned in that article. 

Well, my friend, I know that 30U liked our island and 
I hope to see you again in it. Let me salute from this 
paper every one of the teachers of your party as well as 
every one of the girls of "Peace Institute," and every per- 
son who cares there for this Cuban work. 

My father and mother send kind regards. 
Truly your friend, 

Pura J. Cova. 


Mr. John W^ Kirk, the white-haired veteran, who was 
with Morse when the first working telegraph line was 
stretched, and who stood beside the great inventor when 
the first message was transmitted from Annapolis Junction 
to Washington, has made, during his life, a great many 
interesting calculations in numbers. The two most remark- 
able numbers in the world are 3 and 7. 

"The numeral 7," says Mr. Kirk, "the Arabians got 
from India, and all following have taken it from the Ara- 
bians. It is conspicuous in Biblical lore, being mentioned 


over 300 times in the Scriptures, either alone or com- 
pounded with other words. It seems a favorite numeral 
with the divine mind, outside as well as inside the Bible, 
as nature demonstrates in many ways, and all other num- 
bers bow to it. There is also another divine favorite, the 
number 3 — the Trinity. This is brought out by a combina- 
tion of figures that is somewhat remarkable. It is the six 
figures 142,857. 

"Multiply this by 2, the answer is 285,714. 

"Multiply this by 3, the answer is 428,571. 

"Multiply this by 4, the answer is 571,428. 

"Multiply this by 5, the answer is 714,285. 

"Multiply this by 6, the answer is 857,142. 

" Each answer contains the same figures as the original 
sum and no others, and that three of the figures of the sum 
remain together in each answer, thus showing that figures 
preserve the Trinity. 

"Thus 285 appears in the first and second numbers, 
571 in the second and third, 428 in the third and fourth 
and 142 in the fourth and fifth. 

"It is also interesting to note that, taking out of any 
two of these sums the group of three common to both, the 
other three, read in the usual order from left to right, will 
also be in the same order in both sums. 

"Take the first and second sums, for example. The 
group 285 is common to both. Having read 285 out of 
the second sum, read right along and bring in the first 
figure of the thousands last. It will read 714. All the 
others will read in the same way. 

"Again, note that the two groups of threes in the first 
sum are the same as the two groups of threes in the fourth, 
reversed in order, and that the same thing is true of the 
second and third. The last multiplication has its groups 
of threes the same as those of the original number, reversed 


" Examine these results again, and you will see that in 
these calculations all the numerals have appeared save the 
9. Now multiply the original sum by the mighty 7 — the 
divine favorite of the Bible and of creation — and behold 
the answer! The last of the numerals, and that one only 
in groups of three — again the Trinity! 



"No other combination of numbers will produce the 

same results. Does not this show the imperial multipo- 

tent numeral 7 and its divinity?" — New York Sun. 


It would seem that with the hundreds of various societies 
which are working to secure the attention and support of 
the people, surely there is no possible room or demand for 
any other society. And of all these organizations North 
Carolina has a full share. 

There is great need, nevertheless, of another society. If 
we complied with a ridiculous custom of the times and 
should designate our proposed new society simply by its 
initials, they would be S. F. K. M. A. W. A. H. A. N. I. 
O. G. T. L. O. S. M. , which, being translated into pure 
American, would be "Society for keeping men and women 
at home at night instead of going to lodge or society 

It is customary, you know, to give a name to a society 
which is so long that nobody will ever take time to 
announce it, but use initials only, as " Y. M. C. A.," "W. 
C. T. U.," "N. E. A.," "S. P. K. C," " S. P. C. A.," 
and so on, ad diso-nstiiDi. 


But the new society for which there is so great need 
would not be known by the eighteen initials as above, but 
would simply be called the " Home Society." Its princi- 
pal objects would be to provide entertainment for young 
people at home, so as to prevent this promiscuous " run- 
ning out at night"; to introduce socially our boys and 
girls to one another, so that they would find pleasure in 
one another's company in the evening gatherings at private 
houses wdiere the brothers, sisters, and all members of the 
families could find entertainment. 

The Teacher cannot look with much fa\'or upon any 
society or organization, Christian or secular, which habit- 
ually draws our young men away from home and the family 
circle, and takes them "down the street" at night. This 
constant attendance upon night meetings is the prominent 
feature of weakness in the " Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation." This Association has done and is doing a valu- 
able work with homeless boys in large cities, but, in our 
judgment, there are few night meetings that can be of near 
so much benefit to a young man as an evening spent at 
home amid the refining influences of his own or some other 
pure and congenial family circle. 

The "gymnasium," the "singing meeting," or the 
" committee meeting" at the Young INIen's Christian Asso- 
ciation rooms has sometimes been the cause of a boy going 
astray b}' getting him into the habit of being frequently 
away from home and on the street at night. This fact 
proves that while an object and work may be good the 
results may be ver\' undesirable. All w^ork should be viewed 
from every possible standpoint. 

Let us, therefore, constitute ourselves and our boys and 
girls into a great brotherhood — the Stay-at-home-at-night 
Society, whose principles provide that after dark we will 
generally be found enjoying our own homes, or pleasantly 
visiting some other home equally as pleasant. 



Chewing gum tends to distort the face. It produces a 
sort of vacant stare or hungry expression, such as may be 
seen on the face of a child that has to wait for the second 
table. The gum-chewing habit will in a short time remove 
the fine lines from the best molded face. 

Have you ever noted the deformit}' in the face of a nail- 
biter? It is distinctly marked, and nearly the same in all 
cases. Defective sight, however, is probably the most pro- 
lific cause of distortion of the face. This defect is largely 
due to poor light in school-rooms and close application to 
study at night by gaslight. 

A little attention to these matters may save \ouy girl 
from growing up ugh'. 


For a good everyday household angel give us a woman 
who laughs. Her biscuit may not be alwa}'s just right, 
and she may occasionally burn. her bread and forget to 
replace dislocated buttons, but for solid comfort all day and 
every day she is a paragon. Home is not a battle-field, nor 
life one long, unending row. 

The trick of alw^ays seeing the bright side, or, if the 
matter has no bright side, of shining up the dark one, is a 
very important faculty, one of the things no woman should 
be without. 

We are not all born with the sunshine in our hearts, as 
the Irish prettily phrase it, but we can cultivate a cheerful 
sense of humor if we onh- trw — Rio-al Neu' Yorker. 



There is an old story of the advice of William Cullen 
Bryant once gave to a young man who offered him an arti- 
cle for The Evejimg Post^ which is so good that it will bear 
frequent repeating: 

'•My young friend, I observe that you used several French 
expressions in your article. I think, if you will study the 
English language that you will find it capable of express- 
ing all the ideas that you may have. Be simple, unaffected; 
be honest in your speaking and writing. Never use a long 
word when a short one will do. Call a spade not a well- 
know oblong instrument of manual industry; let a home 
be a home, not a residence; a place, not a locality, and so 
of the rest. When a short word will do, you always lose 
bv using^ a Ions: one." 


We would like to know what has been the observ^ation 
of principals and superintendents as to the results of the 
teaching of the effects of stimulants and narcotics as affect- 
ing the habits of the boys, especially the tobacco habit. 

Theoretically the law is all right, but when we see a boy 
who in the morning has been taught, scientifically, the 
evils resulting from the use of tobacco, stand upon the 
street corners and puff away vigorously at a cigarette, we 
confess to a doubt whether this department of physiology 
has any material influence over the boy's habits. 

The tobacco habit is doing the boys more injury than 
liquor, and the habit seems to be on the increase in spite 
of the teachings against its use. — Central School Journal. 



When you are read}- to teach addition, teach it as a sub- 
ject in and of itself. Do not mix it up with multiplication 
and division. Teach one thing at a time and do it well. 
Addition is the foundation of work in numbers, and good 
teaching here helps all the other work. IMake haste slowly; 
spend very little time in explaining that ten units of one 
order make one of the next higher. You can teach that 
principle to little children every day for a year and then 
they will not understand it, though they may repeat the 
words for you. When you are ready to begin carrying show 
the class how it is done, and let the explanation of the prin- 
ciple go to a future time. Make a sharp distinction between 
adding and counting. Counting is not addition and is the 
bane of addition work. The pupil who does not know 
instantly the sum of 6 and 8, does not add though he may 
be a perfect counter. Addition is knowing at once the 
sum of two numbers, and the sum is known because it has 
been well memorized. We do not reason sums, differences, 
products and quotients; we reason to determine whether we 
shall find a sum difference, product or quotient, and as soon 
as we have decided what to find the memory carries the 
work to the determined end. 

Do not forget that the 45 combinations are the founda- 
tion of all addition w^ork. They are made by adding one 
to each of the nine figures, two to each of the nine, three 
to each, and so on. Here are the 45 combinations. This 
first of 20 involves no carrying and are easily taught 
12324334 5 12312341234 

Here are the 25 that involve carrying. Teach them well. 
They are the root of difficulties in addition. Call the 
pupiPs attention to the fact that nine and seven always 
produce a 6, 7 and 5 a 2, 5 and 5 a o, and so on through 


the 25 combinations. The reason for this will be apparent 
when yon come to add colnmns. 

56789678967896897898989 8^9 
Seek accuracy first, then rapidity. A well taught class 
in its second year in school should give correctly these 45 
sums in at least 45 seconds. Be on your guard against 
counting. Teach only as fast as you can teach well. — 
Central School Journal. 


A cunning fox was bounding at a rapid pace, 
When up jumped a rabbit, which he gave a chase; 
Just sixty }'ards were there between 
The fox and rabbit by us seen; 
As the cunning fox jumped eleven feet, 
The rabbit made eight in quick retreat. 
Now, James, tell me how far the rabbit ran. 
Before the cunning fox upon him sprang. 


Which will enclose the largest ground, 

x'V fence made square, or one made round. 

Two panels to each rod of land. 

Ten rails to each we understand; 

And every rail in each suppose 

To just one acre of land enclose; 

The next thing is to tell exact 

How many acres in each tract? 
[We will give a nice book of poems to the school-boy or 
girl who first sends us correct solutions of these two prob- 
lems. The problems must be solved without assistance 
from any source. — Editor.] 



[This bright little recitation can be made ver}- effective, 
with a little attention paid to a change of voice at each 
change of phrase. The title "Before School," should be 
pronounced distinctly, and followed at the end of the tenth 
line with "After School."] 

"Quarter to nine! Boys and girls do }-ou hear?" 
"One more buckwheat, then — be quick, mother dear! 

Where is my luncheon box?" "Under the shelf. 

Just in the place you left it }'ourself !" 
" I can't say my table !" " O, find me my cap !" 
" One kiss for mama and sweet Sis in her lap." 
" Be good, dear!" "I'll try." — " 9 times 9 's 81." 
"Take your mittens!" "All right." — "Hurry up, Bill; 

let's run." 
With a slam of the door, they are off, girls and boys. 
And the mother draws breath in the lull of their noise. 

" Don't wake up the baby! Come gently, my dear!" 
" O, mother! I've torn my new dress, just look here! 

I'm sorry, I was only climbing the wall." 
" O, mother, my map was the nicest of all!" 
"And Nelly, in spelling went up to the head!" 
" O, say! can I go on the hill with my sled?" 
" I've got such a toothache." " The teacher is unfair!" 
" Is dinner 'most ready? I'm just like a bear!" 
Be patient, worn mother, they're growing up fast. 
These nursery whirlwinds, not long do they last. 
A still, lonely house would be far worse than the noise; 
Rejoice and be glad in your brave girls and boys! 

— Selected. 



No more "Gliding down life's river," 

No more " Drifting out to sea," 
No more "Farewell, thee, kind teacher," 

Willie has taken his degree. 

No more "Sad the parting words we utter," 

No more "Let us ever faithful be," 
No more "Tender memories fondly cherished," 

Willie has taken his degree. 

No more "Brave the world with firm endeavor," 
No more "Strive to do the best we can," 

No more "Show the world that we are in it," 
Willie now is quite a man. 

— Westjield Standard. 


Beautiful hands are those that do 
Work that is earnest, brave and true. 
Moment by moment, the long day through. 

The North Carolina Practical Spelling Book is 
rapidly piling up its orders. It is likely that the entire 
first edition of ten thousand copies will be sold within 
sixty days after coming from press. The demand for the 
book will be very large and will extend into other States. 

]^^ort^\ ^arolii\a T^a^tx^r^' i\55^n\bly. 


Hugh Morson (Raleigh Male Academy), President, . . Raleigh. 
Eugene G. Harrell (Editor Teacher), Sec. and Treas., . Raleigh. 

J. J. Blair (Supt. Graded Schools), . . . . 

J. E. Kelly (Model Male School) 

Miss Catherine Fulghum (Graded School), 

W. J. Ferrell (Wakefield Academy), 

Miss Lizzie Iviudsay (Graded School), 

P. M. Pearsall (County Superintendent), 

Miss Lina McDonald (Graded School), 

T. J. Drewry (Horner Military School), . 

Mrs, S. Montgomery Funk (Chowan Bap. Fem. Inst.) 










Hugh Morson, ex officio. President, .... 

Eugene G. Harrell, ex officio. Secretary, 
Eben Alexander (University of North Carolina), . 

W. L. Poteat (Wake Forest College) 

James Dinwiddle (President Peace Institute), . 
Charles D. Mclver (Pres't Normal and Industrial School 
for Women), ........ 

J. Y. Joyner (Superintendent Graded vSchool), 
A. C. Davis (Superintendent Military School', 
E. E. Britton (Principal High School), .... 

Chapel Hill. 
Wake Forest. 


Ninth Annual Session, Morehead City, June 21 to July 4, 1S92. 



The work of the North Carolina Teachers' Assembly is 
annually growing in interest and value to the teachers of 
our State, and to its influence is largely due the general 


prosperity which is now beintr enjoyed by the schools 
throughout our borders. 

Its delightful mid-summer meeting's in the teachers' own 
"home by the sea," at Morehead City, bringing together 
many thousand teachers and their friends for most profita- 
ble educational work and in charming social intercourse, 
have given a new encouragement and inspiration to the 
teachers and induced a stronger support and appreciation of 
the teachers' w^ork among those who patronize the schools. 
And the enjoyments and benefits which the teachers and 
friends of education in North Carolina are to derive from 
the Teachers' Assembly are yet but just beginning to be 

Besides the intellectual and social enjoyments of the 
Teachers' Assembly, the physical benefits which are derived 
from the trip cannot be overestimated. There is nothing 
which can so completely and effectually restore strength 
and energy to thoroughly exhausted nature as the rest and 
recreation of a sojourn at the seaside. The pure salt air, 
the plunge in the splendid surf, the excitement of fishing 
and sailing and the inspiration of the presence of the mighty 
ocean soon make us forget the fatigue of the school-room, 
and every hard-worked teacher finds the recuperation so 
greatly needed. 

There is no place in the United States so valuable to the 
North Carolina teacher as the sessions of the Teachers' 


During the past nine years in which the Assembly has 
been at work it has secured good, paying and pleasant 
school positions for nearly six hundred of its members. 
This represents a great deal of correspondence and careful 
work and no litle expense, but the Assembly has done all 


the work and paid all the expenses, and there has not been 
the cost of even a single cent to any teacher or school officer. 

The practical benefits of this featnre of the Assembly 
work are increasing each year, and the Teachers' Bureau 
of the Assembly enjoys such confidence among school prin- 
cipals and committees that its recommendation is generally 
all that is needed by a competent teacher towards securing 
a good position. 

At each session of the Assembly there is present a large 
number of school officers for the purpose of selecting teach- 
ers and assistants for their schools. 

It is intended to organize an Assembly Examining Board 
which shall meet each day during the session of the Assem- 
bly and carefully examine teachers desiring positions. This 
board will be composed of the most prominent and success- 
ful educators of our State, who well know by experience 
just what qualifications and attainments a competent teacher 
should possess, and to applicants, whose examination is sat- 
isfactory, an official "Certificate of Proficiency in Teach- 
ing" will be given, with the seal of the Teachers' Assem- 
bly affixed. This certificate will be of inestimable value 
to a teacher in this or any other State in the Union, and it 
will almost invariably procure a good school position for a 
teacher when a place is wanted. 


The Executive Committee has been hard at work to pre- 
pare a programme for the coming session which shall be 
of the greatest possible interest and benefit to the teachers 
who desire to make steady progress in their work. 

To this end the very highest ability among the profession 
in North Carolina has been placed at the disposal of the 
committee for selection, and liberal use has been made of 
this array of talent, ability and experience. 


The work of the session will be properly classified and 
assigned to special days for each department. Among the 
days so far appointed are, "Popular Education," "Classi- 
cal," "Academical," "County Superintendence," "Eng- 
lish Literature," "Modern Languages," "Temperance" 
and "General History." Each day is in the charge of a 
special committee, which will arrange an excellent pro- 
gramme of live and interesting subjects, with the very best 
of our popular speakers to present them. 

In addition to this regular work, there will be two pub- 
lic entertainments and a special course of instruction to 
teachers by the inimitable "Frank Beard," who, as a 
popular and witty "Chalk Artist" and lecturer, has no 
equal in America. His instruction will have special refer- 
ence to the use of the blackboard in the school and Sun- 
day-school, by every teacher, in rapidly illustrating impor- 
tant lessons and information. Engagements have also been 
made with Rev. Thomas Dixon, Jr. , who is perhaps the 
most popular and fascinating platform speaker in this coun- 
try, and with the University Glee Club, whose unique 
entertainments never fail to charm an audience. 

Every feature of the programme is entirely free to all 
persons who hold Certificates of Membership in the Teach- 
ers' Assembly. 

The committee has also secured lectures from some of 
the most prominent educators in the country, and specially 
pleased will the teachers be to meet Dr. Edward S. Joynes, 
of the University of South Carolina; Hon. Frank M Smith, 
of the University of Tennessee; Hon. Josiah H. Shinn, 
State Superintendent of Arkansas; Mr. T. F. Donnelly, 
of New York, author of "Barnes' Primary History of the 
United States," Mrs. Idalia G. Myers, of Washington, D. C, 
Prof. H. J. Hamill, the celebrated authority on "Voice 
Culture and Natural Elocution," and other noted educators 
and literary men and women. 


Among the entertainments will be a musical and literary 
evening by members of the Assembly and a concert by the 
Glee Club of the University of North Carolina, Every 
day will be a day of profit and enjoyment, and County 
Superintendents cannot too strongly urge their teachers to 
attend the Assembly this year. There will also be an Inter- 
Collegiate Oratorical Contest for the Assembly gold medal, 
and an Instrumental Music Contest by pupils from the 
female schools of the State. 


The railroads throughout North Carolina have always 
shown a peculiar interest in the Teachers' Assembly, and 
have encouraged the work in every possible way. The rate 
at which tickets to the Assembly are sold is lower than that 
given to any other organization in the United States, being 
only about one and a half cents a mile each way. 

Assembly tickets will be on sale this session to Morehead 
City from June iSth to 30th, good to return until Julv 15. 
. The annual fees from members of the Assembly are $2 
for males and $1 for females, and at the earnest solicitation 
of our Executive Committee a coupon for $2 will be attached 
to each railroad ticket. This will save all trouble in send- 
ing to the Secretary for the Certificate of Membership. At 
Morehead City the ticket is to be presented to the Secre- 
tary, who will take up the coupon and issue a certificate, 
only upon which can the reduced rate of board at the Atlan- 
tic Hotel be secured. To each female member of the Assem- 
bly $1 will be returned by the Secretary when the ticket 
with coupon is presented to him, as the annual fee for 
women is only $1. The $2 coupon attached to railroad 
ticket pays the membership fee for 1892. 

The rate of board at the Atlantic Hotel is $2.50 per day, 
but to those who hold the Teachers' Assemblv Certificate 


the rate is only $1 per day. These rates and conditions 
will be strictly adhered to this session. 

Mr. John O. Plank the well-known and most successful 
hotel man of Chicago, will have entire management of the 
Atlantic Hotel this summer, and he guarantees every pos- 
sible accommodation and comfort to the Assembly during 
the coming session. Rooms may be reserved in advance by 
writing to Mr. Plank, and we feel safe in assuring teachers 
that their requests will be faithfully attended to. A num- 
ber of improvements are in contemplation in and about the 
Atlantic Hotel which will add to the comforts and popu- 
larity of this famous summer resort. 


This valuable department of the Assembly work, inaugu- 
rated three years ago, has been increasing in magnitude 
and importance. The interest has never been so great as 
at this time, nor have our schools been so well prepared to 
make a good exhibit. Nearly all the available space in 
the ten large rooms and the auditorium of our Teachers' 
Building has been engaged by schools for their exhibits. 

Among the leading institutions reserving space are the 
University, Trinity, Davidson, Wake Forest, Agricultural 
and Mechanical, Elon and Guilford Colleges, Peace Insti- 
tute, St. Mary's School, the female colleges at Greensboro, 
Oxford, Ivouisburg, Murfreesboro, Durham, the Institution 
for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind, the High Schools 
at Roxboro, i\It. Olive, Leaksville, Liberty, New Bern, and 
the Graded Schools at Raleigh, Greensboro, Goldsboro, 
Tarboro, Winston, Durham, Wilmington and Charlotte. 

A careful inspection of this Educational Exhibit will 
alone be worth to a progressive teacher many times the 
small expense of attendance upon the Assembly. There 
will also be exhibits by several Northern publishers and 
manufacturers of school furniture and other supplies. 


It has been proven by careful observation that it pays a 
school to make an exhibit at the Assembly, and surely 
every public or private school has something creditable to 
send to the Exposition at Morehead City. 


One of the main objects of the Teachers' Assembly is to 
bring- together annually in pleasant social intercourse and 
consultation the teachers and all friends of education. The 
Assembly was organized for this particular purpose, and it 
is not intended or desired that it shall be an exclusive meet- 
ing of teachers. 

The Constitution, therefore, wisely provides that all 
friends of education, patrons and possible patrons of schools, 
school committees and the public generally may attend the 
delightful sessions of the Assembly upon the same condi- 
tions and terms as regular teachers. 

The Assembly cordially invites the people of North Caro- 
lina to meet with the teachers in their great educational 
gatherings, to confer with them as to the educational needs 
of our State, to take part in the discussions and to enjoy 
with the teachers all the pleasures of the seaside and all the 
exercises and entertainments of the Assembly programme. 

It is a pleasure to note that a very large number of these 
friends, ladies and gentlemen, attend the Assembly each 
year, and it is hoped that the number may increase until 
many thousands of " the people" shall annually meet with 
the teachers in their most delightful Assembly. The pro- 
gramme provides instruction and entertainment for all, 
and there is ample time given to recreation and amuse- 

THE teachers' SUMMER HOME. 

No place can begin to compare in value with the seaside 
as a restorer of tired physical nature in the early spring and 


summer. The exhilaration of the strong south-western sea- 
breeze soon brings renewed life to the body and roses to the 

The Assembly did its wisest act in locating its large, 
convenient and beautiful Teachers' Building and perma- 
nent home at Morehead City, where there is plenty of room, 
plenty of amusement and instruction, unequal facilities 
for the work, an immense hotel which can " entertain the 
Assembly in one house," and at much less expense than 
would be incurred at any other place in the State. Thou- 
sands of teachers have said that they can "have more 
instruction and enjoyment with less money at Morehead 
City during the session of the Assembly than at any other 
place on earth." 

It is one of the principal objects of the Assembly to pro- 
vide for its members the greatest amount of benefit and 
entertainment for the smallest possible expense. That the 
x^ssembly has succeeded in this effort may be realized in 
the fact that a teacher from the most remote portion of 
North Carolina can leave home on Monday, June 20th, for 
Morehead City, remain there during the entire session of 
the Assembly, paying railroad fare both ways and board at 
the Atlantic Hotel, all at a cost not to exceed $25. A week 
may be spent at the Assembly by a person coming from 
a point within three hundred miles of Morehead City at a 
total cost under $15, including railroad fare and board. 

At this rate of travel and board surely every teacher can 
afford to attend the grand meeting of the Assembly this 


The Teachers' Assembly has, under the exclusive man- 
agement of the Secretary, made several exceedingly suc- 
cessful and enjoyable tours. They have included trips to 
the extreme western part of our State, Washington City, 


New York, Niagara Falls, England, Scotland, Ireland and 
France, and to Cuba and Florida. In the aggregate these 
select parties have numbered seven hundred persons, and 
there has never been an accident or a serious case of sick- 
ness during the tours. At the close of the coining session 
of the Assembly a large party of teachers and their friends 
will leave Morehead City on the morning of July 4th for 
a trip to Atlanta, Georgia, to attend the session of the 
Southern Educational Association, which meets July 6-9. 
The fare will be very low, and tickets will be sold at More- 
head City to Atlanta and return y;'<9;/z the point u'here your 
Assembly ticket ends. By this plan there will be no loss 
on the Assembly ticket, and thus the party can start at the 
same time and on a special train from Morehead City. 

No arrangements can be made for persons to join this 
party at the reduced rates who are not present at Morehead 
City on July 4th, the day of departure for Atlanta. 

A visit to the South's most important city and to this 
grand gathering of the leaders in Southern education will 
be an event to be remembered with pleasure for a long 

HUGH MORSON, President. 
EUGENE G. HARRELL, Secretary. 

Raleigh, N. C, April i, 1892. 

Miss Gertrude Jenkins, of Salem, has been engaged 
as stenographer and typist for the coming session of the 
Assembly. She is one of the most expert short-hand 
reporters in the South. It is intended that the published 
proceedings of this session shall be more complete than 
ever before. 


"Carolina! Carolina! Heaven's blessings attend hep, 
While me live me mill cherish, protect and defend her; 
Though the scorner may sneer at and uiitlings defame her, 
Our hearts siuell uiith gladness uiheneVer me name her." 

Our Students' Camera is a very popular premium 
which The Teacher oflfers. We have supplied the camera 
to several new subscribers during the past month, and all 
are greatly pleased with the little v.-onder. 

The " Grube Method" of teaching arithmetic has been 
rightfully called, by experienced teachers, simply a most 
"ingenious device for killing- time." In the hands of a 
teacher who is not very specially endowed with the rare 
trait of originality, this senseless and continual use of 
objects will prove to be a successful maker of ignoramuses 
of the unfortunate pupils. 

The total enrollment at the meeting of the National 
Educational Association in Toronto in 1891 was 4,788. 
This is only about 1,500 more than enrolled at The North 
Carolina Teachers' Assembly. It is evidence that the 
teachers of the South do not attend the Northern associa- 
tion except simply as a summer excursion. It is confidently 
expected that the Southern Educational Association will, 
in a very short time, be a much larger body than the 

Messrs. Alfred Williams & Co. have in press a 
"Text-book on the Constitution of North Carolina" for 
the use of schools and colleges. There are a complete set 
of carefully prepared "Questions on the Constitution," by 


Hon. Kemp P. Battle, LL. D., Professor of History in our 
University, who is the highest authority upon North Caro- 
lina historical matters now living in our State. The little 
book comprises about sixty pages, is substantially bound 
and will be sold for twenty-five cents. It should be studied 
in every high school, academy and college in North Caro- 
lina, and by both girls and bo5s. 

Please remember, dear friends, that The Teacher is 
not a school-book or a text-book upon methods of teach- 
ing. It is an ediicatio7ial Joiirjial^ striving to be only a 
medium of communication between teachers and the peo- 
ple. You need not look in The Teacher for "busy 
work," "school devices," etc., because such things do 
not come within the scope of our work, and they are all 
discussed in the various books on teaching. The Teacher 
has a much higher aim. We are working to make North 
Carolina schools the very best in this country, and North 
Carolina teachers the most appreciated of our people. 

It wa,s our privilege and pleasure to spend a few mo- 
ments with Mr. M. C. S. Noble, Superintendent of the 
Wilmington Graded Schools, in a visit to his Union School 
on the 7th inst. It is truly a model building and a model 
school. Over four hundred and fifty pupils are enrolled 
in that school, and they were all assembled in the large 
auditorium at the time of our visit, and by request they 
sang so charmingly and touchingly that old Southern song, 
"I'm gwine back to Dixie," that we are yet enjoying the 
inspiration of the music and the occasion. The school is 
collecting a good library, now having some five hundred 
choice volumes which are liberally read by the pupils. 

To A teacher one of the most valuable things we know 
of is a practical knov/ledge of stenography. It is within 
itself almost an unlimited capital for work. Besides the 
pleasure that comes from the ability to make verbatim 


reports of lectures, sermons, addresses and other important 
public exercises, a good short-hand writer is rarely without 
a good paying position. The art of stenography is not 
difficult to acquire if proper attention and application is 
given to it, and every teacher has plenty of spare time to 
give to the study, and the opportunities for practice are with- 
out limit. Two months of regular and systematic practice 
will give you a working knowledge of short-hand with 
which you would not part for any reasonable consideration. 

Please, friends, do not speak or write of The North 
Carolina Teachers' Assembly as the "N. C. T. A.," nor the 
Southern Educational Association as the "S. E. A." We 
know that you are so overwhelmed with work that you really 
haven't time to mention these great organizations except by 
their initial letters, but we hope that you will spare just 
four seconds of your time in designating these associations 
by their proper names when you have occasion to speak of 
them. When we see organizations spoken of or written 
about as "N. C. T. A.," "S. E. A.," "N. E. A.," "Y. 
M. C. A.," "W. C. T. U.," "A. & M.," and so on, we 
must confess that it seems to us as if pure laziness had 
instigated this initial language. We recently noticed that 
a very important article in a prominent educational journal 
bore the senseless hieroglyphic heading "S. E. A." Our 
sympathies are with that overworked editor who did not 
have time, or energy, to write correctly the name of the 
subject of his excellent article. 

It gives us great pleasure to have such cordial words 
of endorsement of the plan of work upon which our Teach- 
ers' Assembly is based from such eminent and high 
authority as Prof. J. B. Merwin, editor of The American 
Joui'-iial of Editcation^ St. Louis, Mo. He writes : "I 
want to commend most earnestly your idea of making the 
meeting at Morehead City a ' people's meeting. ' We need 


to reach the people^ and the teachers ought to be entirely 
relieved of anything like 'normal methods,' or any other 
methods at these great gatherings; they ought be only a 
means of re-creation for the teachers. The teachers have 
all that they can do, and I wonder that they do so much, 
with what they have to contend with. These great gather- 
ings should be a means for instriLcting the people in the 
zvork the teachers do, and in the work of educating the chil- 
dren.'''' We notice that several other State associations of 
teachers are following the example of the North Carolina 
Teachers' Assembly, and are discarding from their pro- 
grammes all the " cut-and-dried" and " dry-as-dust" class 
of work. A normal school is one thing and a teachers' 
association is another. 


Mrs. J. C. Finch isteachiug at Edenton. 

Miss Lee Arrington has a school at Castalia. 

Miss Mattie H. Fi^ynn is teaching in Hertford County. 

Miss BeuIvAH James has a good school in Duplin County. 

Miss Vickie Harris is teaching at Grissom, Granville County. 

Mr. L. E. Gibson has a progressive school in Richmond County. 

Mr. C. M. Cope is one of the successful teachers of Davie County. 

Miss Kate Brown is teacher of the Primary School in Kenansville. 

Miss PaTTie B. Cooper teaches public school at Hilliardston, Nash 

Mrs. Martha Beck Drake has a primary school at her home near 
Castalia, Nash County. 

Mr. E. E. Bi^ounT, of Haywood county, has taken charge of a 
school at Middleburgh, Kentucky. 

Senator John G. Cari,isle, of Kentucky, will deliver the Com- 
mencement Oration at the L^niversity June ist. 

The Normal and Industrial College for Young Women will 
begin its first term in September with a good enrollment of students. 


Mr. Grey King and Miss Tempe Lou King have charge of the Male 
and Female Academy at Cedar Rock, Franklin County. 

Mr. R. W. Millard, a teacher of forty years experience, has been 
elected County Superintendent of Public Instruction of Duplin County. 

Miss Meta Chestnut, of North Carolina, is Principal of Minco 
Academj' in Indian Territory. She writes, " We are all Southerners 

Mr. F. L. McCoy (Trinity College) and Mr. R. N. Hadley ( Thompson 
Business College) are in charge of the Literary and Commercial Institute 
at Rochelle, Georgia. 

Miss Emily G. Gilliam, a North Carolinian now at Franklin, Va., 
will be pleased to have a situation as teacher in some school or private 
famil}' for the fall term. 

Senator Matt. Ransom has accepted an invitation to address the 
Literary Societies of Wilson Collegiate Institute on June i. The school 
is for girls, and it is enjoying a prosperous term. 

Mr. George F. Crutchfield has just completed the term of a good 
public school at Buckhorn in Orange County. Sixty-three pupils were 
enrolled, and he is now in charge of a private school at some other place. 

Miss Emma F. Webb has a very interesting school at the little town 
of L^nion, in Hertford County. Twenty boys and girls are enrolled, and 
they are preparing an enjoyable entertainment for the close of the 

Mrs. T. V. Faucette, of Milton, has charge of an excellent school 
at Oxford, and the school will be well represented in the Educational 
Exposition at Morehead City during the session of the Teachers' 

Mrs. R. R. Fleming, one of Pitt County's best teachers, recently mar- 
ried, writes : "I am no longer a teacher, but cannot do without my old 
friend, The North Carolina Teacher, and I therefore enclose one 
dollar to renew my subscription." 

The Enterprising Normal School at Elizabethtown, Bladen 
County, entered upon its sixth term April iSth. Mr. S. M. Lloyd is 
Principal, and he is assisted by Messrs. S. P. Wright, W. H. Graham, 
J. M. Lloyd and E. A. Carroll. Two hundred and thirty-nine pupils 
have been enrolled. 

The Easter music and services by the young ladies of St. Mary's 
School at Raleigh far surpassed in excellence and beauty any similar 
occasion in the past. The chapel was thronged by delighted visitors on 
Easter Sunday. On Tuesday following Dr. Smedes gave the girls an 
outing and a switchback ride in the Exposition grounds, and a great 
many friends shared with them the enjoyments of the day. 


Mr. Ernest P. Mangum is succeeding finely as Superintendent of 
the Graded Schools at Concord. He has the heartiest support of the 
community, and he is promised that the school shall soon have new 
and larger buildings — which they are greatly in need of. 

Prof. J. H. Kineallv, of the Agricultural and Mechanical College, 
will deliver an address to the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of 
Raleigh and the citizens generally on Tuesday evening, April 26, on 
"The Duties of a Citizen." 

The latest report shows that North Carolina had only thirteen 
representatives in the National Educational Association at Toronto last 
3'ear, and five of the number were teachers. Let us have at least five 
hundred representatives in the meeting of our Southern Educational 
Association at Atlanta in July. 

Miss Lii^IvA B. Reese is teaching at Sigma. In renewing her sub- 
scription to The Teacher she writes : "I have received the ' Waverly 
Novels.' Am wonderfully pleased with them. An3'one might own them, 
they are so cheap. The Teacher is better than usual. Every number 
gets better. It is a great help to me." 

A situation as teacher is wanted by Miss Carrie W. Coghill, who is 
a graduate of Western Maryland College. Teaches the English branches, 
Latin, French and German, Music on Piano or Organ, Calisthenics, 
Club-swinging, etc. She prefers to teach music, elocution and calis- 
thenics. Address her at Rocky Mount, N. C. 

Rev. N. M. Shaw, for several years principal of the school in Kenans- 
ville, and for three years County Superintendent of Public Instructions, 
Duplin Count}', has moved, with his family, to Mill Hill, Cabarrus 
County, where he supplies two churches. Mr. Shaw has a fine reputa- 
tion as a teacher, and his forte is the training of small children. 

The young ladies of Peace Institute were given a most delightful 
picnic by Professor Dinwiddie at Millbrook on Easter Monday. The 
school had an elegant private car for their use during the day, and the 
weather was all that could be desired for a picnic occasion. As one of 
the few special friends who were honored by an invitation, we have such 
charming memories of the da}' as will linger for a life-time. 

There will be more teachers at the Teachers' Assembly this summer 
than ever before. From every county in every section of North Carolina 
comes the glad report, "We all expect to be at the Assembly in June." 
The County Superintendents are urging their teachers to attend, well 
knowing the advantage which a teacher who attends the Assembly has 
over all others in the confidence of the people and in securing a good 
position in the .schools. Attendance upon the Assembly is worth to a 
teacher, in many ways, ten times the slight expense of going to More- 
head City. 



'Tis said that " figures never lie," 

That one and one are always two ; 
But Cupid proves, with work so sly, 

Some wondrous things that figures do. 
And when he claims a teacher's hand 

All rules of figures then are done, 
Though TWO before the preacher stand 

This one and one are always one. 

Mr. Andrew L. Betts, Associate Principal of Leaksville High School, 
married Miss Lucy Hastings Brooks, of Reidsville, on Easter Monday. 
Rev. J. R. Brooks, D. D., performed the ceremony. 

Mr. James M. Benson, of Lake Comfort, Hyde County, Principal of 
Juniper Bay High School, married Mrss Annie Williams, his assistant 
teacher, ou the 6th of April, 1892. The ceremony was performed in the 
school-room by Rev. G. D. Langston. 


Alice Noble, daughter of Mr. M. C. S. Noble, Superintendent of the 
Wilmington Graded Schools, was born August 11, 1891. 

A little daughter of Mr. E. P. Moses, Superintendent of the Raleigh 
Graded Schools, was born in Raleigh on March 30, 1892. The stranger 
has not yet been named. 

Eugene Hall Barker, son of Mr. B. D. Barker, Principal of Apex 
High School, was born March 14, 1892. [We wish for our little name- 
sake the greatest happiness and prosperity in life. — Editor.] 


The books and slates now put away, 

And let us laugh a little while ; 
For those who work there should be play, 

The leisure moments to beguile. 

Here's a boy's composition on physiology : "The body of a person 
is made up of the bed, thorax and the abdomen. The bed contains the 
brains, if ther is any; the thorax contains the hart and lungs; the abdo- 
men contains the bowels, of which ther are five: a, e, i, o, u, and some- 
times w and y." 




Vol. IX. 




No. 9. 








TcxE : Bonnie Blue Flag. 

To North Carolina here's my hand, my strongest faith and love, 

For it is the noblest land beneath the Heavens above ; 

Then may my trust in Carolina never, never cease — 

The bravest of the States in war — the grandest one in peace. 

Chorus : 
Hurrah! hurrah! for the Old North State, hurrah! 
Which in the Nation's galaxy shines forth the brightest starT 

Nature's riches of the soil throughout the State abound, 
And in her cloud-land springs of life can everywhere be found ; 
While peace and plent}' reign supreme in cot and palace home. 
And joy abides from mountain peaks to ocean's snow}' foam. — Clio. 

In education, North Carolina takes the highest stand 
Of all the States united in America's proud land ; 
May Heaven's blessings ever rest on Carolina's name, 
While coming ages only add new luster to her fame. — Cho. 

And when declining years shall bring me trembling to the grave, 
As some vessel, tempest-tossed, goes down beneath the wave. 
Here may my weary body end its pilgrimage on earth, 
And mingle with the genial soil that gave it honored birth. — Cho. 

]Vortl\ (^aroliixa T^a^tx^r^ i\broad 



GngliAnd, Sgotland, Ii^eland and Finance. 



AlIv Aboard for New York— The i.ast day in Glasgow— Power 
OF Imagination— Belfast, the Commercial City of Ireland — 
The Jaunting Car— The Irish at Home— Larne, the Comical 
City — Again on the Atlantic— A Happy- Voyage— A Rush for 
News— a Joyous Return— Uncle Sam's Tariff Officers— Sail- 
ing UP New York Harbor— "The Teach- 
ers' Visit to the Oueen "—Happy Greet- 
ings ON THE Shore — the end of our Happy 
AND Successful Jaunt in Foreign Lands. 

ABOARD for New York," exclaimed 
Professor Winston, as he entered the 
dining room on the next morning 
after onr arrival in Glasgow. 

" Surel}- }ou don't mean to say that 
we are to leave right now, Professor?" 
was asked by the girls with consid- 
erable interest. 

"No. Not qnite so snddenly as 
that," he replied, "but our stay on this side of the Atlan- 
tic is now only a matter of a few hours. And oh, my! the 
agony of crossing the ocean again!" 
And we all gave a sympathetic groan. 
It was expected that our steamer would sail for New 
York at lo o'clock on the morning of August 9th, but, 
owing to some delays incident to stowing away the cargo, 
we were informed that our departure would be twelve 
hours later. 


We were pleased at this information as it gave ns one 
da}- more in Glasgow, and there were many things about 
this pleasant Scotch city of which we desired to know 
more. Our state-rooms had all been secured and assigned 
to the occupants soon after our arrival, therefore we had 
nothing to do but enjoy the day in the manner that best 
suited us. 

Our esteemed friend Mr. John Morison again most 
kindly offered his valuable serx'ices to our party in visiting 
the many places of interest in and around this famous 
Scotch city; and with his kind assistance the da\- was 
spent both pleasantly and profitably. The girls purchased 
many pretty souvenirs of Scotland, our favorite country of 
the Old World, and numbers of them were wearing the 
beautiful Scotch stone, the "Cairngorm.'' 

It is said that all strangers who purchase and wear this 
stone in Scotland are certain to visit that country again 
within ten years. If this legend has any foundation of 
truth, we will know just where to find a majority of the 
North Carolina party in 1899. 

At 6 o'clock p. M. we all went on board our steamer, 
and as we were enjoying a condition of thorough fatigue 
most of the party immediately retired for the night. The 
departure of the steamer was again delayed, owing to an 
unusuallv large caro"o, until far into the nitjlit. 

As the Secretary was standing on the deck about mid- 
night looking at the last preparations for^eparture, a lady 
slowl}- climbed out of the saloon clad in her ro^e dii chambre 
and dropped almost exhausted into a steamer chair near 
him, groaning excruciatingly. 

His sympathies were aroused, and approaching the 
sufferer as gently as he could he said, "You seem to be 
suffering. Madam, can I be of any assistance to you?" 

"Oh, sir," she faintly replied, "I've had such a terrible 
night with this terrible sea-sickness. The rolling and pitch- 


ing of the steamer has been awful, and my suffering- is 
more than I can bear. I am afraid that I shall not live to 
reach the land. Oh, Lord!" 

" j\Iy sympathies are with you, m\' dear madam, in your 
agony," replied the Secretary, "but, in nn- opinion, vour 
suffering has been somewhat premature, for our steamer 
has not yet left the wharf, and is still receiving cargo in 
Glasgow. ' ' 

The lady sprang from the seat and exclaimed, " Is that 
really true; are we yet lying fast at the wharf in Glasgow?" 

"It is really true. Madam," answered the Secretary, 
" the ship has not yet left the wharf, and a calmer night I 
have never seen. You thought that the steamer would 
sail at 8 o'clock, and all your suffering has been wholly 
imaginary. It will be yet two days before we are on the 
ocean, and the agony that you say you have endured for 
the past six hours has been wholly in your brilliant imagi- 

The woman looked around to see if the Secretar}' had 
told the truth, then, becoming satisfied upon this point, 
she disappeared in the cabin much more suddenly than she 
had come on deck, and after her departure there lingered 
in the air the gentle refrain, "What a goose I have made 
of myself," while the Secretary meditated upon "The 
power of the imagination." 

The lady was not a member of the North Carolina party. 

After a smooth sail down the Clyde and across the Irish 
Sea our ship was made fast to the pier at Larne, Ireland, 
just as we arose from breakfast next morning. Captain 
Richie then informed us that the vessel would remain in 
that port during the day receiving cargo, whereupon we at 
once boarded the train for Belfast so that we might spend 
the day in the principal commercial city of Ireland. 

Ireland is as beautiful a country as it is interesting. 
The railroad runs along the shores of Belfast Loch and 


through a fine section of farming land. These "farms," 
as they are known in Ireland, are exceedingly diminutive 
in size, covering from three to ten acres, which are sur- 
rounded by a thick hedgerow of stone or orange shrubbery. 

The Irish farmer is very much limited in his ideas of 
farming. His entire crop, in most cases, consists of a 
patch of Irish potatoes about one acre in size, and half an 
acre in cabbage. This "farm" is generally tilled by one 
woman, about a dozen tousley-headed children, three or 
four raw-boned goats and two mang\- dogs. In the mean- 
time, the " master of the household" spends his time at 
the neighborhood inn discussing the beauties of home-rule 
and the corruptions of English royalty. 

It may be well just here to state to our friends who con- 
template a visit to the "Old Country" the brief agricul- 
tural fact that there is only one breed of potatoes in Ireland, 
and we hope you will not disgrace yourselves in a foreign 
restaurant by asking for a "sweet potato" or an "Irish 
potato" as we do in North Carolina. The "sweet" potato, 
as we have it at home, is unknown on the eastern side of 
the Atlantic. 

But these little farms are exceedingly w^ell tilled. As 
we pass them on the railway train they seem to be squares 
on a vast checker-board, distinguished only by the different 
shades of green as we have it from the potato or the cab- 
bage patch. 

Upon our arrival in Belfast we were besieged by hack- 
men just the same as we are in the United States; but we 
effectually resisted every temptation to ride until we spied 
the famous " Irish Jaunting Car." When this fascinating 
vehicle was seen for the first time our girls became suddenly 
seized by physical exhaustion, and therefore we were com- 
pelled to ride. 

The "jaunting car" is unknown everywhere else on 
earth except in Ireland. And it is a vehicle unlike any- 


thing- ever seen before. The car holds fonr persons besides 
the driver. They sit in pairs, back to back, and the only 
snccessful way to stay in the car when in motion is to put 
vour arm around your companion, while the companion in 
turn hugs the driver. 

The jaunting car is the most popular vehicle within our 
knowledge. Ireland cannot be properly inspected except 
from a jaunting car. 

Belfast is a typical Irish city. Every kind of excite- 
ment that has ever occurred in Ireland has given Belfast a 
liberal share. It is a favorite city for strikes, riots and 
''free fights." The man who drove our jaunting car took 
special pleasure in pointing out to us the localities where 
the rioters delighted to gather and discuss the situation 
with that strongest of all arguments — the shelaleh. We 
were told that in the riots the women do as much fighting 
as the men. 

There are a number of very interesting places in Belfast, 
and we made the best possible use of the four hours that 
we spent in the city. Among the special points of our 
visitation were the celebrated Printing and Illuminating 
Works of Marcus Ward & Co. We there saw the "Bel- 
fast Linen" paper in every stage of its manufacture, and 
the process by which the lovely Christmas and Easter cards 
are made. 

One of the curiosities of Belfast is the Andrews' Flax 
Mill. You can follow the bale of flax from the time that 
it enters the mill until it is turned out made into linen 
jackets ready for market. Several of our girls bought 
handkerchiefs of fine linen just from the loom at prices 
ranging from five to twenty-five cents, and again we 
"blessed" that iniquitous United States tariff which 
makes us pay about one hundred per cent, more for these 
articles in America. 


Jnst as tlie bells and whistles announced the hour of 
noon the _^reat doors of the factories were thrown open and 
thousands of men, women and children thronged the 
streets on their way to lunch. We noticed that nearly all 
the women and o^rown o-irls were bare-headed and bare- 
footed, and otherwise v'ery scantily clad. We were informed 
that many hundreds of those women received but twenty- 
five cents a week as wages for their work in the factories! 
This meagre sum was to furnish food and raiment and pro- 
vide for all other expenses of living. 

It is no wonder that Ireland is gradually emigrating to 

We spent an hour in the vast Botanical Garden, the most 
beautiful that we had seen except the Kew Gardens in 
London. We had been in the Garden only a short while 
before each American heart was throbbing its patriotism 
beneath a sprig of Irish shamrock which had been proudly 
and gracefully presented by the gardener. 

Our train returned to Larne about 5 o'clock P. m., where- 
upon we at once chartered every jaunting car within sight, 
having fallen desperately in love with that fascinating and 
coquettish vehicle. Of course, Larne was to be " done 
up" in proper stvle. 

This is such an insignificant little village that "doing 
the town." is fully accomplished by jolting through its 
narrow and irregular streets in the jaunting car and buy- 
ing a lot of Irfsh walking-sticks at the rickety old harness 
shop at the head of the principal street. x\nd our clever 
old friend, the walking-stick maker, said that it was the 
biggest business boom that had ever struck his shop. 

We often wondered how those girls disposed of all the 
walking-sticks which they bought in Larne, until we began 
to see them wherever we went in North Carolina proudly 
handled and flourished by handsome and appreciative 
young gentlemen who had been thus rewarded by their 
pet friends. 


At 9 o'clock, just as the long twilight began to give 
place to the deeper shadows of evening, our good ship left 
her moorings and steamed out of the harbor. In a very 
short time all land had disappeared from view, and we were 
again upon the great Atlantic with nothing but the broad 
ocean around us. 

As the ship was making a few ominous rolls and pitches, 
most of our party decided that they were going to be 
awfully sea-sick, then we retired early to our staterooms 
and patiently awaited developments. 

But the "developments" never came. 

The next day was bright and beautiful. The warm sun- 
shine which flooded the world enticed everybody early 
upon deck, and what a surprise it was to find that nobody 
was sick! The sea was yet quite rough, and it was with 
considerable difficulty that we could move about the deck, 
and the steamer frequently "shipped a sea" which deluged 
everything forward. 

But not a single person was sea-sick! And those few 
who had determined to suffer "a thousand deaths" during 
the vo}'age were specially free from even that "uncom- 
fortable feeling" which is so familiar to all who travel 
upon the seas. It was a happy, jolly compan}-, fulh" pre- 
pared to enjoy an}- little "devilment" which should 
chance to suggest itself. Long before we had safely gotten 
upon our "sea legs," the girls were romping over the deck 
and making- even the mightv ocean to resound with the 
melody of their merry voices. 

Even the Professor was most agreeably disappointed in 
being entirely free from his chronic ailment when out of 
sight of land, and he, too, enjoyed the ocean with " the 
children." His dry wit and brilliant humor afforded us 
many a hearty laugh during that memorable voyage, and 
we have unanimously voted Professor Winston to be the 
"prince of good fellows." 


We enjoyed that homeward voyage. Every mile of the 
journey was pleasant and interesting. Onr party, being 
largely in the majority, controlled the affairs of the trip. 
All the entertainments and amusements were in our hands, 
and well did we use them to our general enjoyment and that 
of all the passengers. The days were spent in games inci- 
dent to ship life, and in the evenings there were concerts in 
the saloon in which every talent participated. 

]Many pranks were played upon our boys by the girls of 
the party, the favorite one being to fill the pillows in their 
staterooms with flour, which painted them white imme- 
diately upon retiring for the night. The merry songs 
were heard upon the deck and in the saloon until far into 
the evening, and the genial Captain Richie said that never 
before did he have such a jolly lot of passengers. 

The voyage was somewhat rough throughout. A strong- 
headwind prevailed, which kept the sea lashed into foam, 
while the heavy swells tossed the steamer about as a play- 
thing. This restless condition of the sea afforded a mem- 
ber of the part}' an opportunity of dedicating the follow- 
ing lines to certain members who had previously enjoyed 
the terrible "malady of the sea": 

The swells ! the swells ! these ruthless swells ! 

Which now around us roar ! 
They l:)ring to us most doleful yells 

Fronj. every cabin door. 

The swells ! the swells 1 triumphant swells I 

Oh! how they toss the ship! 
They've got us, so their surging tells, 

In their relentless grip. 

The swells ! the swells ! these horrid swells ! 

Which shake the mighty earth I 
They make our North Carolina belies 

Keep groaning in their berth. 


The swells! the swells! these cruel swells! 

How they vex poor sinners ! 
They are the monster who compels 

Us to give up our dinners. 

The swells ! the swells ! gigantic swells ! 

Which lift us to the sky ! 
While inward Nature so rebels 

That we think we'll surely die. 

Early in the morning of the 20th of August we sighted 
a number of pilot boats, some three hundred miles from 
shore. We then realized that we were drawing near the 
end of our journey, and that our happy family of tourists 
was soon to be widely separated, as each member would 
depart for distant homes. 

We were sorry that the tour was ending. 

Several of the pilot boats attempted to make their way 
to our ship, but "there was a great calm upon the waters," 
and the boats could only lie motionless with their sails idly 
flapping the masts. Therefore Captain Richie selected 
the boat which was nearest to our course, and in a very 
short time we were "hove to" and the pilot was climbing 
over the rail of the steamer. 

Then there was a rush for New York papers. Every- 
body wanted to know the news. Of course the pilot had 
no papers under three or four days old, but we didn't care 
for that provided they told us what the world had been 
doing since we sailed from Larue ten days ago. No news- 
paper was ever before more eagerly read than was that 
much-worn copy of TJie Nezv York IVoj'ld which we 
received from the pilot. 

On the next morning we saw the first outlines of the 
land — OUR HOME LAND — and we all felt a thrill of excite- 
ment such as we had t:ot before experienced. The barren 
wastes of Sandy Hook, over which the glorious "Stars 
and Stripes" proudly waved, were far dearer to us than 


all the rich landscapes, ancient castles, lofty towers and 
splendid palaces of Enrope; and as we again looked npon 
our own dear, free America, onr hearts swelled with ten- 
derest emotions of pride, and somebody in our company 
softly sang a strain of that grand old melody, "Home, 
Sweet Home," in which sentiment we all most devoutly 
and heartily joined. 

The ocean was now as peaceful as a lake. The wind 
had ceased and there was a dead calm. The mellow autumn 
sunshine subdued the waves and softened the air into 
balmy summer. The great ocean about us seemed to be a 
vast mirror, which reflected the full outline of our noble 
steamer with scarcely a ripple to mar that wonderfully 
serene and tranquil picture. The great engines seemed 
to realize that we were almost home, and each mighty 
throb proclaimed the joy of the safe return. The gulls 
drew nearer to us, and as they poised upon their broad, 
white wings just in the wake of the ship, our imagination 
interpreted the nodding and turning of their heads and 
their uncouth crvincj into a song of "Welcome home." 

And all Nature welcomed our return; the earth, the air, 
the sea and the skies gave us their brightest smiles, while 
the sunbeams danced a minuet of joy upon the placid 
waters. The porpoise lazily coquetted upon the liquid 
mirror, while the petrel indulged in a most luxurious saline 
bath as it gracefully skimmed the glassy surface of the 
peaceful Atlantic. From these joyous scenes and this 
happy reverie of home we were ruthless!}' aroused bv the 
rattle of the steam derrick which was bringing our trunks 
from the hold of the vessel to the deck, where they were 
to await the pleasure of Uncle Sam's Customs officers. 

This performance considerabh" excited the members of 
our party who had made many purchases abroad. Specu- 
lations were indulged in as to the probable fate of some 
silk dress, seal-skin sack, or bundle of kid gloves which 


had been bought in London and Paris. It was interesting 
to notice how our baggage had grown during our tour. 
The hand-satchel had become a valise, while in turn the 
valise had been replaced by a trunk; and the girl who left 
New York with only one trunk now possessed two in order 
to hold her property, and our worthy President had been 
obliged to purchase a trunk expressly to hold the toys and 
novelties which he had collected for his children. 

Soon after we entered the harbor of New York the 
revenue boat came alongside the ship, and then came our 
first experience with Uncle Sam's tariff The Customs 
officers sat at the tables in the saloon, and we all were 
required to form a long line so as to appear before them in 
turn and make written oath as to our baggage and con- 
tents. It is said b\' experienced persons that \ou can 
swear to anything you please before a Customs officer or 
tax assessor without the slightest violation of religion or 
conscience. Our faith in this tradition is somewhat stronger 
now than it was several years ago. 

Having completed our "official swearing," there was 
nothing for us to do but remain on deck and enjoy the sail 
up that most magnificent harbor. This was not an unin- 
teresting occupation, for, besides the matchless view which 
was spread out before us on either side, we were further 
entertained by listening to the comments upon the scene 
made b}' six hundred foreign emigrants who were standing 
on the deck below us. 

Ever}- nationality on earth was represented in that 
uncouth mass of humanity, and not one of them had ever 
before touched foot upon the shores of free America. It 
was evident that thc\- did not have the slightest conception 
of the land in which they were seeking a home, and many 
remarks made by them convinced us that they had been 
given most distorted impressions of America. One dejected 
looking female pointed out to a companion the beautiful 


grounds of the navy yard and said, ''Tliere is the place 
where all emigrants are taken care of and fed until they 
get a good place to work." And her companion joyfully 
replied, "But we don't have to do much work in this 
country where wages are so high." AVe have often won- 
dered since that day what became of those poor girls upon 
awakening from their happy dreams of the new land. 

As we passed the Statue ^^of Liberty an enthusiastic 
Italian rapturously exclaimed ' ' Colombo ! " " Colombo ! ' ' 
and he proudly pointed it out to his people about him as 
a monument to the great Christopher Columbus! The 
celebrated statue needs to be reconstructed by Monsieur 

Our next visit, as we slowly steamed up the harbor, was 
from the "Doctor's Boat," to see that there were no epi- 
demic or contagious diseases onjboard. This^examination 
was simply a perfunctory affair, and most of the passengers 
never even knew that "the Doctor was aboard." 

But the Doctor's boat brought several of our friends 
from North Carolina to give us a cordial welcome home. 
There were many anxious inquiries as to " news from 
home," and one of our friends, in reply, informed us that 
" the whole State is talking about your visit to the Queen." 

"Our visit to the Queen?" the Secretary replied, "Why, 
what do you mean? " 

Our friend looked puzzled, and he said in explanation: 
"A letter appeared in the Raleigh papers from Professor 
Winston, stating that all your party had made a formal 
visit to Queen Victoria." 

The Secretary smiled and said: " That is the hoax of the 
season. We have not been at any time within twenty-five 
miles of the Queen. The letter was written by the Pro- 
fessor when thoroughly sea-sick, in mid-ocean, a thousand 
miles from land, as a huge joke. He made many ridicu- 
lous statements in order that no one should for a moment 


believe anything in the letter. The letter was mailed 
immediately upon our arrival in Glasgow, and for the 
special purpose of letting our friends in the United States 
know that we had crossed the ocean in safet}'. I am sur- 
prised that any person should have believed the statements 
made in that letter." 

We enjoyed man\' a laugh at the expense of that ficti- 
tious "Visit to the Oueen," which had so excited our 
friends at home. 

Owing to the fact that another steamer of the State Line 
was lying at the dock preparing to sail, our ship came to 
anchor in the stream. In a very short time thereafter a 
lighter came alongside to take all the passengers ashore to 
be handed over to the tender mercies of the Customs officers. 

As we left the Indiana we gave the noble ship a last 
lingering look of love, and our hearts swelled with grati- 
tude to her for bringing us safely on so long a voyage 
across the stormy Atlantic. The old ship seemed to realize 
and appreciate our thoughts, and the deep, hoarse salute 
to our departure by the engineer's whistle almost appeared 
to really come from the heart of the vessel. Within a very 
few minutes the lighter had reached the wharf, and with 
a thrill of delight we realized that our feet again rested 
upon beloved America, our own dear home-land. 

There were many joyous greetings with kindred and 
friends, and our large and congenial tourist-family was 
gradually disappearing in these happy reunions of home 
circles. Many eyes glistened with tears as the strong- 
clasping of hands in friendship's fondest farewell were 
given, while earnest pledges of life-long remembrance 
were uttered. 

It was a touching scene on the wharf that day, and even 
now as we write of it, nearly three years afterwards, we 
pause to brush away a mist which suddenly dims our eyes. 

The Secretary experienced, on that memorable occasion, 
sensations which were peculiar to no other member of the 


part)-. As he saw that all were again safeh- and happilv 
at home, there was suddenly lifted from his heart and 
mind the exceedingly heavy anxiety and responsibility 
which had rested upon him during the past six weeks; and 
his heart was filled with profoundest gratitude to Him who 
had so safely guided our steps, and so carefully protected 
our health and our lives throughout our journeyings. 

And we had ample reason to be thankful, for it was 
indeed one of the most successful and satisfactory trips 
€ver made by a part)' of tourists. There were one hun- 
dred persons in our com pan)- and we had traveled over 
eleven thousand miles by land and by water, twice crossing 
the ocean; we had experienced every variety of climate, 
water and diet, and many peculiar social customs of the 
people of strange lands; and from the time of our departure 
from Morehead City, July 4th, until our return to New 
York on August 21st, there had not been a serious accident 
or case of sickness, nor had we lost a single piece of bag- 
gage or anything else of consequence, or missed any day 
of sight-seeing on account of inclement weather. Every 
member of the party had continued in good health, good 
spirits and good humor, thus fully prepared to enjoy every 
■event of the trip. Truly it was a tour phenomenal by 
reason of its success, safety and pleasure. 

The United States officials in the Custom House were 
exceedingly courteous, kind and accommodating to our 
people, and thus our obligations to Uncle Sam's tariff laws 
were soon complied with without the slightest trouble or 
delay. Every outgoing train then carried some members of 
the party to cheerful homes, where open doors and warm 
hearts awaited them; and as we waved a farewell to the 
last departing "tourist," we painfully realized that the 
memorable vacation jaunt in Europe by "The North 
Carolina Teachers' Assembly Party " had become indeed 
a thing of the past, save in our happy recollections of the 



You would never think of looking for flowers in an arctic snow-drift, 
would you? Yet there is a flower that grows abundantly in the snows 
of Siberia. It is the shape of a star, about four inches in diameter, and 
has petals of great length. It springs up to the height of three feet in 
three days, and has only three snow-white leaves. The flower buds, 
blooms and fades in twenty-four hours. It is fainth' scented. If touched 
with the warm hand, both it, the stock on which it rests and the leaves 
melt into a kind of snow. It produces seeds which, when sow-n in the 
snow, readily come to maturity and produce flowers. It was Anthnos- 
koff, the great Russian botanist, who in 1870 discovered this beautiful 
flower in vSiberia. He took some of the seeds to St. Petersburg and had 
the satisfaction of seeing one of the plants flower in December, 1S72, in 
the presence of the imperial family. — Southern Educator, April, /S92. 

[The above purports to be a reply to an imaginary 
"Interrogation Point.'' An educator who professes to 
o^ive information ought to be reasonably sure that he is 
telling the truth. The " Snow Flower" story is a news- 
paper hoax and was copied into the old book of "Queries," 
from which the Southern Educator reprinted it. There is 
no such flower as the " Snow Flower," nor was. there ever 
a botanist by the name of "Anthnoskofif, " and there is no 
trutli whatever in the statement above quoted. Perhaps 
the Southern Educator \x\\\ kindly give his "Interrogation 
Point" a brief biographical sketch of this "great Russian 
botanist!" It is not always wise to trv to appear wise. 
As an educational journal The North Carolina 
Teacher feels it a duty to correct errors wherever found 
which in any way affect our teachers and schools. — 

Do not delay too long in preparing your exhibit for 
the Educational Exposition at Morehead City during the 
session of the Teachers' Assembly. Get the articles ready, 
pack them carefully and ship them at once to Morehead. 




A new interest has recently been awakened in efforts to 
ascertain the true origin of the name of our State. Captain 
S. A. Ashe, editor of tht JVezt's a/id Observer^ Raleigh, says: 

"Bancroft the historian, and some of the earliest writers 
about the settlements in Carolina, trace the name to the 
French lodgment made about Port Royal, in 1562. They 
indicate that the name Florida was applied to the country 
occupied by the Spaniards, and that the region northward 
was called Carolina by the French until Virginia was 

"When in 1606 King- Charles made grants for the set- 
tlement of Virginia, which extended, we believe, as far up 
as Canada, he limited the northern settlement to certain 
bounds, left the centre open, and limited the London Com- 
pany to the region between Cape Fear and the Alary land 

"That territory continued to be called Virginia, as it 
had been designated from the time it was first named in 
honor of the Virgin Queen. Some twenty years later King- 
Charles granted the territory from 36 degrees to 31 degrees 
(from Albemarle Sound down to the present Florida line), 
to Sir Robert Heath, and erected it into a province, and he 
said in the grant, 'we name the same Carolina.' 

"After that the people of Virginia apparently called that 
region Carolina, and a Virginian going to Roanoke Island 
spoke of going to Carolina. 

"Hon. Kemp P. Battle, LL. D. , Professor of History 
in our University, contends that the origin of the name is 
this grant, and that it did not spring from the French lodg- 
ment at Port Royal, and he says he is sustained by Justin 
Winsor, a recent wTiter who has made special investigations 


as to whether the French called the country 'Carolina,' and 
finds that they did not, but did call it Nova Francia. 

"For our part we think that Charles probably called the 
'province' he erected after himself, just as Elizabeth named 
Virginia in her own honor. 

"The name 'Carolina' has been borne by this region 
ever since 1629, ^^'^ ^^ suppose that Dr. Battle is right, 
that it was so called in honor of the English King and not 
because of the French settlement sixty years before." 

[It is evident that all the land from Albemarle Sound to 
Florida was originally named "Carolina," however much 
we may differ as to the source from whence the name came. 
In 1697 Carolina was divided into two colonies known as 
"Carolina" and "South Carolina," and these should now 
be the names of these two States. South Carolina was cut 
off from Carolina and took a new name, just as did West 
Virginia when it was separated from Virginia. There is 
no £as^ Virginia, nor should there be any NorlJi Carolina; 
we should have only Virginia and West Virginia, and 
Carolina and South Carolina. 

Of course we would be unwilling to give up the name 
"North Carolina" since our people have made the name so 
famous and so highly honored at home and abroad, but it 
is true, nevertheless, that we are really the "Carolinians." 
If the people beyond the Blue Ridge should form a new 
State it would be "Western Carolina." It may be proper 
for the children to take new names, but the mother State 
should remain the same. — Editor.] 

The Teacher will, in future, spell the name of our 
charming Elm City as follows, "New Berne," as this is 
by request of the mayor of the city and is the desire of 
all the citizens except, perhaps, about some half-a-dozen 


The College Association oe North Carolina. 


Geo. T. Winston. LL.D., President, University of North Carolina. 
Chas. E. Taylor, LL.D., ist Vice President, Wake Forest College. 
N. C. English, A. M., 2d Vice President, Trinity College. 
W. S. CuRRELL, Ph. D., 3d Vice President, Davidson College. 
W. A. Withers, a. M., Secretary, Col. of Ag. and Mech. Arts. 


edited by the secretary. 

The Association was called to order at 11 o'clock in the 
Court-House by the President. Th^ following members 
and visitors from the following Institutions were found to 
be present: 

Davidson College — President J. B. Shearer. 

Elon College — President W. S. Long. 

Girls Normal and Industrial School — President C. D. 
Mclver and Prof. E. A. x-Ylderman. 

Greensboro Female College — President B. F. Dixon and 
Prof. Dred Peacock. 

Guilford College— President L. L. Hobbs, Prof. John W. 
Woody and Prof R. C. Root. 

North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic 
Arts— Prof W. A. Withers. 

Rutherford College— Prof. W. E. Abernathy. 

Trinity College — President John F. Crowell, Prof, J. M. 
Bandy, Prof. N. C. English, Prof. J. L. Armstrong, Prof. 


J. M. Steadmaii, Prof. B. C. Hinde, Prof. H. Austin 
Aikins, Prof. L. W. Crawford. 

University of North Carolina — President Geo. T. Win- 
ston and Prof. Karl P. Harrington. 

Wake Forest College — President Chas. E. Taylor. 

Hon. S. M. Finger, Snpt. of Public Instruction. 

Col. E. G. Harrell, Editor North Carolina Teacher 
and Sec'yN. C. Teachers' Assembly. 

Supt. John J. Blair, W^inston Graded Schools. 

Supt. G. A. Grimsley, Greensboro Graded Schools. 

Mr. J. R. Wharton, Supt. of Pub. Instruction of Guil- 
ford County. 

Expressions of regret at not being able to be present 
were conveyed from President Alex. Q. Holladay, A. and M. 
College; Prof. W. S. Currell, Davidson College; Mr. Hugh 
Morson, President N. C. Teachers' Assembly; President 
R. L. Abernathy, Rutherford College, and Mr. E. S. Sheppe, 
Editor The Southern Educator'. 

The address of welcome was delivered by Mr. B. F. 
Dixon, who congratulated the State on the progress made 
in the cause of education in recent years. He considered 
it a pleasure to look into the faces of those who had more 
to do with the shaping of the education of the State than 
any other class of people. He extended a warm welcome. 

In responding to the address of welcome, Mr. W. E. 
Abernathy said: 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: Iu behalf of the Asso- 
ciation of College Professors of North Carolina, I desire to express our 
appreciation of the very graceful and cordial welcome tendered by the 
President of Greensboro Female College. I desire to congratulate the 
Executive Committee on the selection, for this our first meeting, of your 
beautiful city, renowned for the chivalry of her men, the beauty of her 
women, the classic culture of her citizens, and her wealth of historic 
name. This is holy ground. This is the birthplace of American free- 
dom. It was here that the patriot warrior — whose name your city wears 
and will wear forever — marshalled his bruised and battered columns, 
and with the daring of despair threw them across the march of an every- 


where triumphant foe. It was here arose the herald-star ushering in the 
sun which silvered the bayonets and banners of Yorktown. With pleas- 
ure and with pride we greet you in this historic city. But the greatest 
military genius of the world and of the ages, beneath the bending of 
whose eyelids the earth reeled and rocked, Napoleon Bonaparte, said: 
"The true victories, the only ones which we need never lament, are 
those won over the dominion of ignorance." Under its dismal covert 
crouch all crimes, lurk all lies, shelter all sins and suffering, hide all 
hurtful influences. The alphabet is the ally of libert}', the school-house 
is our Palladium. Plant it w'here you will — in pine woods or populous 
cities, build it of rude slab or polished marble, fill it with the young of 
rich or ragged, prince or pauper — you have erected a bulwark better 
than a cordon of bristling bayonets or stoutest soldiery. 

We gather here to-da}' from all parts of North Carolina, from our sep- 
arate fields of labor, to take counsel of each other, to read the rich pages 
of each other's experience, to feel the electric touch of elbows, to broaden 
our mental horizon, to learn more of the divinity of our divine art — the 
art of man-building. We are king makers. It is terribly true that we 
hold in our hands the distaff of the fates. Year by year the State calls 
upon us for our tribute of troops to fight on her fields, of brave men to 
bear her burdens. They are what we make them. The old Greeks, in 
the days of Euripides, when they punished a criminal punished his 
school-master with him; it was right. The teacher lives again in his 
students. Our lives and precepts will be re-enacted in the histories of 
those who go out from under our care — crystalized in the characters, 
thrilling in the songs, living in the laws, enwoven in the destinies of the 

May all our deliberations here recognize the dignity and divinit\- of 
our profession, and win the approval of the Great Teacher. 

Again I thsnk you for our welcome to your city. 

The annual address was delivered by the President of 
the Association, Mr. Geo. T. Winston. (This address will 
be inserted in the next number of The Teacher.) 

On motion of Mr. Chas. E. Taylor, a vote of thanks was 
tendered to the President for his excellent address. 

On motion of Mr. J. L. Armstrong, it was decided that 
the business session be held at the close of the afternoon 
session instead of Saturday morning. 





The educational conditions in North Carolina are somewhat as follows: 

The elementary schools are woefully unequal to the task of doing the 
educational work peculiar to that grade of schools. 

The intermediate schools are comparatively more nearly equal to the 
work belonging to them, but yet are far from meeting the needs of the 
population on the one hand, and of answering the requirements of the 
colleges on the other. 

There are very few distinctl}' preparator}' schools in North Carolina. 
A strict adherence to the letter of the subject would throw us out of 
touch with actual conditions in the midst of which we live, and of which 
we must treat if we wish to do any good to the interests concerned. 
This paper treats of the preparatory work done in all classes of schools, 
and then suggests plans for increasing the efficiency of this work. 

The schools which stand between the elementary schools and the col- 
leges of the higher grade are the schools which undertake nearly all the 
preparatory work that is really done, excepting that done in cities by 
private tutors, and the work of the graded schools, which includes both 
the elementary and the academic portions of the preparatory training. 

These schools may be divided into three classes: 

1. The academy — the oldest and in many respects the best feature in 
our entire preparatory system. 

2. The collegiate institute — which prepares for advanced standing in 

3. The smaller colleges — a larger portion of whose students are of 
preparatory grade, but which have a baccalaureate curriculum and grant 
degrees both honorary and for work. 

To this may be added a fourth — the larger colleges which give prepar- 
atory instruction to students who are conditioned upon requirements for 
admission to college, being at the same time allowed to enter the college 
courses of instruction. 

These being the phases of the problem before us, how shall we solve it? 

As a remedy for this fourth phase of the difficulty, that is, to meet the 
case of conditioned students, of which we must take account as things 
now are, I suggest: 

I. Provide an academy of preparatory instruction at tlie seat and under 
the management of every college zuhich holds entrance examinations for 
admission to the freshman class, to which academy conditioned students 
may go to make good such deficiencies. 

After a study of several experiments I am prepared to say that this is 
the best way I know to relieve the college of preparatory work, and at 
the same time to make that peculiar work more efficient in preparing 
boys for full admission to college courses. 


The want of the clear differentiation of the college work from prepara- 
tory work is one of the greatest obstacles to the improvement of both. 

Hence, colleges ought to provide a separate institution to do local 
preparatory work, not only to coach delinquent applicants, but to pro- 
vide preparatory advantages to the boys of the college community. 

This is a comparatively inexpensive remedy. Undergraduates could 
do most of the teaching, superintended by a principal. 

The colleges must go into the business of preparatory education, or beg 
their way into a precarious patronage. Opposition from the preparatory 
schools need not be reckoned in this matter of meeting a local condition 
which the preparatory schools elsewhere cannot meet. 

Of the other phase of the question, how to improve the efficiency 
of the preparatory agencies in the academies, the collegiate institutes 
and the minor colleges, I am unalterably opposed to anything that looks 
like compression, by way of reducing the grade of work done. These 
things will right themselves quicker by reason than by force aimed at 
the institutions concerned. 

II. The thing for us as an Association to do is to prepare a standard 
schedule of requirements for admission to the A. B. course in our colleges 
■in a separate form for circulation ayiiong all the schools engaged in prepar- 
atory work. 

With the sanction of this Association this can be done with great effect. 

This would furnish a standard by which schools could be guided in 
their work, as well as give the student an idea of what he must have to 
enter. The trouble is that too few know what the colleges want. 

Many academies and private tutors do not publish a course of studies 
to be taken for admission to colleges. 

III. A third incentive to improve preparatory work would be the hold- 
ing of entrance examinations by joint arrangement of the colleges at the 
leading centres, in the cities and in the country, say, at central points to 
cover sections of the State, 

IV. Induce the preparatory schools to have a distinctly college prcpara- 
atory curriculum for admission to the freshmaii class — no longer or no 
shorter. This pertains especially to graded schools in cities, and to 
collegiate institutes, whose general courses cover more years than the 
distinctly preparatory course does. 

V. Let the preparatory schools undertake less and do better zvhat they 
undertake under the head of preparatory work. 

Preparation for advanced standing is a failure, with proper exceptions. 
We find that the majorit}' of students who enter upon advanced standing 
drop out of college for want of acquaintance with college methods of 

VI. Let the colleges pay more attention to the preparation of their grad- 
uates for the ivork of teaching in the preparatory schools. 

Teach the science and art of teaching. Have a teacher's class in all 



the main preparatory studies. Teach them how to teach a class in pre- 
paratory IvStin, Greek, mathematics, history, English. 

VII. Let the colleges cultivate a more personal interest in the prepara- 
tory schools, by visiting these institutions and lecturing on educational 

VIII. Introduce more modern methods and text-books. 

No text-book ten years old has any right, as a rule, to be in any course. 
The following course of preparatory study is proposed as a three years' 
college preparatory course, with 

(i.) The same course for all the first year (at the age of 12 or 13). 

(2.) Two courses, classical and normal, the second year. 

(3.) Three courses, classical, normal and scientific, the third j^ear. 








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iilArith. (Col. Rev.)-- 4; S Commer. Arith.. 

-SiLit. and Comp. 2 -S Lit. and Comp. . 

^ Elocution I 2! ^lEthics (Everett) 

£ Latin 5 

H Greek 5 

ta Algebra (Rev.) 5 

•CjLit. and Comp 2 

^Ani. Hist. (Rev.)--- 3, 



. Geometry 

« French 

'^ Latin 

:= General History 
i Drawing 

c Physics 5 

5 French 4 

•■T Latin 5 

^ Arith. (Col. Rev.)-..j 4 
■S Lit. and Comp 1 2 

n Chemistry --.; 5 £ Chemistry .: -- I 5 

■Z French . 4 ;.^ French \ 4. 


MiCivics SbtLatin 

•= Lit. and Comp. --• 2 ■? Algebra (Rev.) 
^Ped'gy(Psy.&Eth. -|4:|- 

Letter from Prof. Hu2:h Morson: 

Raleigh, N. C, April 20, 1S92. 
To tJie Secretary of the Cotleg'e Association 0/ N. C. 

Dear Sir: — I regret very much that my professional duties prevent 
me from attending the meeting of the College Association to be held at 
Greensboro on the 22d inst. , and I beg that you will express such regret 
on my behalf to the meeting, with assurances of my appreciation of the 
courtesy extended in inviting me to take a part in the discussion of the 
subject, "How to increase the efficiency of our preparatory schools." 

This is a question which I consider of great mutual importance to both 
the colleges and schools of the State, and I trust that some action in 
regard to it may be taken by you which will result in advantage to us 
all. I think I can safely say that the preparatory schools and academies 
of the State are anxious to have some arrangement which will bring all 
their work into a harmonious system conducing to the good of all par- 
ties, and would be glad if the colleges would state fully what changes 
they think would be desirable in order to bring secondary and collegiate 
work into harmonj'. The schools will be found ready, I think, to enter 
into any arrangements their circumstances will permit to bring about 
the desirable unification of our educational system. It may not be 
amiss for me to suggest that some plan be devised to provide for a con- 


ference between the teachers of the preparatory schools and the college 
professors as regards the requirements for admission to college similar 
to that which I believe exists in New York, and perhaps other of our 

Wishing for you a full and enjoyable meeting, and with renewed 
assurances of regret and disappointment at not being able to accept your 
invitation, I am, Verj- truly 3'ours, 

hugh morson. 
Business Session. 

On motion, a committee on nomination of officers was 
appointed, consisting of N. C. English, Chairman ; W. 
S. Long, W. E. Abernathy, Jno. F. Woody, and W. A. 

Mr. E. G. Harrell, Secretary of the North Carolina 
Teachers' Assembly, stated that it was the desire of the 
Assembly that the programme for College Day at More- 
head City be arranged by the Association at as early a time 
as convenient. 

On motion, a committee was appointed to arrange this 
programme, consisting of Chas. E. Taylor, Chairman ; J. 
B. Shearer, Jno. F. Crowell, L. L. Hobbs, and Karl P. 
Harrington; and it was requested that the Committee report 
this afternoon. 

Mr. Taylor reqitested that any question thought to be 
helpful to the Committee be handed to the Secretary. 

Afternoon Session — 3:15. 

Discussion of the subject, "How to Increase the Effi- 
ciency of the Preparatory Schools." 

Mr. Hobbs: A better grade of teachers might be obtained 
if better salaries could be paid. There would be difficulty 
in doing this, however, till the people showed a greater 
appreciation of the value of the schools and the work done. 

Mr. Bandy: Takingf the entrance examinations to col- 


lege as a measure of the efficiency of the schools, there is 
certainly need of their improvement. Taking Trinity 
College as an example, out of more than fifty applying for 
admission to the Freshman class about' twenty were condi- 
tioned in mathematics, and perhaps as many in Latin and 
Greek. This state of things holds back other members of 
the class who were well prepared, and thus prevents the 
teacher and pupil from doing the best work. 

Mr. Shearer: Hoped to see the day when primary 
education should be put on a higher plane of efficiency, and 
the schools continue all the year. We should not despise 
small things. It is not the large school with a large num- 
ber of teachers that furnishes the bulk of the college stu- 
dents. These come mostly from the small schools with 
only one and sometimes two teachers. They do not always 
come from the cities, as there the commercial spirit takes 
hold of the young men and draws them off into business, 
instead of into college. It is to be regretted that many of 
the schools of say one teacher which had been in existence 
an hundred years — as those around Davidson College — are 
closed. The colleges should work actively for themselves; 
their representatives should visit the schools and lecture to 
them when they get a chance, and furnish them better 

Mr. Armstrong: One of the great difficulties the col- 
lege contends witlr is the lack of preparation of students in 
English, due to the fact that the time which should be 
given to this subject in the schools is given to something 
else. We cannot get English Grammar by studying Latin 
Grammar, any more than we can learn the geography of 
the earth by studying the moon. The easy grammar for 
students of five or six years of age is not of any great value. 
The student studving^ grrammar should be older. The lack 
of the preliminary English training shows itself in bad 
spelling, and in the student not knowing the meaning of 


words which should be perfectly familiar on his entrance 
to college. 

Mr. Winston: There are many defects in our schools, 
some of which cannot be remedied. The colleges can 
help the schools by furnishing them better teachers; by 
teaching pedagogics to those students who expect to teach; 
by not recommending one w^ho is incompetent; by exerting 
their influence on the public to pay larger fees; by stimu- 
lating the schools in publishing in the annual catalogues 
the names of the schools furnishing the best pupils; by 
aiding the schools in getting better books. 

Mr. Crowell: Many pupils are at a disadvantage in 
not knowing how to study. The city schools seem to be 
well conducted, and it is the country schools that have 
least means and are therefore at a greater disadvantage. 

Mr. Abernathy: The idea advanced of the imporance 
of the small school is one of great concern. Here one 
teacher makes the school, and it is of great importance 
that he should be well equipped for his work. It is strange 
that the people pay so little attention to this, when they are 
so particular about the qualifications of one whose work is 
in law or medicine. 

Mr. Alderman: It would be a good thing for this Asso- 
ciation to send to the different teachers a circular letter 
of requirements. The teacher is very patient and diligent i ti 
his work, and anxious to make himself more efficient in it. 

Mr. Aikins: In Ontario the system is under the Min- 
ister of Education. All the colleges have the same entrance 
examination, and this is the finishing examination of the 
schools. These examinations are prepared by a committee 
of college and preparatory school men, thus combining 
the opinions of those who look at the matter from differ- 
ent standpoints. 

Mr. McIver: The Association has about one hundred 
members, and although it is of value to discuss the question 


before the Association, much more benefit would be deriv-ed 
if the matter could be presented to the people of the State. 
It would pay the colleges to defray the expenses of good 
men to go out into the counties and speak on education. 

Mr. Woody: Better results could be accomplished by 
not teaching so many things in the preparatory schools, 
and doing more thoroughly what is done. The pupil should 
realize that the study of language, is one thing, and of 
books about language another. The preparatory schools 
and colleges should be in closer touch with one another. 

Mr. Crawford : The activity of college presidents is 
now very great, and we are realizing a revival in education. 
New life is being infused into the schools. It will be of 
great value for the college men to go out among the people 
in the interest of education. 

Mr. Finger: This Association is beginning its work 
in the proper way, /. c.^ from the top downward. It is an 
omen of good. The main difficulty with the schools is the 
lack of money, and it is a struggle for a livelihood. We 
should plant good teachers here and there; money is needed 
for this, and w^e should see to it that the people are willing 
to pay more. This is an age of combination of effort. 
The public schools are a power, and it is so with the graded 
schools. The hope of better work for the colleges lies in 
combination of work with the public schools. We should 
properly educate the teacher for his work, and see to it also 
that his Christian education is not neglected. The normal 
school is a necessity, and normal instruction should be given 
in all the colleges of the State. The methods of teaching 
have improved in the last ten years, and those who teach 
should be familiar with these methods. All the schools of 
the State have felt the impulse given by the first normal 
school at the University of the State. We need more 
money for education, and w-e should have free tuition at all 
the institutions of the State. 


Mr. Harrington: There are about four hundred pre- 
paratory schools in the State, a very large number. The 
power of example is strong, and if the pupils from the 
graded schools of the cities show in their subsequent col- 
lege work that they are better prepared than other pupils, 
this will have a good effect and be a stimulus to the other 

Business Session. 

On motion of j\Ir. Long, the question of considering the 
desirability of discussing during the Teachers' Assembly 
the arrangement of a course of study for preparatory schools 
was referred to the Committee on the Morehead City pro- 

Mr. Harrell, editor, tendered the columns of The North 
Carolina Teacher for the publication of the proceedings 
of the Association. 

Mr. Crowell, for Mr. Sheppe, editor, tendered the columns 
of The Southern Educator for the same purpose. 

On motion of Mr. English, the Association accepted 
the offers of these gentlemen, and extended to them the 
thanks of the Association for the courtesy. 

Mr. English, Chairman of the Committee on Nomina- 
tion of Officers for the Next Year, made the following report 
of recommendations : President, Chas. E. Taylor ; First 
Vice-President, Jno. V. Crowell ; Second Vice-President, 
J. B. Shearer; Third Vice-President, L. L. Hobbs ; Secre- 
tary and Treasurer, W. A. Withers. 

On motion of Mr. Mclver, the report of the committee 
was adopted, and the officers declared elected. 

The Executive Committee, by authority of the Constitu- 
tion, levied an assessment of one dollar per member to pay 
the cost of postage, stationery and printing. 


Evening Session — 8 o'clock, 
the requirements of the a. b. degree. 


Forty or fifty years ago this would have been considered an easy if 
not a useless question. The requirements were so stereotyped and 
were so well understood that to have raised the question at all would 
have caused surprise. 

The degree was generally recognized throughout the United States as, 
a credential to at least four years of certain residence and probable stud}- 
at a chartered college, and, as a trade-mark in the world of letters, was 
supposed to guarantee considerable knowledge of Latin, Greek, and math- 
ematics, a general knowledge of physics and philosophy, some acquaint- 
ance with chemistry and history and English literature, and, occasionallv, 
a weak infusion of a modern language. 

A rigid curriculum system was in universal vogue. Upon it, 
as upon a procrustean bed, the student was mercilessly bound, regard- 
less of his tastes, proclivities and intended occupation. Comparatively 
few colleges were thoroughh' manned with instructors, especially in the 
scientific chairs. The lack of endowments, laboratories, apparatus, as 
well as long established custom, made it necessary to require that an 
overwhelmingly large portion of the work of the colleges should be 
given to ancient languages and pure mathematics. 

Far be it that we should underrate the work of the colleges during 
the last generation. It is known by its fruit. Foundations were laid 
for the largest and ripest scholarship, and it may be questioned whether, 
on the merely disciplinar}' side, we are doing better work or give more 
intrinsic value to the Bachelor's degree than did our fathers. 

But whatever may have been its real value, the A. B. degree had a 
definite significance which has gradually become greatly obscured. It 
has largeh' lost its old jiieaning. Its new meaning may be better, but 
it is not yet generally understood and recognized. Two reasons may be 
suggested for this vmcertainty about the meaning and value of the 
degree — 

First: In almost all the States infant colleges — hundreds in all — 
have been given the chartered privileges of conferring degrees. And 
j-oung men who have spent two or three years at so-called colleges, 
which are less well equipped than many good academies, are authorized 
to write after their names the same title which is won by arduous labor 
for four years at Harvard, Johns Hopkins or Vanderbilt. 

Second : The elective system has been almost universally adopted in 
greater or less degree. L^nfortunately, however, almost every college is, 
in this respect a law unto itself, and the variations are endless. The 


American x^cadeni}' of Medicine, which has set itself to the investiga- 
tion of college degrees, and whose published reports are probably the 
best authority at our command, seems almost to despair of anything 
like consensus of opinions or uniformity of practice. That the elective 
system is wise, and absolutely necessary to some extent, will hardly be 
debated. Just how far it should be allowed is still, and is long likely to 
be, an open question. The system appears to be unavoidable, simply 
because life is short and art is long — and getting longer every day. 
The student's college life is a constant quantity. The work desirable 
to be done by him has shown itself to be a variable one. The scientific 
.studies have become more and more differentiated, and a strange stress 
is wisely required to be put on political econom}', history, English and 
the modern languages. The writer, when a youth, was a student in an 
excellent college, of high reputation, and comparativel}' well equipped. 
But -all the scientific instruction given was five hours a week for one 
year. At the college over which he now has the honor to preside, nine- 
teen hours a week for one year are needed for lectures alone, while ten 
hours are required for laboratory work. And the same change has 
probably been witnessed by most of our older men. 

The problem before us, briefly stated in different terms, is this : 
Given a young man of average academic preparation who is to remain 
four 3'ears in college. What can the college best do for him in that 
time ? 

It will be seen at once that this question is not absolute but relative. 
The answer will depend upon — 

(I.) The advantage offered by the college that he. selects. In some 
institutions a well prepared student can literally "go through college " 
in four years. In others he would need eight or ten years to complete 
all the courses of instruction offered. 

(2.) Upon the capacities and proclivities of the man. There is no 
absolute "best" about it. The course that is most desirable for one 
student is certain!}' not necessarily the most desirable for all students. 

(3.) Upon the occupation which the student expects to pursue. 

It is true that it is the part of the college to teach a student some- 
thing about ever3'thing, and of the university to teach everything about 
something. But this need not imply that it is the function of the col- 
lege to teach an equal amount about everything to each student, regard- 
less of the work he expects to do in after life. Just as a university, 
whose peculiar function is specialization, should aim also at general 
culture, so also may a college, whose peculiar function is general cul- 
ture, begin the work of specialization. We often speak of the college 
as laying foundations for after-building. Surely it is not wrong to lay 
the foundation deeper than elsewhere at the point where the superstruc- 
ture will rest most heavily hereafter. 


In view of the above considerations, the writer may be allowed to 
express the opinion that the student, while allowed to engross no branch 
of study, scientific or literary, should be permitted in working for the 
A. B. degree to lay more stress upon some than upon others. While, 
however, there is a growing belief that there should be some modifica- 
tion in the direction suggested of a rigid curriculum, there are wide vari- 
ances of view as to the extent and manner of the change. Indeed, any- 
thing like perfect conformity is hardly to be hoped for. And yet it is 
very desirable that the whole matter be studied and debated, and that, 
at least, some general principles and standards be agreed to. 

Amid the almost innumerable opinions held there is, among those who 
have discarded the unyielding curriculum system, a practical unanimity 
in one belief, a belief which the writer holds, that is that there should 
be presented to the student several courses, the successful pursuit of any 
one of which would secure for him the A. B. degree. Of course the 
number of these courses leading to A. B. should not be needlessly 
increased. All should be, so far as possible, of the same average diffi- 
culty and length, so that the student in making his option between them 
could be controlled entirely by eonsiderations of relative utility. It 
seems desirable that there should be at least five of these courses, one 
making Ancient Languages prominent; another Pure and Applied Mathe- 
matics and Physics; another Chemistry and Natural History; another 
Political Economy and History, and another English, French and Ger- 
man. But in each of the groups those studies which are less prominent 
should never be subordinated in such a way as to make them appear 
uHimportant. The student who chooses, for instance, the Ancient Lan- 
guage group must be made to understand that he must be as proficient 
in the Mathematics and Natural History required in that group as in 
Latin or Greek. Something of this sort, while requiring no less labor 
and time on the part of the student, seems to be a clear gain over the 
older system of requirements for A. B. If it really be so, is it not desi- 
rable that there should be a general adoption of it in American colleges? 

The subject was continued in the following paper by 
Mr. Karl P. Harrington: 


It is a somewhat curious freak of nature that, in this new land of lib- 
erty, whose government is based upon the declaration that all men are 
free and equal, and whose history proves that neither wealth, nor family 
name, nor titled honors are necessary for a man to reach the highest 
position in commercial, political, ecclesiastical or scholastic circles, 
there should have been developed such a mania for degrees and titles as 



to place Americans in a most unenviable position in this respect before 
the other great nations of the world. 

The American girl who is to inherit the millions of some lard mer- 
chant, or oil manipulator, or railroad magnate, lays herself with all her 
wealth at the feet of any worthless European younger son of a once 
noble house in order to become, forsooth, "the Countess." A clergy- 
man reaches the age of forty-five, and forthwith through his friends 
and relatives besieges some university facult}' in order to take by force 
of fear of loss of patronage, or other possible vague disaster, the Doc- 
torate of Divinity. The young teacher of the present da}-, knowing 
that the German degree of Doctor of Philosophy is the key most like!}' 
to open for him the door to high honors and lucrative salaries, seeks far 
and wide for the institution which will append the coveted letters 
"Ph. D." to his name for the smallest amount of time and effort spent 
on his part, or perhaps even accepts unblushingly the gift of the hono- 
rary title from some second-rate American college It is hard to sa}' 
whether the sight of this struggle after the name rather than the thing 
is more comical or pitiful. Our English cousins, strange as it may 
seem, are, for the most jDart, well content with plain "]Mr. ", even though 
they hold positions of eminence in the great Universities of Oxford and 
Cambridge; while among us every man who has ever been in a regiment 
is a "Major" or a "Colonel"; and the negro, seeing what suits the 
prevailing temper of his Caucasian neighbors, salutes every male white 
that walks the earth with the title of "Boss." 

It was the inevitable result of this haste to obtain titles that all our 
university degrees should suffer more or less degradation. The newer 
the community the faster must be the life in order to overtake the older 
civilization; and, accordingly, in some sections boys have become 
" Bachelors of Arts " after doing an amount of work no greater than 
that completed during the first 3-ear of a respectable universit}-. It is 
not a very uncommon thing in some colleges for boys to enter the 
Freshman Class that have already obtained the degree of "A. B." else- 

" D. D." and " LL. D." have long been conferred regardless of the 
idea of expecting an}' exact correspondence between the original mean- 
ings of the titles and the attainments of the persons receiving them. 
Even Ph. D. was on the verge of ruin as the one remaining name-handle 
that a learned man might hold without its melting away in his grasp. 

But the work of rescue has begun. "Ph. D. " has been "snatched as 
a brand from the burning," and men are refusing either to give or receive 
it as an honorary degree. A very general movement is on foot to restrict 
within exceedingly narrow limits the number of Doctorates of Divinity 
and of Laws to be dispensed in the future. "A. M.", which has for 
many years been generally given away to almost every college graduate 
of three years standing, is now being awarded more and more onl}- upon 


rigid examinations in advanced studies. When, however, we turn to the 
A. B. degree, the most wideh' sought and given, and the most important 
of all, we are confronted with a remarkable phenomenon. A power- 
ful under-tow seems to have set in at this point, which threatens 
to carry all definiteness of meaning away from under the title, "Bach- 
elor of Arts," and scatter it at random over the whole vast sea of knowl- 
edge in unrecognizable disintegrating particles. From the oldest univer- 
sity in the land down to the youngest college of all, there is a bewilder- 
ing haziness enwrapping the whole question of what should be required for 
the degree, and most radical differences of opinion concerning it are fre- 
quently expressed. One set of educators are for dropping Greek from the 
list of the requirements. Another class would banish Latin, too. Still 
others propose to throw open the gates to all comers, giving the degree for 
a certain amount of work done in any line, according to the whim of the 
individual student. A large majority of the respectable institutions 
refuse the degree to any except those who have completed a " Classical 
Course"; but many 5-oung and weak colleges still selfishly persist in 
awarding it, though aware that the work done b_v their students has 
been comparatively insignificant in amount and inferior in qualitv. 

If the degree of A. B. is to carry an}' significance peculiar to itself, 
not only some definite amount, but some definite character of work must 
be understood to be implied by it; otherwise it will sink into disrepute, 
and be sought for by none. The elective system, like everything else 
based on a principle inherently sound, is liable to be carried to extremes, 
and the original purposes overreached. The theory that our academic 
students should have absolutely free choice of studies during the whole 
period of their residence in college halls, is based on a confusion of the 
German, the English, and the American ideas and methods in higher 
education. In Germany the universit}' student has, at his entrance 
upon his work, passed through a strict required course of nine years in 
the secondary schools, and is, in some respects, better fitted for the 
degree of A. B. than our own average college graduate. He is prepared 
to specialize, and accordingly sets out upon some particular line of work, 
preparatory to a professional degree. The English University man has 
likewise in the great preparatory schools, like Eton or Rugby, received 
advanced training of a high grade; but enters upon his course with the 
degree of B. A., and a possible later M. A., as the goal of his ambition. 
The American bo}' who enters college has rarely spent over four years 
in the preparatory course, often much less; and his pate commonh- con- 
tains "small Latin and less Greek "; and he is fortunate indeed if the 
possessor of a good knowledge of Algebra and plane Geometry, and the 
ability to write clearly and correctly a page of his native language. 
Yet, in four years he expects to obtain the same degree as his better 
trained English cousin; and not content with that, he begins to plead 
for the same absolute freedom in election of studies as the German uni- 


versity student. But our freshmen and sophomores cannot be put on a 
par with the foreign university students in this way. The plain fact is 
that the American boy at that stage of his intellectual career doesn't yet 
know enough facts, and hasn't yet acquired sufficient mental grasp and 
discriminating judgment, to be left entirely free, henceforth, to decide 
what he shall study in order to secure, as ha believes, a liberal educa- 
tion. He has taken a larger part of his youth for amusement and idle- 
ness than the average studious boy of any other highly civilized nation 
on the globe; and the result is what ought to be expected. If the time 
ever comes, as perhaps it will, when our colleges shall do only college 
work, and our universities university work, then we may expect a 
required course in college, and an entirely elective course in the Uni- 
versity; and maybe then the degrees will be adapted to the work done. 
Meanwhile, however, unsystematiziug all system necessarily leads to a 
chaotic state of education; it is an anacronism in this systematic age. 

Moreover, whatever demand there is for breaking down all barriers as 
regards the character of the work done for the degree of A. B. really 
arises out of sordid, time-serving and ignoble motives. At home and 
abroad the American people is recognized as the nation that makes haste 
to be rich. The money value of everything is immediately considered 
as soou as it is proposed. L,et this principle be once applied to an 
academic degree, and forthwith the question becomes prominent, What 
degree is easiest obtained and soonest gained? And what studies will 
produce in practical life the most rapid accumulation of wealth ? If 
these be the questions that are to decide the work done for the degree, 
the studies of the preparatory school must, of course, be those that can 
be soonest completed, and that are in themselves most directly practical 
for money-making; and likewise the college course must be throughout 
planned with a view to the same ends. In short, it is, too often, the 
cash value of the degree, and the comfortable feeling in its possessor 
and his parents which comes from having it, that are really sought for. 
The old question rises again to view, whether a man's life consisteth in 
the things that he possesseth, or in what the man is. The cry for the 
go-as-you-please degree means inevitable superficiality; and, if heard, it 
cannot but result in making men all the more mere utilitarian devotees 
of "the almighty dollar." 

It must be added that by having some definite standards for the degree 
and thus restricting it within certain limits, no injustice is done to any 
aspiring youth. The day when A. B. was practically the only academic 
degree that the average American boy could hope to achieve by honest 
effort, though not beyond our memories, is certainly now forever past. 
Ph. B., B. S., and B. L., are very generally given, and increasingly so; 
and the mind with literar}^ scientific or practical bias, can be accommo- 
dated with the course adapted to its individual want, and crowned with 
a degree equally honorable with that of A. B. Why, then, should there 


be any desire to take from the work done for anj^ of these degrees its 
individual honor and distinctive mark, and make A. B. the catch-all, 
the meaningless appellation that gives no hint of the kind of mental 
attainments that its possessor may claim ? Is there a lingering suspicion 
that "arts" are better than "sciences," or than "philosophy," or than 
"letters"? If so, let him who has such an opinion honestly choose 
the course that will by its distinctive work bring him the degree of 
A. B.; but let him not attempt to climb up some other way into the 
coveted position in the A. B. fold ! 

If, then, we decide that there should be some definite requirements 
for the degree of A. B., what ought these to be? Speaking comprehen- 
sively, they should be along the same general lines as the requirements 
for the same degree in the best institutions during the past centuries, 
modified incidentally by the demands of the latest and best general 
culture. For the degree of A. B. has universally been held to imply the 
completion of a course of stud}' that would furnish the best foundation 
of general culture, upon which to build a superstructure in any depart- 
ment of advanced education that might be preferred, or with which a 
man, denied the privilege of special further study, might be reasonably 
grounded in the knowledge of the most important facts, and in the 
principles which are recognized as sound in the main divisions of current 
human thought. To those wishing to give any other especial bias to 
their training and mental industry, other courses are open, leading to 
other degrees. The course leading to the degree of A. B., however, is 
not, never has been, and never should be a specializing course. 

General culture for an Airerican youth in the present day ought to 
include a practical knowledge of his country's language and the litera- 
ture of that language. It should also embrace the mathematical prin- 
ciples necessary to enable him to take up successfully any line of tech- 
nical study or business. To these subjects must be addsd a fair working 
knowledge of the principles of all the most general and useful modern 
sciences. A knowledge of one's own physical and mental organism and 
processes is essential. The ethical theories, on which should be based 
the life of States and of individuals, must be pondered, with as wide a 
range of historical illustration as is feasible. Familiarity with at least 
one modern language cannot be omitted, and neither French nor Ger- 
man ought really to be a stranger (in these daj's) to any well educated 
man. No less indispensable than any of the foregoing subjects is a 
thorough acquaintance with the ancient classic languages and the most 
celebrated specimens of their literatures. 

It is at this point that the modern hue and cry is raised that b}' giving 
so much attention to the classics the old course for the degree of A. B. 
becomes a specializing course. Even if this were admitted, it should still 
be claimed that this degree ought to have as fair a chance to preserve 
its own distinctive individuality among its equals as the degrees of B. S., 


or Ph. B., or B. L,. The proposition referred to, however, is not here 
granted. What we are endeavoring to obtain for our young men is 
fundamental general culture. If the day has long since passed when a 
man who knew well Latin and Greek, and not necessarily much of any- 
thing else, was well educated, the day is not yet in sight when he who 
desires the best preparation for mingling confidently in the world of 
culture can afford to omit from his curriculum these classic languages. 
All our law, medicine, mathematics, aitronomy, linguistic science, phi- 
losophy, history, we trace back to Greece and Rome. In all departments 
of literature, in epic or lyric poetry, oratorj', satire, the drama, we still 
find our models of style in Greece and Rome. The greatest scholars of 
to-day, our literary men, even most of our greatest scientists, have been 
thoroughly trained in their Latin and Greek, and most of them believe 
in it heartil}'. Can the man who has never read Homer, or Virgil, or 
Cicero, or Horace, be perfectly at home in the best educated circles of 
Rome, or Paris, or Berlin, or London, or Oxford, or Cambridge, or in 
an}' other one of a half-hundred cities and LTniversity communities in our 
own land? Perhaps so, occasionally. Likewise, of course, some will 
desire to point out examples of good lawyers, physicians, poets aud 
orators who have no acquaintance with Latin or Greek. Certainly ! 
In a neighboring town one of the most successful business men cannot 
write his own name ! "A word to the wise is sufficient." 

The college requirements for the degree of A. B. should be such as 
presuppose the successful completion of a school course lasting through 
a number of years. There are abundant indications of a coming move- 
ment for radical improvements in grammar school and high school 
education that will make it quite possible for much more of the work 
that is now done in many colleges to be relegated to the preparatory 
schools. English grammar, for instance, will be taught in a common- 
sense way, and will be taught in one-half the time now devoted to it 
with so little result. Arithmetic, too, instead of being spread over a 
half-dozen years, will be well taught in less than half that time, aud 
other mathematical studies may take part of the time thus left free. 

Some of the subjects that the candidate for the degree of A. B. should 
have mastered when he enters college are the following : Algebra, plane 
geometry, practical use of the English language for both writing and 
speaking, and the main facts of Latin and Greek grammar, and of Greek, 
Roman and American history. He should be able to read easy Latin at 
sight, and the same might well be said of either French or German. He 
should have studied Latin not less than four years — five would be bet- 
ter — beginning at an earlier age than is usual, and Greek not less than 
three. He should, moreover, have been so trained by the elementary 
study of some scientific subject — say botany, or physics, or geology — as 
to stimulate and develop his power and habit of observation. All this 
can be easily accomplished under the instruction of competent teachers 


before the average boy reaches the age of sixteen, and no bo}- should 
enter a college or university at an earlier age. 

The young man who has entered college thus prepared in knowledge, 
in power of observation, in grasp of linguistic and mathematical prin- 
ciples, can immediately derive benefit from all his instruction under 
the best instructors, and his course for the degree of A. B. will naturally 
be worthy of the name of college work. This course should include — 

1. Enough advanced reading in the best Greek and Latin classics to 
lay their treasures open forever to the student, the courses lasting, per- 
haps, during the first two years. 

2. Theoretical and practical rhetoric. 

3. Solid and analytical geometry and trigonometry. 

4. Logic and psychology. 

5. A course in English Literature. 

6. At least either French or German; both would be far better. 

7. A fair knowledge of ph^-sics, chemistry, physiology, geology and 

S. Ethics and political economy; to which maybe added some knowl- 
edge of civil government, and the United States Constitution in par- 
ticular, unless all that is necessary on this line can be obtained in the 
preparatory schools. 

To these subjects, which should be required for the degree, a some- 
what wide list of elective courses should be added, out of which, par- 
ticularly in the later years of his course, the student may choose enough 
to fill up his quota of work during the academic four years. His elective 
opportunities ought to be rich in literary and historical lines, for his 
previous study has fitted him well for such subjects. No less numerous 
should be the courses offered in scientific lines, in order that there may 
be no rooin for the charge that the sciences are discriminated against in 
the training of a Bachelor of Arts; but that rather, as ever, it may be 
possible for the brightest lights in the world of science to arise naturally 
from the number of those who take the regular classical courses in 
our best colleges. In ajl the required courses technical instruction and 
specializing tendencies should be avoided as much as is consistent with 
the best teaching; while in the classes which have been elected by 
students desiring to fit themselves for special work every opportunity 
should be afforded such men to investigate to the minutest detail any 
line of facts or phenomena in which they may severally take particular 

Finally, let it be urged that the requirements for the degree of A. B. 
should be essentially uniform in all colleges and universities. For this 
there are many reasons. Only three will be named here. In the first 
place they should be uniform to protect and promote sound scholarship. 
As long as young men can obtain for one-half the effort at some inferior 
institution the same degree that the best work at any first-class college 


will hardly yield them, many of them may be expected to fail to see 
wh}' they should uot take the easy course to reach the same nomiual 
result. That means superficiality for the student and comparative con- 
tentment with low ideals for the instructor. It means a great body of 
half-educated youth annually turned loose upon our people, imagining 
themselves to have a fair chance among their more fortunate comrades 
who have had more complete training, and doomed to early or later 
disappointment. It means that the people pay dearly for this disappoint- 
ment in poorly educated physicians, with whom to trust their lives; in 
poorly trained lawyers, with whom to trust their property ; in stunted 
teachers, to whom in turn is committed the education of the coming 
generation. It means that throughout this country the suspicion will 
increase that always is felt by Europeans concerning the value of any 
American's A. B. degree; and the necessity will arise for every man to 
state in connection with his degree where he received it, a thing already 
in favor with us in some cjuarters. A. B. ought to be an honorable 
degree, and everj- possessor of it ought to be able to assert confidently 
that he has done as much and as good work to obtain it as an}' other 
man. Nothing shrivels up the intellectual courage of a man worse 
than the consciousness that he has been cheated into believing that he 
knows more than he really does. 

Secondl}', the requirements in the under-graduate courses should be 
uniform in order to facilitate the post-graduate study. The professor 
who undertakes to direct advanced work in any especial line must 
assume a certain amount of knowledge on the part of his class; and 
the work which they can unitedly accomplish will be vastly more and 
better, if they can begin at the same point in their deeper investigations. 
Too often at present a man who goes to one of our best institutions for 
post-graduate study finds himself obliged either to spend some time 
first in under-graduate study, or to enter upon his chosen work ill- 
prepared to get the most benefit from his instruction. 

Last]}', uniformity of requirements is demanded for the permanent 
prosperity and success of individual colleges. "Honesty is the best 
policy." In the long run the American people in general, and the 
inhabitants of any section in particular, will recognize and honor high 
standards and honest work. The college that persistently continues to 
advertise itself as giving as much in its course for A. B. as the best 
institutions in the country, when everyone that knows anything about 
it knows the claim to be disingenuous, will sooner or later inevitably 
find its just fate under the law of the survival of the fittest. We hear 
a great deal said all over these L'nited States abovit the too rapid multi- 
plication of colleges, and much concern is expressed with regard to the 
probable result. Let it be understood that the ultimate solution of the 
problem of existence for every one of these hundreds of colleges 
depends entirely upon their ability in each individual case to prove 


themselves able to furnish as good an education as any other of their 
kind. When A. B. means just as much in one institution as in another 
the choice of an Alma Mater will be determined by local or denomina- 
tional or other considerations, and by such only. But when that desir- 
able result shall have been attained, there will be no place for the sham 
college, the would-be college, the college that is such only in ambition, 
and the sham A. B. will likewise vanish from the land. 


Mr. Hobbs: This is a difficult question to solve. It is 
closely connected with the question of the requirements for 
admission. If these requirements for admission were set- 
tled, then it would mean four years work beyond this. The 
degree should indicate a capacit)' for work. If the ques- 
tion were divided into others, as how much Latin should 
be required, the answer could be given only in general 
terms. One should certainly know enough Latin to be 
able to read it easily, to be interested in it, and have a 
sufficient fondness to be able to continue the subject by 
himself or in a higher institution. The other questions to 
arise would be, "How much science?" "How much his- 
tory?" "How much philosophy?" etc. The habit of 
study should certainly be formed, and it is hard to say just 
when this point is reached. Should like to put Bible study 
into the course. Should put in the observational studies. 
It might be possible to do this to a larger extent by beginning 
Greek later in the -course and finishing it in a shorter time. 

Mr. Taylor: Stated that his paper had been prepared 
in haste, and he should like to hear from others present and 
have a full criticism of the subject. 

Mr. Shearer: There is great difficulty in making the 
degree one of a high standard if there are fixed require- 
ments. The tendency in this case is for students to get 
the degree who are not very far advanced in any one sub- 
ject. On the other hand, licentious selections should not 
be allowed if such selections lead to a deg-ree. We should 


try to make the degree mean more to those who have gone 
over the necessary course. The course should not be too 
flexible or too fixed, and in the course should be required 
a knowledge of the Bible. 

Mr. Crowell: The A. B. course has remained about 
the same through the ages. Shall we shorten it? The 
•custom has also been to have only one time in the twelve 
mouths at which a student could apply for the degree. 
]Might we not allow it to be taken in four and a half years 
and then have an examination at Christmas. It seems 
that any A. B. course should include Latin, Greek, and 
Alathematics, and we should stand by this. Just because 
Harvard throws out Greek from its requirements for th-e 
degree, is no reason that we should do so. It is true that 
this may allow it to be taken by fewer candidates, but this 
will add to its value. 

The time will come when the colleges will answer for 
the three months lost in the summer time. 

]\Ir. Crawford: Was strongly of the opinion that some 
biblical instruction should be given to candidates for the 
A. B. degree. 

]\Ir. Winston: Wished to give his hearty approbation 
as to the study of the Holy Scriptures. No book is so full 
of human wisdom as well as of Divine wisdom. Yet there 
are difficulties in the way of requiring it to be taught in 
college. Two classes of institutions confer the A. B. degree. 
One of these gives a wider range of election, as Harvard, 
which requires no Latin or Greek, but which requires 
enough for admission to cover all the requirements in those 
subjects for graduation in many colleges. The same is 
true at the University of Virginia, and at other institu- 
tions. The colleges, as a rule, which give the most courses 
give the fewest de^frees. 

the north carolina teacher. 467 

Business Session. 

On motion, the following were elected members of the 
Association: Messrs. H. Austin Aikins, E. A. Alderman, 
W. E. Abernathy, L. W. Crawford, B. F. Dixon, Karl P. 
Harrington, B. C. Hiude, C. D. ]\lclver, Dred Peacock, 
R. C. Root, John F. Woody. 

A lengthy discussion followed as to uniform require- 
ments for admission to college and graduation, and also as 
to the tabulation of the present requirements for this in 
the different institutions of the State. 

Mr. Shearer stated that he was of the opinion that Article 
7 of the Constitution should be stricken out, or in time it 
might cause trouble. He would not at present, however, 
offer an amendment to that effect. 

Mr. Crowell, for the Committee on the Programme for 
College Day at ]Morehead City, made the following report 
of subjects recommended: 

For the morning session, the subject of College Life — 

(i) Athletics. 

(2) The Social Side of College Life. 

(3) Character Building in College. 
For the evening session — 

An open discussion of the subject, "Why I went to Col- 
lege, and what I got there." 

On motion, the report was adopted, and the Executive 
Committee was asked to select the speakers. 

The Executive Committee decided to hold the next 
annual meeting in Raleigh on February 24, 1893. 

CtEORGE T. Winston, President. 
W. A. Withers, Secretary. 

]Vortl\ Qarolii\a I'^aQlx^r^' i\55^ii\bly. 


Hugh Morsox (Raleigh Male Academy), President, 
Eugene G. HarrelIv (Editor Teacher), Sec. and Treas. 


vice-presidents : 

1. J. J. Blair (Supt. Graded Schools), .... 

2. J. E. Kelly (Model Male School) 

3. Miss Catherine Fulghum (Graded School), 
W. J. Ferrell (Wakefield Academy), 
Miss Lizzie Ivindsay (Graded School), 
P. M. Pearsall (County Superintendent), 
Miss Lina McDonald (Graded School), 

8. T. J. Drewry (Horner Military School), . 

9. Mrs. S. Montgomery Funk (Chowan Bap. Fern. Inst.), 

Hugh Morson, ex officio, President, .... 

Eugene G. Harrell, ex officio. Secretary, 

Eben Alexander (University of North Carolina), . 

W. Iv. Poteat (Wake Forest College), .... 

James Dinwiddie (President Peace Institute), . 
Charles D. Mclver (Pres't Normal and Industrial School 
for Women), ........ 

J. Y. Joyner (Superintendent Graded School), 
A. C. Davis (Superintendent Military School), 
E. E. Britton (Principal High School), .... 










Chapel Hill. 
Wake Forest. 


Ninth Annual Sessio.v, Morehead City, June 21 to July 4, 1S92. 


Examine carefully the programme of the Assembly, 
and be prepared to discuss any question that may be under 

the north carolina teacher. 469 

Every ambitious teacher should be at Morehead 
City on June 21. 

" Everybody WILL be at the Assembly this summer," 
and you will have the pleasure of meeting more of your 
friends and acquaintances than ever before. 

The Educational Exposition will fill every room in 
the Teachers' Building this summer, and the display will 
be of the greatest possible value and interest to our 

Isn't the Assembly programme for the session a grand 
educational feast of good things ? You can well afford to 
make any reasonable sacrifice in order to attend the x^ssem- 
bly this summer. 

Mr. Adolph Cohn, of New Berne, dealer in pianos and 
organs, will furnish the Assembly with an elegant baby- 
grand piano and a very fine imitation pipe organ for use of 
the teachers during the coming session. 

If you want a good school, a position in a school, or a 
teacher for your school, don't fail to be present at the 
Assembly at Morehead City in June. The Assembly is 
going to do more work than ever before for the teachers 
and the schools. 

The interest in the Assembly is far greater this year 
than ever before. From every section of North Carolina 
comes the glad news, "We are all going to the Assembly 
this summer." We think the teachers will enjoy the great 
meeting such as they have enjoyed no other meeting in the 

The Teachers' Assembly tickets will be on sale June 
18, so that persons who desire to do so may go to More- 
head City several days in advance of the session. Rooms 
may be engaged in advance by writing to i\Ir. John O. 
Plank, manager of the Atlantic Hotel. The trains reach 
the hotel on a quick schedule before night. 


Don't fail to be at the Assembly; yes, be sure to 
attend the session at Alorehead City in June. 

Remember that you do not send the annual fees for 
certificate of membership to the Secretary this year as here- 
tofore. Your railroad agent will collect the annual dues 
when you buy your ticket to ISIorehead City. This plan 
has been adopted by the railroads at our solicitation, in 
order to save trouble to all persons who want to attend the 

Do you know that more good positions as teachers have 
been secured at the Assembly than by any other means 
known to North Carolina teachers? If you want a posi- 
tion as a teacher don't fail to be at jMorehead City in June, 
and we think you will be supplied. There are already in 
hand numbers of desirable applications, both for teachers 
and for schools. 

This session of the Assembly is going to be the 
grandest representative body of North Carolina teachers 
ever seen in the State. There will be present more college 
presidents and faculties, more principals of high schools 
and academies, more superintendents and teachers of graded 
schools, more teachers of public and private schools in the 
country, and more " friends of education " than ever 

We believe that this is going to be the most successful 
and enjoyable session of the Assembly ever held. The 
outlook is unusuallv bright for a very large attendance. 
Teachers are realizing more each year that they cannot 
afford to be absent from this great gathering of the brother- 
hood at Morehead City, and "the people" also know that 
the most enjoyable outing of all the year is a visit to the 
Teachers' Assembly. 

The Literary Societies of Wake Forest College have 
elected the following speakers to represent them in the 


Intercollegiate Oratorical Contest at the Assembly June 
29: Mr. John A. Wray (Euzeliau), of Knoxville, Tenn., 
and Mr. J. P. Spence (Philomathesian), of Elizabeth Citv, 
N. C. There will also be representatives from Trinity, 
Davidson and the University, and the oratorical contest 
promises to be one of the most interesting features of the 

You WILL meet at the Assembly this summer the facul- 
ties of all the colleges, the superintendents and teachers of 
all the principal graded schools, and the teachers of all the 
regular high schools and academies, and of many other 
private and public schools in North Carolina. It will be 
the grandest meeting of representative educators ever held 
in our State. If you want to find a North Carolina teacher 
between June 21 and July 4, you will have onh- to run 
down to Alorehead Cit}-. 

No EDUCATIONAL organization in x^merica has a better 
programme for this summer than our Teachers' Assemblv. 
In many respects the programme of the Assembly will be 
of more interest and value to teachers than will be the work 
of any other association in the country. North Carolina 
is beginning to appreciate more than ever before the work 
and worth of North Carolina teachers, and at no place can 
the benefits of that appreciation be more liberally realized 
than at the Teachers' Assembly. 

The Instrumental Music Contest for the Assemblv 
Gold Medal will be held on June 30. The rules, as made 
by the Committee, require that at least five persons shall 
enter, and no name will be received later than June 15. 
The contest is open to every school for girls in North Caro- 
lina, and there are already several names entered. All 
who desire to compete are requested to forward their names 
at once to the Secretary. No person will be admitted to 
the contest after the Assembly has convened at T^Iorehead 


]\Iany pleasant surprises will greet you at the Assem- 
bly this session. The Atlantic Hotel has been so improved 
and repaired that you will scarcely recognize it; the Teach- 
ers' Building is thoroughly repaired and repainted; several 
steam yachts, row^-boats and picnic boats are on the sound; 
a railroad wnll be across the beach; boat-houses are in excel- 
lent condition; a swimming master will teach the girls the 
absolutely necessary art of swimming ; while pleasure, 
comfort and instruction will abound in a greater degree 
than ever before. 

The number of North Carolina teachers who go to the 
Northern summer schools of methods is growing smaller 
every year. The thoughtful teachers are realizing that the 
practical work of our Assembly is of more value to them 
than all the theories and speculations of the inexperienced 
enthusiasts who are employed to do a certain amount of 
work in the various Northern "summer schools of methods" 
(so-called) for a certain price. North Carolina schools are 
different from any other schools in this country, and the 
Teachers' Assembly tells the young teachers how the work 
may be best performed in the interest of the children of 
our State. 




ninth annual session. 

MoREHEAD City, N. C. 

Tuesday, June 21, iSg2. 
Teachers and their friends will leave for the Assembly. All trains in 
the State make connection at Goldsboro with the Atlantic and North 
Carolina Railroad for Morehead City. ; 


Wednesday, June 22. 
10:30 A. M. 
Opening Address, .... Coi,. A. M. Waddell, Wilmiugton. 
Annual Address. By the President. 
Appointment of special committees. 

S:jo P. M. 
"Hints FROM Nature" (Chalk Talk). Mr. Frank Beard, Chicago. 

Thursday, June 2j. 
/o:jo A. 31. 
"The True Teacher." Mrs. Idalia G. Meyers, Washington, D. C. 
"Drawing in the .School Room." Mr. Frank Beard. 

8:30 P. M. 
" What Business Men Expect of the Public Schools." Col. J. S. 
Carr, Durham. 

Friday, June 2^. 

II A. M. 

"What is Scientific Temperance?" Mrs. Mary M. Hobbs, Guil- 
ford College. 

Discussion by prominent citizens of North Carolina. 

"North Carolina and the Southern Educational Associa- 
tion." Capt. C. B. Denson, Raleigh. 

Discussion by Dr. Geo. T. Winston, Prof. James Dinwiddie, Dr. R. H. 
Lewis, Professors Henry Louis Smith, M. C. S. Noble, F. P. Hobgood, 
Dr. B. F. Dixon and others. 

8:30 P. M. 

"Stories in Pictures" (Chalk Talks). Mr. Frank Beard. 

Saturday, June 23. 
II A. M. 
"Manual Training of Boys and Girls." Prof. C. E. Vawter, 
Miller Training School, Va. 
General discussion. ' 
"Biology." Prof. J. M. Stedman, Trinity College. 

8:30 A. M. 
"North Carolina at the World's Fair." Hon. S. M. Finger, 

Sunday, June 26. 
II A. M. 
Religious exercises in Asserpbly Hall. 

4:30 P. M. 
Demorest Medal Contest. 
There will be speakers from Beaufort, Morehead City, New Berne, 
Kinstou and Fremont. 



S.JO P. M. 
Sermon in the Assembly Hall. 

Monday, June 2j. 
II A. 31. 
Modern Language and EngIvISh Literature Association. 
"The German University System." Prof. W. D. Toy, University 
of North Carolina. 

" Modern Languages in School and ColIvEGE." A discussion by- 
Profs. Toy, Sledd and Hume. 

"English Literature." Prof. H. J. Stockard, of Graham College. 
"The Science of Fairy Tales." Prof. B. F. Sledd, of Wake 
Forest College. 

"Historical Paper." Dr. S. B. Weeks, of Trinity College. 
"The Passion-Play of Ober-Ammergau: A Development of the Old 
Miracle-Play." Mr. Howard A. Banks, of Asheville, Late Fellow of 
the University of North Carolina. 

8:30 P. DI. 
" How to Study Hamlet." Dr. Thos. Hume, of the University. 
Business Meeting of the Modern Language and English Literature 

Tuesday, June 2S. 

"Popular Education Day." 

.Special Programme arranged by State Superintendents' Association. 

// A. M. 
Addresses by Mr. N. B. Broughton, of Raleigh; Hon. H. A. Gudger, 
of Asheville, and Hon. M. W. Robbins, of Statesville. 

3:30 P M. 
Annual meeting of County Superintendents. 

8:30 P. M. 
"Our Needs." Prof. E. A. x\lderman, Greensl)oro. 

ll^ednesday, June 2g. 

Inter-collegiate Or.atorical Contest. 
The University, and Wake Forest, Trinity and Davidson Colleges 
will each send two representatives. The successful competitor will be 
awarded the Assembly Orator's Gold Medal. 

3:30 P M. 
Instrumental Music Contest. 
Open to pupils in any school for girls in North Carolina. A gold 
medal will be awarded to the successful competitor. 

8:30 P. M. 
Concert by the Glee Club of the University of North Carolina. 


Wednesday, June jo. 

"C1.ASSICAL Day." 

//.•JO A. M. 

"The Mental, INIoral and Money Value of Latin." Prof. J. B. 
Carlyle, Wake Forest. 

"Mythology." Miss Nannie Y. Burke, Peace Institute. 

"Latin in the Public Schools." Supt. G. A. Grimsley, Greens- 

"The Classics ix England." Mr. Ronald MacDonald, Ravenscroft 

"The Induction Method of Teaching Latin." Supt. Logan D. 
Howell, Tarboro. 

"Why Teachers should read the Poems of Homer." Prof. 
J. M. Horner, Horner's School. 

"Greek and Latin in Secondary Schools." Prof. F. E. Welch, 

8:30 P. M. 

" Classical Training." Dr. E. Alexander, Chapel Hill. 

Friday, July i. 

11:30 A. J\I. 

Meeting of College Association. 

8:30 P. M. 

"A NORM.AL Bible Lesson." Conducted by Prof. H. M. Hamill, 

Saturday, July 2. 

11:30 A. i\f. 

"A Normal Training Lesson." Prof. H. M. Hamill. 
General discussion. 

8:30 P. M. 

Lecture. Rey. Thos. Dixon, New York. 
Sunday, July 3. 
II A. DI. 
Sermon. Rev. Thos. Dixon. 

The music of the Sunday services will be conducted by INIiss Bessie 
Worthing, and the singing will be led by Whiting's celebrated Orchestra. 

5 P- ^1/- 

Sunday-School Mass-Meeting. 

Addresses by Prof. Hamill and other prominent Sunday-School 


8:30 P. M. 

"Sunday-School Opportunities." Prof. H. M. Hamill. 


Monday, July 4. 

Excursion to Atlanta, Ga., to attend the meeting of the Southern 
Educational Association. A special low rate for the round trip, and no 
change of cars from Morehead City to Atlanta. 

Adjournment of the Assembly. 

In addition to the regular programme, there will be exercises in 
physical culture conducted by Miss CIvECHi^ey, of Tarboro; lectures by 
Prof. Frank M. Smith, University of Tennessee ; Hon. Josiah H. 
Shinn, Superintendent of Public Education of Arkansas; and Mr. T. F. 
DONNEi,LY, New York; an illustrated lecture, "What to see in London," 
by Rev. J. J. HalIv, Raleigh. Addresses are expected by Gov. Thos. M. 
H01.T, Hon. Elias Carr, Hon. John C. Scarborough, Hon. Marion 
Butler, President of Farmers' Alliance, Gov. T. J. Jarvis, Senator 
Z. B. Vance, Capt. Octavius Coke, Hon. R. M. Furman, Hon. D. W. 
Bain, and other prominent North Carolinians. 

The " Educational Exposition " will be the largest and best display of 
school work ever seen in North Carolina. The exhibit will fill the ten 
large rooms in the Assembly Building, including articles from nearly 
every leading educational institution in North Carolina. This exhibit 
will be of special help and value to progressive teachers. 

The "Assembly Teachers' Bureau" has secured good school positions 
for over three hundred members of the Assembly. The Bureau will be 
in session every day during the Assembly, and will extend its valuable 
aid freely to any teacher, committee, or school officer. 

Miss Bessie Worthington, teacher of music in the State Normal 
and Industrial School for Young Women, will have charge of all the 
music durmg the session. Mr. Adolph Cohn, dealer in pianos and 
organs, New Berne, N. C, will supply the Assemby Hall with an elegant 
Baby Grand Piano and a Pipe Organ for use in all the musical exercises 
and entertainment. 

On the regular programme all papers and speeches, by order of the 
Executive Committee, are limited to twenty minutes, evening lectures 
to forty minutes, and speeches in general discussion will be limited to 
ten minutes. This rule will be strictly enforced. Every subject con- 
sidered by the Association is open for full and free discussion, and 
teachers are urged to express their views without hesitation. The Assem- 
bly is not a meeting for "cut and dried" papers upon antiquated sub- 
jects, but it is a council of live teachers upon live topics, and it is 
specially desired that every view upon every subject shall be freely 
expressed; and it is expected that every teacher, from the "old-field 
school " to the president of the University, will feel free to speak upon 
any subject that may be under consideration. 
















































































































"Carolina! Capolinal Heaven's blessings attend her, 
While me live me mill cherish, protect and defend her; 
Though the scorner may sneer at and oiitlings defame her, 
Oar hearts smell mith gladness mheneVer me name her." 



We notice that some anonymous correspondents in the 
newspapers have erroneously given credit for the establish- 
ment of the State Normal and Industrial School for Young 
Women to various people who were simply "acting under 
orders." We desire to have this matter set right in the 
beginning of the history of the institution, and, therefore, 
will state for the information of everybody that the North 
Carolina Teachers' Assembly is the originator of this insti- 
tution, and the moving agency by which its establishment 
was secured. The idea was first discussed by the Assembly 
in its organization- session at Waynesville, in 1884; and 
the young lady who introduced the first resolution con- 
cerning the establishment of a State Educational Institu- 
tion for the training of women is now living in Raleis^h. 
At the following sessions, at Black Mountain and Morehead 
City, committees were appointed to bring the matter before 
the Legislatures. At every session of the Teachers' Assem- 
bly since that time the matter has been discussed and new 
committees have been appointed to memorialize the Legis- 
latures in behalf of the school. After several previous 


failures the Legislature of 1890 voted to establish the col- 
lege in response to the appeals of the Teachers' Assembly 
through its committees. The Assembly has paid every 
expense incurred in bringing the matter before the Legis- 
lature, including the printing of the various bills and 
memorials up to the session of 1890, and then paid over 
sixty dollars for the expenses of its committee which sub- 
mitted the matter to the Legislature of 1890. To the 
Teachers' Assembly, therefore, belongs the whole credit 
for the establishment of the Normal and Industrial School 
for Girls. The committee which submitted the plan to the 
Legislature was simply doing what it had been appointed 
to do, and the Teachers' x^ssembly paid for the service. 
The Teacher is determined that educational honors shall 
be worn by those who have earned them, and we will 
always be very prompt to give credit where credit is due. 


The entire edition of the April number of The 
Teacher was exhausted within less than a week after 
coming from press, although we printed three hundred 
extra copies. We had on file nearly enough new subscribers 
to use most of the extra copies. 

The June number of The Teacher will not be issued 
until after the session of the Teachers' Assembly. This 
is our usual custom, and is done in order that the next 
number may contain full proceedings of the Assembly, 
which will close the current volume of The Teacher. 

The late Hon. William D. Kelly, State Senator from 
Pennsylvania, in a public speech said, " North Carolina is 
the most beautiful portion of God's earth upon which my 
feet have ever rested." The people of North Carolina and 
Senator Kelly have the same opinion upon this subject. 


We WANT to carry a party of about a thousand North 
Carolina teachers to the World's Fair at Chicago in July, 
1893. Don't make any final arrangements for the trip 
until you see what The North Carolina Teacher will 
be able to do for you as to plans, details and expenses of 
the trip. 

The Teacher offered to the College Association, while 
in session at Greensboro, its pages for the publication of 
full proceedings of the session of the Association, and the 
offer was accepted. The journal of proceedings, as given 
to our readers in this number, is prepared and furnished by 
the Secretary, Professor W. A. Withers, of Raleigh. 

As A MATTER of justice to the preparatory schools of 
North Carolina, each college president in the State should 
publicly announce at the commencement this summer the 
number of students that each school has sent to the college, 
and which students were best prepared to enter. This will 
stimulate all the preparatory schools to better work and 
thus the object desired will be accomplished. 

Will not some prominent North Carolina school for 
girls confer a special favor upon the public and its patrons 
for one time by arranging a programme for the commence- 
ment concert to consist entirely of popular and familiar 
airs and songs? The people are thoroughly tired of the 
unmusical foreign ^music, which, to the average person, 
has precisely the same sound at every school concert. We 
want to enjoy, at least once, a genuine American concert 
in an American school. 

As A SPECIAL gift to music teachers and pupils for the new 
volume, we will send tiuelve copies of sheet music^ vocal 
and instrumental, free to each one who sends a dollar for a 
subscription to The Teacher for this year. The music is 
full size and regular style and all the pieces are popular. 
The former prices of the music were from thirty cents to 
one dollar a copy. Make your orders early for the music 


as we have only a limited supply. The pieces sent yon 
will be our own selection, but we will try to please you. 

We HAVE been searching for a long while for a thor- 
oughly practical and reliable Encyclopedia for the use of 
teachers and schools which could be sold at a low price. 
We think that we have found just what we wanted in the 
"Americanized Encyclopedia Britannica. " The work com- 
prises ten large volumes, and is far more valuable to the 
American reader than the English edition, as it brings its 
work down to this year and contains over two thousand 
subjects not in the English or reprint editions, while it 
treats of every subject, great or small, that is mentioned in 
the Encyclopedia Britannica. We will supply teachers at 
the wholesale price, and will send circulars upon application. 

One of the most pleasant and profitable educational 
meetings ever held in the State was the second annual 
session of "The Association of College Men " which con- 
vened at Greensboro on April 29. Dr. Geo. T. Winston 
was President, and Prof. W. A. Withers was Secretary. 
The attendance was good and every college for boys in the 
State was represented, and the programme of subjects was 
an excellent one, and there was a spirit of refreshing enthu- 
siasm and culture prevailing in the meeting from beginning 
to end. The occasion was truly an inspiration to the 
workers in higher education, and it was thoroughly enjoyed 
by every person in attendance. The Secretary has pre- 
pared full proceedings of the session, which we give to our 
readers in place of the brief notes which we had made at 
the meeting. The colleges and private high schools of 
North Carolina have alwa3's held a very high place in the 
estimation of our people for their conservatism, thorough- 
ness and efficiency, and that popularity is greatly increasing 
in this age of such wide-spread machine education. You 
will find both entertainment and profit in carefully reading 
the proceedings of the meeting. 


North Carolina teachers do not do enough oreneral 
reading. We believe that our teachers ai-e the best in the 
United States, and therefore we have the right to suggest 
lines of improvement. The teachers should keep well 
posted in matters of current history, literature, arts, 
sciences, and education. It has been stated that teachers 
read less than any other class of professional people. We 
have been investigating this matter, and must confess that 
we have not yet obtained sufficient evidence upon which 
we may deny the assertion. Teachers ought to be the best 
read people in a community. All teachers should be 
regular subscribers to their county papers, to some first- 
class New York weekly, a standard monthly magazine, and 
to one or more good educational journals. No person can 
do proper work without proper tools, and these are the neces- 
sary tools for every teacher who desires to do the best work. 
The teacher who does not take at least one reliable journal 
of education is as poorly equipped for good work as is the 
captain of a ship who goes to sea without a chart or 
compass. This ship viay safely reach its port, and this 
teacher may educate a child — both by accident. 

A NEW " History of the United States," by Robert Reid 
Howison, has just been published by Everett Waddy Com- 
pany, of Richmond, Va. The book comprises 936 pages, 
is well printed and bound, and would be satisfactory to 
North Carolinians if it was not so intensely Virginian. We 
dislike "Montgomery's Leading Facts (so-called) in Ameri- 
can History," because it is so blindly Bostonian (or sec- 
tional), aud Howison's work is likewise objectionable. 
Among the many strange statements it is claimed that 
Virginia "made the earliest approach to a Declaration of 
Independence at Fredericksburg, April 29, 1775." In 
describing the third day's fight at Gettysburg in 1865, the 
old Virginia claim that to Pickett belongs all the glory is 
vigorously asserted, and the author endeavors to perpetuate 


the old foreign slander of North Carolina by saying that 
"Pickett had been impatiently waiting for the order to 
advance. * * * General Pickett waited no longer but 
galloped off to lead his Virginians to the assault. Never 
was an advance more gallantly made. General Pettigrew's 
division aided in it, and the statements so frequently made 
that they faltered and gave way are untrue." This style 
of writing is as false as it is misleading and slanderous. If 
somebody has told a lie about General Pettigrew's matchless 
charge at Gettysburg why shall the lie be again brought 
forward in a school book ? The text-books on English 
history do not trump up all the historical lies of that nation 
to keep the people from forgetting them so that they may 
know the truth. Nor should a writer of United States 
history for schools be guilty of such deplorable foolishness. 

The AIR IS full of complaints from college men that 
students from the high schools, academies and public 
graded schools, who apply for entrance into college, are not 
properly prepared in grammar, spelling and arithmetic. 
Too much time is given to the dead languages (too dead 
to be ever again spoken) and not enough to the subjects of 
practical use in life. The man or woman who cannot spell 
correctly, and speak and write good English, is not edu- 
cated, however much may be known of Latin, Greek, 
Choctaw, Sanscrit, music and other ornamental branches 
of learning. The colleges do not teach spelling, arith- 
metic and grammar, and this work is expected of the 
preparatory schools. The "bad speller" is absolutely 
useless in business or in the professions. At the recent 
meeting of the College Association at Greensboro, many 
of the speakers mentioned the fact that in the entrance 
examinations of students many of them were found to be 
sadly deficient in their knowledge of English, and it was 
urged that all preparatory teachers give more time to 
English grammar and the spelling-book. This condition 


of affairs gives The Teacher a fine opportunity for say- 
ing "I told you so," because when some of our schools 
(particularly the public graded schools) began a few years 
ago to discard technical grammar and the spelling-book 
we protested against the act and prophesied just the evil 
result of which the college men now complain. It is far 
more important that men and women shall be able to 
spell and write their mother-tongue correctly, than that 
they may know how to conjugate any or all of the dead 


The University has two hundred and fifty-four students, the largest 
number since the institution was reopened after the War for Southern 

Greensboro Female College has an enrollment of two hundred 
and forty-four pupils. Dr. Dixon, the President, is truly a most ener- 
getic and popular executive officer. 

Mr. D. D. Ellis, President of Fair View College, has resigned to 
accept the Superintendency of a Graded School at Kissimee, in Florida. 
We wish our friend great success in his new line of educational work. 

Miss Ida Celeste Snell, of Boston Conservatory of Music, is the 
accomplished teacher of Music in Catawba College, at Newton. She was 
one of the charming representatives of North Carolina at the launching 
of the United States Cruiser Raleigh, at Norfolk, April 31st. 

The University Glee Club gave one of their delightful and unique 
entertainments- at Wilmington on the 6th inst. to an overflowing house. 
These Glee Club concerts are about the most enjoyable occasions that 
we know of which are offered to North Carolina people. The Teachers' 
Assembly will be pleased with the Glee Club in June at Morehead City. 

St. Mary's School, at Raleigh, is going to celebrate its semi-centen- 
nial this summer iu grand style. Dr. vSmedes is arranging a most 
elaborate programme of exercises for the occasion, and thousands of 
St. Mary's friends will be present to enjoj' the celebration and add their 
very best wishes for the continued prosperity of the noble old Institution. 


Bertie County has a fine Teachers' Council. The meetings arf; well 
attended and the work is proving of great interest and value to all the 
teachers. The next meeting will be held at Aulander on the 23d of July. 

A PARTY OF students of Wake Forest College will, in a boat, explore 
Neuse River to its mouth during the vacation, reaching Morehead City 
in time to attend the session of the Assembly. They will be provided 
with a tent and all necessary equipments for camping during the trip, 
and they will also occupy the tent while at Morehead City. We wish 
the young gentlemen a most pleasant voyage. 

The Commencement programme of the Universit}- is truly a tempting 
displa}' of good- things, and will attract the largest number of visitors 
which has been seen at Chapel Hill since the re-opening of the Univer- 
sit}- in 1875. Dr. Winston is proving to the Trustees, and to all the 
friends of the Universitj-, the wisdom of their selection of a President, 
and we take special pleasure in again saying " I told you so." 

We hope to meet every reader of The Teacher at Morehead City 
during the session of the Assembly in June, and it will afford us pleasure 
to be of any possible service to you towards making your visit in the 
greatest degree profitable and pleasant to you. The editor of The 
Teacher specially delights in rendering a service to North Carolina 
teachers, and you need not hesitate to call upon him for any assistance 
which it may be in his power to give. 

The Trustees of the Normal and Industrial School for Young Women 
have elected the following teachers for the institution : Mathematics, 
Miss Gertrude W. Mendenhall, B. S. ; Natural Sciences, Miss Dixie Lee 
Brj-ant, B. S.; Ancient Languages, Miss Viola Boddie, L. I.; Ph3-sical 
Training, Miss Miriam Bitting, M. D. ; Vocal Music, Miss Bessie Worth- 
ington ; Industrial Art, Miss Melle Fort; Domestic Economy, Miss 
Edith A. Mclntyre. Other chairs will be filled at a later date. All 
selected are Southern-born women except Miss Mclntyre, who is from 
New York State ; and Misses Mendenhall, Boddie and Worthington are 
North Carolina women. 

The Trustees of the Graded School at Wilson have decided to add a 
high school course to the school. We are sorry for this, as we have been 
greatl}' interested in the success of the school at Wilson, and our friends 
will find that the high grade is the first step towards the downfall of the 
school. The people of North Carolina are not willing to be taxed to 
pay for teaching in the public schools languages which are too dead 
ever to be spoken, and sciences which are absolutely useless to the 
average boy and girl in earning a living. It is vain to try to force upon 
the people what they do not want, and they do not want to have a very 
few boys prepared for college at public expense. 



" Death hath made no breach 
In love and sjjmpathy, in hope and trust. 
No outward sign or sound our ears can reach, 
But there's an inward, spiritual speech 
That greets us still, though mortal tongues be dust. 
It bids us do the work that they laid down — 
Take up the song where they broke off the strain ; 
So, journeying till we reach the heavenly town, 
Where are laid up our treasure and our crown, 
And our lost loved ones will be found again." 

Miss Lizzie I. Clark, a member of the Teachers' Assembly Euro- 
pean Party, and a teacher in the Bertie School, died at her father's 
residence, Dr. Wm. M. Clark, in Franklin County, May 11, 1S92. 


'Tis said that " figures never lie," 

That one and one are alwa3-s two ; 
But Cupid proves, with work so sly. 

Some wondrous things that figures do. 
And when he claims a teacher's hand 

All rules of figures then are done, 
Though TWO before the preacher stand 

This one and one are always one. 

Miss Fannie Johnston, one of Pitt County's fair teachers, was 
married near Greenville on April 20th, to Mr. D. S. Spain, of Green- 
ville. Rev. James Winfield, editor of the Watch Tower, officiated. 

At The bride's residence at Trinity College on April 20th, 1892, Rev. 
R. L. White, a student from Northampton County, married Mrs. 
Carson Kearns, of High Point. Prof. \V. H. Pegram performed the 


The books and slates now put away, 
And let us laugh a little while ; 

For those who work there should be play, 
The leisvire moments to beguile. 

Teacher. — "Now what kind of an animal is it, my dear, that fur- 
nishes you with shoes to wear and meat to eat?" Little girl — "My 
father, ma'am." 


"Have you learned much German, Tommie, with }-our new gov- 
erness?" "No, but the fraulein's learned lot's of English." 

On being asked what a nephew is, a little Boston school-girl replied : 
"It is when your niece is a boy," a statement which it would be hard 
to controvert. 

Farmer Clover. — " I guess we'll have to elect Nathan Meddergrass 
school superintendent." Farmer Sassafras — "Why, he don't know 
nothin' 'bout eddication." Farmer Clover — "No, but his big punkin 
tuk the prize at the county fair." 

Sunday-school Superintendent. — " Who led the Children of Israel 
into Canaan ? Will some of the small boys answer?" [No reply.] Super- 
intendent (somewhat sternly) — "Can no one tell? Little boy on that 
seat next to the aisle, who led the Children of Israel into Canaan?" 
Little Boy (badly frightened) — " It wasn't me. I — I jist moved 3'ere last 
week f 'm Mizzour3^" 

An Inquiring Mind. — " Mamma, who isTunkantel? '" " I'm sure I 
don't know, child. I never heard of such a person." " Does he love 
papa?" " I don't know." " Does teacher love him ? " "Love who?" 
"Tunkantel?" " What are 3'ou talking about, my child? " "Well, I 
don't care. Anyway, I saw papa hugging teacher on the stairs j-ester- 
da}', and teacher say she love papa better than Tunkantel." 

She Changed her Mind. — Pretty Teacher (severely). — "Did your 
mother write this excuse?" Bad Boy — -"Yes'm." Pretty Teacher — 
" Humph ! It looks very much like one of your scrawls." Bad Boy. — 
" Mamma wrote it, but, please ma'am, she had sister Jennie on one arm, 
crying with a bumped head, and brother W^illie in the other, with a cut 
finger, and a lot of sewing on her lap, and she was rocking the cradle 
with her knees, and she had to write with her toes." Pretty Teacher 
(in the evening) — "I arh very sorr}-, Mr. Poorchapp, but I have changed 
my mind. I shall never marry." 

And Lindlev Murray Wept. — To a Park Row waiter belongs the 
proud distinction of uttering what is probably the most ungrammatical 
sentence ever evolved from the brain of illiterate man. Saturday after- 
noon an old man took his seat at the table and gave his usual order to 
a new and rather case-hardened plate tosser. "Waiter," he piped, as 
the dishes were slammed down before him, "this beef isn't sufficiently 
underdone." With a smile of contempt the servitor bore the viands 
back to the kitchen window and returned a moment later without having 
changed them. "Saj-, old gent," he hissed through his clenched teeth, 
"we ain't got no beef what's no nnderdoner !" 


Vol. IX. 

Raleigh, June, 


No. 10. 







I saw a teacher building slow. 

Day after day as passed the years, 
And saw a spirit temple grow. 

With fear and hope, and often tears ; 
xA mystic palace of the soul. 

Where reigned a monarch half-divine. 
And love and light illumed the whole, 

And made its hall with radiance shine. 

I saw a teacher take a child. 

Friendless and weak, and all alone, 
W^ith tender years, but passions wnld. 

And work as on a priceless stone ; 
Out of the rude and shapeless thing. 

With love^^and toil and patient care, 
I saw her^blest ideal spring — 

An image pure and passing fair. 

Upon a canvas ne'er to fade, 

I saw her paint with matchless art, 
Pictures that angels might have made 

Upon a young and tender heart ; 
And growing deeper for the years. 

And flowing brighter for the day. 
They ripened for the radiant spheres, 

Where beauty ne'er shall pass away. 





While our forefathers in ihe thirteen American Colonies, 
about 1750 A. D. , and later, contended with England for 
abatement of the hard conditions imposed by monarchical 
government, the state of affairs in France was something 
like this : There was a king and about thirty thousand 
nobles whose main business it was to enjoy themselves at 
the expense of the people in all sorts of ways, many if not 
most of which were forbidden by the moral law, and to tell 
the great body of the people what to do ; there were one 
hundred and thirty thousand priests and other church dig- 
nitaries whose main business it was to tell the people luhat 
to believe ; and there were twenty-six millions of people, 
the third estate, whose condition was that of intellectual 
and bodily bondage. When Louis the XVI was compelled 
to call the States-General in 17S8, the great body of the 
people were allowed to vote for the first time in one hun- 
dred and seventy-three years. They elected delegates who 
took charge of the government, and soon an ignorant mob 
took charge of the legislative assembly and the king, and 
the bloodiest revolution and civil war in the annals of time 
was the result. Conservative intelligence could not con- 
trol the ignorant people, who had real grievances and were 
led by bold, cruel and designing men, such as Denton, 
Marat and Robespierre. 

The necessity of intelligence among the people, even in 
despotic governments, was understood by the founders of 


our republic more than one hundred years ago. They knew 
that it was even more necessary in republics, and they 
dreaded to cut loose from the mother country and from the 
monarchical form of government and place all power in the 
hands of the people. Washington continualh^ spoke of 
the necessity of promoting intelligence among the people, 
saying that it was the more necessary in republics in which 
all power resided in the people. So, too, Jefferson, perhaps 
wiser than any of his contemporaries, devised for Virginia, 
and pleaded for it to his dying day, a system of public 
schools in regular succession from the lowest primary up 
to and through the University. He died before much was 
effected, except the establishment of the University of Vir- 
ginia, in which he so much prided himself, and of which 
he was the real father and founder. It was much easier to 
establish a University than a greatsystem of public schools — 
the cost was so much less ; and besides, it seemed a natural 
process to set at work the head of the system first. 

It is too tedious to cite the names of the very many great 
men who feared for the stability of the republic for want 
of sufficient intelligence among the people, and who urged 
the establishment of schools supported by public funds. 


It was this feeling of intense anxiety that caused our own 
wise North Carolina statesmen, who met at Halifax in 1776, 
to place in our State Constitution that oft quoted section, 
"a school or schools shall be established by the Legisla- 
ture for the convenient instruction of youth, with such 
salaries to the masters paid by the public as may enable 
them to instruct at low prices; and all useful learning shall 
be duly encouraged and promoted in one or more Univer- 

The caution and anxiety of the members of this Conven- 
tion about trusting too much to an unintelligent people, 


may be appreciated by considering the limitation they put 
npon suffrage and the great power they gave to the Legis- 
lature. No man could, under that Constitution, vote for 
State Senator unless he owned fifty acres of land and had 
paid his taxes; nor could any man vote for the members of 
the House of Commons unless he had paid his taxes. The 
election of Governor was given to the Senate and House of 
Commons, as was also the election of all the Judges, Coun- 
cil of State, all general militia officers. State Treasurer, 
Secretary of State, the Attorney General, and all the Jus- 
tices of the Peace. Indeed, the people did not vote for any 
of their officers, vState or county, except the members of 
the Legislature. 

These men of the Convention of 1776, though bold to 
establish an independent government and pledge in its 
defense their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor, 
dreaded to launch the ship of state on the ocean of popular 
suffrage. At times all through the successive decades dovvn 
to the present, little by little has more power been given to 
the people, to be exercised by their direct vote for their 
officers ; and just in proportion as suffrage has thus been 
extended, has it also been insisted upon that educational 
effort must be extended, and it has been extended until we 
now have in North Carolina about seven thousand public 
schools annually in session. 


Li the light of these facts, what must we think were the 
ideas of the founders of the University as to its relation to 
public education? They evidently wanted education for 
everybody, but they began with the University, not with 
the country primary school. Did they not think that it 
was first necessary to have a head, from which would shine 
out into the mental darkness ra}'s of intellectual light? 


Did they not think that it was first necessary to have a 
heart, from which would flow out into a system of public 
education grreat streams of morality and religion? 

As a matter of fact, is not this just what has taken place? 
Was it not the sons of our University who were the most 
active in the establishment of the public school system 
which now furnishes a school-house on almost every hill- 
top? Go and read the earnest appeals of Judge Murphey 
and many others, who in times long gone by had the privi- 
lege of instruction in these classic halls. 

I know full well that many of the alumni of this insti- 
tution do not heartily, if at all, advocate the general s}'stem 
of public education ; and I know that there are some of 
the alumni now who, while ardent friends of their Alma 
Mater, and desirous of seeing her prosper, are either oppo- 
nents of the general system, or at least not helpers. The 
fact remains, however, that in the establishment of the 
general system of public schools very much is due to the 
sons of the University. 


In the human anatomy the head controls the members 
of the body, but the hands and the feet and all parts of the 
body send back through the nervous system messages to 
the brain. From the head there go out to all members of 
the body commands for action, and from the remotest 
finger tips answers are sent back. From the heart of the 
human body there is sent out to every part of the body a 
stream of pure blood, which keeps it alive and health}', 
and from every part of the body is sent back this same 
blood, not so pure it is true in part of its journey, but still 
purified before it reaches the heart, and ready not only for 
the support of that organ, but to be sent out again for the 
support of all the organs of the body. 


This picture of the human anatomy is the best illustra- 
tion I can give as to what I conceive the relation of the 
University to public education ought to be. The intellec- 
tual, moral and religious life of the University should flow 
out into every remote part of society — into every occupa- 
tion of the people. All the learned professions should be 
made more effective because of this life, and farming and 
all kinds of manual labor should be better done because of 
this life. Just as this life is made effective among the peo- 
ple, will they respond and send back to the source of this 
better life their greeting, their material support, and their 
sons, who having already felt at a distance the good influence 
of the University, desire to sit in her halls at the feet of 
her learned President and Professors. 


Whatever may be said of private effort to educate the 
people in primary schools, in high schools and in colleges, 
there are perhaps but few people now who do not see that 
a system of public education is necessary, and that it is 
becoming more and more necessary as suffrage is extended. 
Few men will now be found to say that private effort can 
be made sufficient to provide the education necessary for 
good government. Most men are free to admit that not 
only should all the people be educated, at least to some 
extent, but that it is necessary in order to secure this edu- 
cation that the State must take the matter in hand. While 
the State undertakes this great work, she gladly welcomes 
all private aid that can be called to her assistance. The 
State cannot, however, depend upon private effort for any 
grade of this work. As she cannot depend upon private 
effort for her University work, or for her primary or 
secondary work, so she cannot entirely depend upon it for 
her hieh school work. 


In the city schools, and in all public schools where it is 
possible, there should be established high school depart- 
ments, in which there should at least be an optional course 
leading to the doors of the University and to the colleges ; 
and at the University there must be such facilities for post- 
graduate work as will provide for the wants of all the 
graduates of all of our colleges. 


If the University is in fact intended to be the head and 
heart of the intellectual, moral and religious life of the 
State, what fearful responsibility rests upon her Trustees, 
Professors and her students. Perhaps it may be questioned 
whether or not, inasmuch as the State and Church are 
necessarily separate in our form of government, I am not 
going too far when I include religious training as a part of 
the University's duty. I quote Article 9, Section i of our 
State Constitution, the article that special!}' provides public 
schools, including the University : "Religion, morality and 
knowledge being necessary to good government and happi- 
ness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall 
forever be encouraged." Here we have a clear recognition 
of the necessity of teaching religion and morality, as well 
as of imparting secular knowledge, in our public schools. 
Of course it goes without saying that all sectarian teaching 
is excluded. 

Our State Constitution, our statutes, and our Court pro- 
ceedings recognize God in His Word, and the morality 
which we inculcate is the Christian morality. The great 
principles of Christian morality prevail in this country. 
It is impossible to separate morality from religion, for the 
highest morality of any people is the highest religion of 
that people. This is the religion we are required to teach. 
But besides such teaching by precept, example is far more 
effective. The Sermon on the Mount was a great blessing 


to humanity, but perhaps not a greater blessing than were 
the three years of illustration of its beneficent precepts by 
the Saviour of mankind. 


The responsibility of extending the University's influence 
is discharged only in part within the walls of the buildings 
and in the every-day social intercourse between the Faculty 
aud the students. I hold that the President and all the 
Professors should go out among the people of the State 
and approve themselves to the people by personal acquaint- 
ance, by lectures on the University Extension plan, or 
otherwise. Every one connected with the institution 
should be a hearty friend of public education, not alone in 
the University, but he should also be an active friend of 
the whole system of public education, from the lowest 
primary and secondary schools up through the high schools 
to the doors of the University and the colleges. If the 
President and Professors exercise this spirit, no student 
will be able to take a course there without becoming an 
active worker in the public school cause. The whole 
institution — President, Faculty and students — should be 
thoroughly alive to the necessity of the education of all 
the people, and should be active workers to that end. It 
is a cause of great gratification that so much of this spirit 
now prevails there. It augurs w^ell, not only for the lower 
public schools, but also for the safety of the University 


What the courses of study there should be, how much 
higher they should go, or how much lower, I have not time 
fully to discuss now, even if I were competent to discuss it. 
I may be allowed to suggest that the old classical and 
mathematical curriculum must not be insisted upon as a 
sine qua non for admission. However important it is for 


that curriculum to stand out prominent!}', entrance upon a 
course at the University should no more be dependent 
upon a definite amount of Latin and Greek and mathe- 
matics, than an A. B. course should be required for admis- 
sion to the law school or medical school. I submit that 
entrance should be made to depend upon actual antecedent 
training received by the applicant, and his ability success- 
fully to pursue such special studies as will prepare him for 
his chosen life work. 

Our high schools aim at giving practical education, rather 
than at fitting young men for college ; and many young 
men, after having much training without reference to col- 
lege life, change their minds and desire to take a higher 
course. I am glad that the different courses laid down in 
our University catalogue recognize these facts and provide 
a place for such young men. Our curriculum must con- 
form to the ever-changing demand of the times, and the 
institution must become more and more a University in 

While the highest culture must not be neglected, it must 
not be forgotten that the times and circumstances demand 
intense practicability. The bread and meat question is, 
after all, the question which presses hardest now for solu- 
tion. Labor-saving machines, and the great advance made 
in science and art in every direction, make it necessary for 
every State and every community to look sharply after 
the development of its material resources. Competition 
between the States and between individual citizens is 
sharper perhaps than it has e\er been before, and our edu- 
cation system must take note of this fact. The science 
of political economy must have due consideration and 
emphasis. We should make as much as possible out of 
our soil, our mines, our forests, and our water-powers. 
This University should be the great leader of thought to 
accomplish this end, while at the same time she should 


give the broadest and highest culture for every kind of 
professional life. There is room for all the professors, each 
in his own particular chair, to exercise ingenuity. And 
last, but not least, the University should rescue from 
oblivion and set before the world to the fullest possible 
extent, our history as a colony and as a State. Our 
worthy Professor of History should set at work the whole 
student body, for the purpose of bringing to light every 
relic and document to be found in all the counties that will 
throw light upon our history, a history than which there 
is none more worthy in the sisterhood of States. 


Section 14, Article 9 of our State Constitution requires, 
as soon as practicable, the establishment in connection with 
the University of a department of agriculture, of mechanics, 
of mining, and of normal instruction. The State has seen 
proper to establish the three former, not in connection wnth 
the University, it is true ; but she has not done anything 
for normal instruction at the University. 

Through the liberal gift of $30,000 by the people of 
Greensboro, a normal college is soon to be opened in that 
city for young women. But the State has made no pro- 
vision for normal instruction for her young men. While 
we hope eventually the doors of the college at Greensboro 
will be thrown open to young men also, and that more 
ample provisions will be made for normal instruction at 
other points than the University, yet I submit that some- 
thing should be done in this direction all the time at the 

A large proportion of her students are teachers during 
their stay at the institution in some capacity or other, and 
many of them become professional teachers after their 
graduation, or at least engage in the business of teaching 
for a year or two more, pending their preparation for some 


other vocation. From this practice much good comes to 
them, because teaching affords a splendid opportunity for 
the review of former studies, and for becoming thoroughly 
and practically grounded in them. I heartily commend 
this course to young men for their own benefit. But why 
should they not have opportunity here to study the science 
and art of teaching? Could not at least a model school be 
established here which would be an object lesson at all 
times for the benefit of young men? Could not all the 
children of Chapel Hill be brought together in some way 
in a permanent public school, and could not the services of 
some competent professor be secured to superintend them, 
and at the same time give a course of lectures at the 

It seems to me that something can be done on some such 
plan as this that would not only comply with the Constitu- 
tion, but that will also still further extend the University's 
influence, and that, too, in a most valuable relation to 
public education. 

All the graduates of this institution should not only be 
hearty friends of public education, but whether they teach 
or not, I submit that they should have, as far as possible, 
instilled into them the great fundamental principles that 
underlie successful and practical teaching. 


But if the University is to accomplish such results, she 
must have the sympathy of the people of the State and 
their support. It is right and proper that the Christian 
denominations shall have their colleges to meet any special 
wants they may have as denominations, and the wants and 
wishes that any individual members may have in reference 
to the education of their children. 

I heartily wish that all the denominational colleges in 
the State were richlv endowed, not onlv to enable them to 


further Christianity, but also to enable tlietn the more 
effectively to help in the work of making all the people 
intelligent. I take it for granted that as time rolls along, 
more and more will the people who have the highest educa- 
tion, whether educated at a college or at the University, 
favor the general public school system. 

As the whole educated force of the State becomes more 
heartily in favor of public education, and sees it as a neces- 
sity, so will there be a growing demand for the highest and 
most varied University work. The time will come when 
the success of an institution will not be estimated so much 
by the number of students enrolled and graduated as by 
the actual work done, and when the people of all denomi- 
nations will look more to their University as a place of 
special training, suited for every highest want of their sons. 
Let the denominations pursue their work, but let the Uni- 
versity at the same time have their sympathy and support. 


We still hear now and then an echo of a dying creed 
that taught that the education of the working people would 
make them dissatisfied, and unfit them for the state and 
condition in which God has been pleased to place them. 
This creed comes down the ages, and has had its followers 
principally among those people who believe in caste in 
society, and that God has made some classes of people 
specially to govern other people. It has no proper place in 
a republic, in which the abolition of all titles and caste is 
fundamental, in which equalities of rights and individual 
manhood are emphasized, and in which there is held out in 
the very fabric of our government the possibility to every 
man of doing great good to his fellow-men, and of rising to 
eminence among them by the due cultivation of his whole 
intellectual and moral beine. 


Among the students there should be no caste ; no idea 
that one class of people is better than another inherently, 
but that one man is superior to another only as he may 
prove himself so to be by his individual manhood. The 
doctrine on this point that should go out from this Univer- 
sity is, that proper education does not unfit any man for any 
kind of labor which his hands may find to do ; that if an 
educated man is unfitted for doing anything that God has 
made it necessary to be done, this is not the result of the 
fact that he has had his intellectual and moral powers cul- 
tivated, but the rather of his having adopted wrong notions 
about labor. The old idea that labor is degrading, and is a 
badge of servitude, must be everywhere discarded, and we 
must recognize the truth of what Carlyle said: "Modern 
majesty consists in work ; what a man can do is now cor- 
sidered his greatest ornament." 

In this address I have outlined the spirit that should go out 
from the University. All the public school workers in the 
country and city, and all the private school workers, should 
catch it up, and with harmonious effort, touching elbows 
all along the line, from the lowest primary school up to the 
colleges and the University, it should be proclaimed that 
the State is. to be saved from revolution and anarchy ; that 
Christian civilization is to be advanced, and that the hap- 
piness and prosperity of all the people is to be promoted by 
the education of all the people, mentally and morally, and 
by inculcating proper ideas about labor. 

If our civilization is to be preserved and advanced, this 
result will be attained, not so much by doctrinal teaching, 
however important that may be, as by works. What the 
world now specially needs is works, as an exemplification 
of Christian faith. I think the time will come when men 
will vie with each other in doing something for humanity 
with their own hands, rather than in giving money, which 
many now think is the fulfillment of their whole duty. 


This will be an unusual spectacle, and yet it will be in 
accord with Christ's teaching and practice. In speaking 
of the final judgment, He drew the test of acceptance in 
the following language : "For I was an hungered, and ye 
gave me meat ; I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink ; I was 
a stranger, and ye took me in ; naked, and ye clothed me ; 
I was sick, and ye visited me ; I was in prison, and ye came 
unto me." Here is the fullest inculcation of work of all 
kinds as a necessity to raise humanity. It was exemplified 
by the Great Teacher in His carpenter shop, and in every 
other way as He walked up and down in Palestine. 


Almost all earnest girls nowadays come into maturity 
with a real longing for work. There are reposeful, mid- 
dle-aged people, to be sure, who firmly believe that this is 
a mischievous and misplaced activity, and that it is going 
to work out all kinds of destruction if the race of women 
take to other things than domestic and polite accomplish- 
ments. Be that as it will, it doesn't pay to argue about 
what we shall never live to prove. Here you are, hundreds 
of you girls who honestly want to work, and who are hon- 
estly averse to house-work. It also happens to be true that 
women, like men, work for wages, and that the wages a 
girl gets for house-work, even in her father's house, are 
not such as encourage }'ou to adopt house-work as a pro- 
fession. And so it happens that you are thinking to-day 
about a wage-earning business outside your home more than 
you are thinking about a husband. 

The first thing you've got to know is what you can do 
best. To find that out, consult your taste. If you think it 


would be beautiful to trim hats or make gowns, say so and 
stick to it. Then go to the best milliner or dressmaker in 
your town and ask her to let you come into her shop and 
learn. She won't pay you at first, but your father has fed 
you for several years, and can probably discharge that 
paternal duty for a few months longer. If you are bookish, 
and the law or medicine attracts you, go to the office of 
your father's lawyer or physician and borrow his simplest 
book and study it. In any case don't disdain the modest 
beginning that lies nearest your hand; you are not ready 
for wider fields yet. And when you've settled upon a work 
don't play with it; learn to treat it just as seriously as your 
big brother or your father treats his. 

And so, as your diligence and knowledge grow together, 
}-ou will perhaps come to a point where }'ou must leave 
your father's roof in order to finish your preparation for 
your work or to widen \-our competence and so increase 
your wages. You must leave your small town for a city, 
or the small city for a larger one. Before this can be con- 
sidered for a moment, one of two things is imperative : 
either you must have the certainty — not the mere possi- 
bility — of son:ething to work at that will give you a modest 
living, or }'ou must have money enough in reser\'e to pay 
your way for a year ahead. There is no compromising 
with this. Never leave your father's home on any other 
conditions. The number of young women who leave their 
homes each }"ear and come to New York without definite 
provision for work is simply appalling, and out of this 
spring the awful tragedies of want and discouragement that 
drive women to death or worse. 

With this provision made, go into your work with the 
whole of you. Take care of your health, and, for the rest, 
give your mind and body to your duties. You will get 
discouraged in every fiber of your tired body, but it will 
only do you good. The man or woman who doesn't get 


discouraged often and often, seeing his ultimate reach 
beyond his daily grasp, doesn't see far enough ahead ever 
to succeed. So be sure that you will get discouraged, and 
getting discouraged, encourage yourself because of that 
very thing. 

You will probably be thrown much among men. Learn 
not to expect parlor etiquette in business places. You are 
not there to interpret the amenities of life to a lot of busy 
men, but to do your work competently and go your way 
sensibly. They may be as kindly intentioned as your own 
brothers, but they are too busy to assure you of their dis- 
tinguished consideration. If they treat you brusquely, 
directly, and frankly, they're paying you the compliment 
of treating you like a sensible woman. 

Above all, don't always be looking for things to hurt 
your feelings. They'll come sometimes, and bruise you in 
every fiber till you'll want to put your head down in your 
mother's lap and cry like a little girl. But you must learn 
to distinguish between wounded feelings and wounded 
vanity. A woman cries nine times out of wounded vanity, 
and once out of the wounded soul that calls for divinest 
soothing to heal. Let your vanity smart all it will; it's 
good for most of us. 

Another thing you will have to learn, is to keep your 
word; to go where you say you'll go, and come when you 
say you'll come, and let the heavens drop if they will. But 
they won't — except in blessings on your head. 

Last of all, you may be the daughter of rich parents, and 
you may not. If you are the former, behave yourself as if 
you were the latter. Don't preface your first request for 
work with the information that you are going to work 
because you want to and not because you have to; it's bad 
business policy and worse taste, and none of your employ- 
er's business anyway. — Exchange. 



The teacher who would do her best work will disregard 
the dogmatic dictum which says, ' ' Keep out of your chair. ' ' 
To be not merely a school-keeper, but a teacher — to be a 
mother to the spirit of children — to bear children in the 
sense of inspiring them to noble ideals, requires care of 
self as much as physical motherhood. That the nervous 
energy be concentrated upon the brain — not expended in 
maintaining an erect position — that the mind be serene and 
composed, the teacher must be left free to find the attitude 
best suited for that result. Say to young teachers, "Be 
careful not to stand too m.uch ; you dissipate force that 
ought to be held as a reserve ; you tire yourself. The best 
teaching requires a restful spirit" — Jesus sat in the boat to 
teach. He called his disciples around him and sat down to 
teach them. Because some phlegmatic teachers find it 
necessary to stand or stir about to keep awake, is no reason 
why they should assert that such a position is the only one 
to keep awake and interested, and that lazy people sit. 

A great many people who have given the world literary 
work that will endure have testified that they could not do 
their best thinking while standing. The orator needs to 
stand in order to make gestures. He wants his audience 
to be merely receptive. The lecturer stands, in order to 
demonstrate or illustrate his meaning by diagrams. But 
the teacher aims to inspire activity in others. He needs to 
hold his own power in check and use it as a lever to lift 
others into activity. To educate — to draw out, the teacher 
needs to concentrate all the nerve energy of his organism 
upon his brain. 

The teacher should be generally a teacher rather than an 
orator or lecturer, hence he should sit more than he should 
stand. But the teacher combines all of these characters^ 


and hence he should stand when there is a purpose in 
standing, and sit when he teaches. 

I have noticed the emphasis placed upon standing as the 
only true position for the teacher. This is an erroneous 
notion, which may do harm to young teachers, who are 
inclined to accept the dictum of the Jottrnal as "Law and 
Gospel" on all points essential to success; hence I ask it 
as a favor that "the other side" of this standing business 
be shown for their benefit. — Missouri School Journal. 


A man chews or twists his moustache when he is nervous, 
and a woman bites her nails. Under momentary excite- 
ment a man scratches his head for an idea and a woman 
bites her lips. ]Men compose themselves by revolving their 
thumbs and woman by tapping their feet. 

A man in trouble walks the floor and a woman gets on 
her back and has a good cry. A man in a temper swears 
and a woman breaks the crockery. In a rage a man squares 
his elbows and clenches his fists, a woman "draws herself 
up," as a story book puts it, and walks off with a war- 
horse kind of carriage. 

A man flies into passion and flies out again, but women 
are generally calculating; they nurse their wrong and pout 
long after reparation has been made. 

Men are naturally cruel; women are born naggers. Men 
have more decency than women; women have more modesty 
than men. Men praise the truth; women, peace. Men 
seldom hate without cause, women can invent cause for 
the slightest offence. Men are sustained by principle; 
women by religion. 

A man will defend the reputation of a friend in an argu- 
ment, and a woman will stand up for the reputation of her 
sex. — Exchajig^e. 




One certainly learns to spell by spelling, as it depends 
wholly upon observation and memory. I donbt the human- 
ity in making life a burden to the poor speller. A good 
speller is one by inheritance, or it is a gift from nature. 
Faithful drill will improve the defect, but if occasion 
requires much use of pen, the dictionary must be the com- 
panion through life. 

Our methods and devices are few. First, the alphabet 
must be learned ; then if the district is foreign the child 
must know both name and sound ; so that if he leaves 
school at the end of the second year he can write a note 
that can be read, though it may delight the heart of the 
phonetic speller. As soon as he has learned at^ he can at 
once build words of which that is the root as fast as they 
can be given, whether he knows the meaning or not. 

Before a child reads a sentence, the words of that sen- 
tence are pronounced, spelled orally, and written on the 
board by the child. They should be perfectly written on 
the board by the teacher for the child to cop}', once, on 
going to his seat ; then erased and pronounced by the 
teacher for the clasS to write on their slates. 

For busy work the child, with an envelope or box of 
letters, forms those same words on his desk, accustoming 
his eye to the different style of alphabets. In the second 
grade he commences to learn how to study. The teacher 
having written some words on the board with care, has 
them spelled by syllables, calls their attention to certain 
syllables, silent letters, etc. ; sees that they are well written 
on the slates. They are spelled orally before reading, and 
short and long vowels are given. Pupils find for study and 
busy work, how many times the words occur in a reading 


lesson. For an occasional memory exercise the children 
may each spell a word of the lesson without any dictation 
from the teacher. 

It is better that more attention be paid to common words, 
those in daily use, than a drill on words that are feats of 
memory. Words like such^ they^ some^ said^ who^ and where^ 
etc., should be put into simple sentences, so that by differ- 
ent grouping and frequent correction they will finally spell 
the common words according to Webster. — School Joiunial. 



Said a teacher in our hearing a few days ago : 

"I am so lonesome for want of reading matter. The 
family with whom I board have no books and take but one 
paper. That is a monthly flash advertising sheet." 

"But do you take no papers yourself?" 

"No, I can't afford it. My wages are small and the 
school term is so short I cannot afford to spend a cent for 
such things." 

Out upon such teachers ! America has no use for them. 
The teacher, of all persons, must be abreast with the times. 
He should come before his school enthused with the world- 
life that is throbbing on, outside his little domain. And 
in these days of cheap newspapers, cheap magazines, cor- 
respondence, and agencies, he has no excuse for saying he 
cannot afford it. 

Does the teacher not know that the surest way for him 
to stagnate in some backwoods country neighborhood is for 
him to attempt living and teaching outside the world? 
Does he not know that the most certain way to preferment 
and honor is through broad-minded culture? There lies 
the way, and he is indeed short-sighted who will be penny- 
wise in view of the possibilities before him. 



" Lobelia, is the dictionary handy ?" 

Sitting in his cushioned armchair, with his feet com- 
fortably resting on another chair and a newspaper lying 
across his lap, Mr. Billiger McSwat addressed this question 
to his wife, who sat near the bookcase. 

"Yes," replied Mrs. McSwat. 

" If it isn't too much trouble I wish you would look for 
the pronunciation of the word 'mirage.' " 

Mrs. McSwat took down the dictionary, opened the 
bulky volume, consulted it a few minutes and said: 

" I always thought the word 'lichen' was pronounced 
'litchen.' 'Liken,' with the 'i' long, has the preference." 

"I knew that already. How about ' mirage?' " 

Mrs. McSwat turned another leaf or two. 

"In a minute," said she. "While I am about it I'd 
like to find out the meaning of the word ' linoleum.' " 

" Hurry up. Lobelia." 

"lam hurrying. Let — me — see. 'Link,' 'linnet,' 
'linseed,' 'lint,' 'lion' — why, it isn't in the dictionary 
at all, Billiger. Isn't that queer?" 

"Yes, yes. How much longer are you" 

"Just a minute. I'm coming to it." 

Turning forty or fifty of the pages at once she ran her 
eye rapidly down' one of the columns, stopped, put her 
finger on the place, looked up and observed : 

" I didn't know there was such a word as ' mathemeg,' 
did you?" 

" Never mind whether I did or not. I want to know " — 

"It means a fish something like the cod, and it inhab- 

"Who cares what it inhabits? If you're not going to 
find that word ' mirage,' madam, just say so, and I'll hunt 
it up myself." 

"Just a second," said Mrs. McSwat, turning a few more 


leaves. " 'Mispickel!' First time I ever saw that word, 

" You've turned too far over. Go back a few pages." 

" It means an ore of a silver or grayish white" 

"You're too far over, I tell you ! Turn back a leaf or 

" I have. 'Misconstrue.' Accented on the second syl- 
lable. I never knew that before. Did you? I always 
thought it was" 

"Nevermind what you thought it was! The word I 
want to know about is" 

"Yes, I know; I'll find it in about a there, I've 

turned too far back. ' Mezza voce. ' Pronounced ' medza 
vocha.' Why don't they spell it that way, I'd like to 
know? Ah, here's a word I've always wanted to know 
the meaning of. 'Meter.' " 

Mr. McSwat kicked over the chair his feet were resting on. 

"It's a French measure of length, Billiger, equal to 
39,370 English inches, or" 

Mr. McSwat crumpled up the paper he had been reading 
and threw it at the cat with all his might. 

"Or 39,368 American inches," continued Lobelia, 
serenely unconscious of her husband's fidgets. "It is 
intended to be the ten millionth part of the distance from 
the equator to the" 

"Good gracious. Lobelia ! Are you ever going to" 

"North pole, as ascertained by actual measurement of 
an arc of the meridian. What was the word you wanted 
me to find, dear?" 

Then Mr. Billiger McSwat gave it up. He threw off 
his dressing gown, jerked on his coat, growled out some- 
thing to the effect that it was just like a woman and he 
didn't care the ten millionth part of a continental ding 
ding whether she looked it up or not ; and then he kicked 
the cat clear across the room and went out into the back 
yard to cool off. — Chicago Tribune. 


[for recitation.] 


" My country, 'tis of thee, 
Sweet land of I^iberty, 

Of thee I sing. 
Land where my fathers died, 
Land of the pilgrim's pride, 
From every mountain side 

Let Freedom ring." 

Thus, in the exuberance of his love for home and birth- 
place, sang the patriotic Southern poet, soon after the days 
of our Revolutionary sires in which that grand and glorious 
struggle for National Independence, through which the 
thirteen American Colonies had so recently and success- 
fully passed, was the brilliant theme and burden of many 
a song, and pean of praise, on every tongue throughout the 
wide domain of this vast country which we happily style 
to-day, "The United States of America " — "The land of 
the free — The home of the brave." 

I, therefore, on this occasion, with feelings of love and 
gratitude no less sincere and intense towards the now silent 
heroes of the days of '76, who lie buried and slumbering in 
quiet glory on the distant battlefields of the far remote past, 
would still call to mind the more recent fame and record of 
heroes and patriots who poured out the crimson tide of their 
life's blood to achieve (though unsuccessful) the, to iJiejn^ 
so much desired independence and freedom of this bright 
and happy Southern land, then styled the " Southern Con- 
federacy. ' ' 


Heroes, whose fame and deeds of noble daring will never 
be fully sung, nor their names or prowess be handed down 
to posterity as they should and richly deserve to be, still 
heroes^ nevertheless^ because they offered their lives in cheer- 
ful sacrifice for the defence of a principle^ a most glorious 
principle^ dear to every heart that throbs with affection and 
devotion for the country of which that heart can say, ' 'This 
is my own, my native land." 

God bless this happy South-land; and may our hearts 
respond ever in loving tributes of praise and honor when 
the names of Lee and Jackson, and Morgan and Pettigrew, 
and a host of others of our own State, and many farther 
South of us, equally brave and worthy, are brought to our 
minds in the histories that recount their brilliant fame in 
the times of their deepest despondency and defeat — a defeat 
made glorious and honorable because they deserved, and 
should have had, complete success. 

But the days of that great Southern trial have passed 
away, and to-day behold the land in all her bloom and 
beauty — no '' New South," as foes have vainly attempted 
to force upon us, but the same lovely clime of the warmest 
beams of the sun of light and health — the same home of 
the brave, the true, the hospitable and the kind — the same 
blest land of open hands and warm hearts for the stranger 
and the oppressed of all countries — the same God-favored 
and God-honored South-land of " the olden time," when 
every man's home was his palace, and his heart full of 
" the milk of human kindness," the same "happy land 
of freedom," from the mountains of our own western 
borders, to the far-away shores of the Mexican Gulf — the 
same ever-to-be-praised and honored noble South ; and 
North Carolina, the chief, and highest, and noblest, and 
grandest of them all forever; the land that has no equal — 
the people that have no s2iperiors in all the broad realm of 
the universe ; and the homes whose latch-strings hang 


always on the outside for the weary and worn, both day 

and night. 

Therefore, Hurrah! for the old North State forever! 

And "Ho! for Carolina," till our latest breath, say we; 

and we know your own hearts will warmly respond to the 


" Hurrah! hurrah! for the old North State, hurrah! 
Which in the Nation's galaxy shines forth the brightest star." 



Which is the south wall of your school-room? 

How do you know it is the south wall? 

In what part of the heavens is the sun at 12 o'clock? 

Name that part of the sky where the sun rises. 

What do you mean by the sun rising f 

At what time of day is the sun highest in the sky? 

How do you know which part of the sky is the west? 

When does the sun set? 

What is meant by the sun setting ? 

Where was the sun when you got up this morning? 

Where is the sun in the middle of the night? 

How is it you never see the sun in the north ? 

At what time of the year does the sun rise earliest? 

What time did the sun rise to-day? 

At what time of the year does the sun rise late and set 

If you were in the middle of a large field at 12 o'clock, 
and the sun was shining, how could you tell which was 
north and south and east and west? 

W hat do you call the four points ? 

Why are they called cardinal points ? 

Make up a word from the letters N E S W. — Moderator. 



She bendeth low ! 
She kicketh high ! 
She swayeth gently to and fro, 
She treadeth only on her toe ; 
And when I asked the reason why, 
The lissome maiden doth reply : 
"Dear Edmnnd Russell doeth so." 

"And who may Edmnnd Rnssell be?" 
'Tis thus I catechise her. 
She looketh in amaze on me : 
She saith, "In truth I pity thee!" 
She crieth, "Shame to thee; why, sir, 
The high priest of Delsarte is he ; 
A type of wan flaccidity. 
Our dear devitalizer !" 

She fluttereth her wrists 
Just like that matchless man : 
She battereth her fists, 
She doeth wondrous twists. 
Though I don't see how she can. 
She whirls and spins ; insists 
She likes it, till vague mists 
Swim round her, and she's wan : 
Just like that prince of priests. 

The pale Delsartean. 

— Buffalo Cma^ier. 

Bad luck is simply a man with his hands in his pockets 
and a pipe in his mouth, looking on to see how it will 
come out. Good luck is a man of pluck to meet difficul- 
ties, his sleeves rolled up, working to make it come out 



(The following questions may be used for a five-minute 
diversion. It will take a keen observer to detect every- 
thing :) 

What fruit do you see? A date. 

What is used in debate? (Ayes and noes.) Eyes and 

What flowers? Tulips. (Two lips.) 

What animal? Hare. (Hair.) 

What place of worship? Temple. 

What piece of furniture? Sofa. 

What do all seek after and few attain? Fame. 

What ten large buildings do you see? Ten mills. 

What vegetables? Ear — of corn? 

What did the Spartan mother give her son? Shield. 

What articles of Indian warfare? Bows. 

What root do you see? Arrow-root. 

Why is the cent like a prophet? One sent. (One cent.) 

— School Journal {N. V. ), 


A dozen little boys and girls, 

With sun-browned cheeks and flaxen curls, 

Stood in a row, one day, at school, 

And each obeyed the teacher's rule. 

Bright eyes were on their open books. 

Outside, the sunny orchard nooks 

Sent fragrant breezes through the room. 

To whisper of the summer's bloom. 


A busy hum of voices rose, 

The morning lesson neared its close, 

When "tap, tap, tap," upon the floor. 

Made every eye turn to the door. 

A little calf that wandered by 

Had chanced the children there to spy. 

And trotted in to join the class. 

Much to the joy of lad and lass. 

Their A B, ab, and B A, ba. 

It heard, and solemnly did say 

"Baa! Baa!" then scampered to the green. 

And never since in school has been. 

Those girls and boys soon learned to spell 

And read and write ; but who can tell 

How great that little calf became? 

It may be, now, a cow of fame ! 

Or was that "Baa!" all that it knew? 

I think it must have been. Don't you? 

— George Cooper. 

All THE "Dictation Exercises" in the new "North 
Carolina Practical Spelling-Book" are from the speeches 
and writings of North Carolina men and women, and this 
is a specially popular feature of the book. The list of 
woods, timbers, shrubs, and minerals, with correct spelling 
and pronunciation, are exceedingly valuable to North Caro- 
lina children. All prominet family names connected with 
the geography and history of the State are also given cor- 
rectly, and the many new features of the North Carolina 
Spelling-Book will be very popular with teachers. 


"Carolina! Carolina I Heaven's blessings attend hep, 
While me live me mill cherish, protect and defend her; 
Though the scorner may sneer at and witlings defame her. 
Our hearts smell mith gladness whenever me name her." 


The work of the ninth session of the Teachers' Assem- 
bly, held in June at Morehead City, was by far the best of 
all the sessions. The work was of a very superior order, 
the entertaining features were more numerous and inter- 
esting, and it was the largest attendance of actual teachers 
and the most representative class that we have ever seen at 
the Assembly. All the colleges and prominent schools 
were largely represented, and there prevailed the very best 
of professional fellowship throughout the entire session. 
The full proceedings of the meeting were excellently and 
carefully reported in shorthand by our stenographer, Miss 
Gertrude Jenkins, of Salem, who is one of the best sliort- 
h-'nd reporters in the State, and thus the published journal 
will be of far more interest and value to the teachers than 
ever before. An evidence of the large attendance upon the 
session is the gratifying fact that the Secretary and Treasurer 
received near $1,700 in membership fees. The receipts 
were sufficient to pay all expenses of the session, and also 
to make the last payment due upon the Teachers' Assembly 
Building, The teachers of North Carolina now have a 
superb summer home, costing over $8,000, with not a 


single dollar of indebtedness upon the property. It almost 
seems impossible that this handsome and costly building 
could have been erected and paid for in full by the teachers 
within less than four years, but it is, nevertheless, a fact ; 
and that splendid structure will stand as a perpetual tribute 
to the educational enterprise and progress of North Carolina, 
which is greater than that of any other State of this Union. 


This number of The Teacher is very hurriedly pre- 
pared and many excellent articles have necessarily been 
omitted, but we assure our readers that we intend to make 
the coming volume even better than all preceding ones, 
both in quantity and quality of material. 

North Carolina has a new State song which is just 
published by Messrs. Alfred Williams & Co. It has the 
taking title, "True to North Carolina," and its spirit is 
in conformity to the urgent demand of the times, that 
the children of North Carolina shall be true to the State. 
The words were written by the editor of The North 
Carolina Teacher, and the music is a popular Southern 
air adapted. Send twenty-five cents for a sample copy of 
the song. 

The "North Carolina Practical Spelling Book" is now 
ready for delivery. It is going to be the most successful 
book ever published in this State. The large first edition 
of five thousand copies is almost entirely sold by advance 
orders from teachers. The book contains so many new 
features of special value to North Carolina schools that it 
has received the heartiest approval of every teacher who 
has examined it. The Speller is carefully and thoroughly 


graded to meet the requirements of both public and private 
schools ; it was prepared by a successful teacher, the work 
is well done, and the book is an honor to North Carolina. 

If you are a child of North Carolina never be afraid, 
ashamed or backward to raise your voice in defense of our 
beloved State. If some of the sons of our State are weak 
enough to become Yaiikeeized to the extent that they no 
longer have any conception of that noblest of all human 
sentiments — State pride — we must "deal gently with the 
erring ones," but promptly and emphatically reject all 
their feeble efforts to detract in any way from the glorious 
record of our Old North State. One of the highest ambi- 
tions of every teacher in this State should be to make his 
pupils true A^ortli Carolinians^ for that embodies every 
principle of the perfect citizen. 

YEvS, we know that the June number of The Teacher 
is far behind its date of issue, and hundreds of letters have 
been received by the editor asking "Why do I not get 
The Teacher for June?" As has been our custom for 
several years, that number has not been published until 
after the session of the Teachers' Assembly, in order that it 
might contain full proceedings of the meeting to conclude 
the volume of The Teacher and close the work of the 
school year. We have the proceedings of the x-lssembly in 
full, with the exception of two or three excellent papers, 
and now, after waiting for several weeks for them in vain, 
we have to go to press without them, therefore we must 
defer publishing the proceedings of the Assembly for a 
short while until all the papers are in hand. 

The record of the memorable tour of our teachers in 
Europe is now published in handsome book form, contain- 
ing many illustrations specially prepared for the book. 
The volume comprises about four hundred pages, and the 
jaunt is described in a lively, chatty and entertaining style 


quite different from the ordinary book of travels. The 
book is entitled "North Carolina Teachers Abroad," 
is beautifully bound in cloth and will be sent postpaid for 
$1.50. It is a valuable souvenir of the most famous trip 
to Europe ever made by the teachers of any State of the 
Union, and the story will be interesting and instructive to 
every reader. Only a small edition of the book is pub- 
lished, and most of the copies are already sold to members 
of the European party; therefore orders for the book should 
be sent at once to the editor of The Teacher for copies 
that may be desired. 

We have about completed all arrangements by which 
our teachers may visit the World's Fair next year for very 
small expense. It is our intention to take several hundred 
teachers and their friends to Chicago on a twelve-day trip — 
allowing five days en route and seven days at the Exposi- 
tion — and all necessary expenses of railroad fare and board, 
while in Chicago, will be only $35. Of course those who 
use berths in sleeping cars will expect to pay extra. We 
have no personal interest whatever in the trip, except to 
have our' teachers visit the World's Fair at the smallest 
possible expense, and we intend to carry them at about one- 
half the cost of all so-called " Excursion parties" to the 
Exposition. The World's Fair of 1893 will be the biggest 
thing of the kind in the history of the world up to this 
time, and there will be no other exposition to equal it 
within our day and time, and therefore every teacher ought, 
by all means, to visit the great exhibit. The Fair opens 
on the ist of IMay, and our party will go to Chicago 
about July 15, as the exhibit will not be fully arranged 
before that time, and we want you to see the grand show 
at its very best. Our party will have rooms at the new 
"Harvey House," which has capacity for three thousand 
guests and is beautifully located on the street car line in 
the suburbs of Chicago. 



'Tis said that " figures never lie," 

That one and one are always two ; 
But Cupid proves, with work so sly, 

Some wondrous things that figures do. 
And when he claims a teacher's hand 

All rules of figures then are done, 
Though TWO before the preacher stand 

This one and one are always one. 

Mr. Geo. L. Patrick, of Athens, Ga., and Miss Katherine Lewis, 
daughter of Dr. R. H. Lewis, were married on June 8, 1892, at Hender- 
sonville, at the residence of the bride's parents. 

Prof. Charles B. Park, of the North Carolina College of Agriculture 
and Mechanic Arts, married Miss Effie L. Broughton, at Raleigh, on 
Wednesday, June 15, 1892. 


" Death hath made no breach 
In love and sympathy, in hope and trust. 
No outward sign or sound our ears can reach. 
But there's an inward, spiritual speech 
That greets us still, though mortal tongues be dust. 
It bids us do the work that they laid down- 
Take up the song where they broke off the strain ; 
So, journeying till we reach the heavenly town, 
Where are laid up our treasure and our crown, 
And our lost loved ones will be found again." 

Prof J. H. Horner, of Oxford, founder and Superintendent of the 
celebrated Horner Militar}' School, died at his home on June 13, 1892, 
Professor Horner ■was one of North Carolina's most eminent educators, 
and his death is greatly deplored. 

The: * E^clectic, 


Devoted to Education, Good Government, Leading Topics, and South- 
ern Progress. First-class in every respect, and 


Guaranteed circulation, 10,000; 16 pages, 13x18. One-fourth column, 
one month, $5. Liberal reduction o,n one-fourth page, or more. Copy 
for Jul)' number should reach us not later than June 15. 

AGENTS WANTED, Male and Female. If you want to make three or 
four hundred dollars this summer in a pleasant occupation, address, 

THE ECLECTIC, Raleigh, N. C. 


— FOR THE — 

Public * School * Books ! 


We handle enormous quantities of all the books on the "STATE 
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Dealers promptly at " Contract Prices." 

8@°"Satisfactory discounts to Dealers and to Teachers who bu}' the 
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Send for Price Lists and Order Blanks, to 

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A Good School Globe i 

By Mail, Post-paid, 


This is a six-inch Globe, accurate Map, mounted on metal frame, 
and for practical purposes is as useful as if a $2^ Globe. 

The Same Globe Mounted on Wood Frame, 
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o school can afford to be without a Globe. Send orders to 



itotfc Carolin, Sfafe Library 

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